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Englishcourselevel2 Prof. José Ignacio Castellanos| UPN-111 Guanajuato |Unit 9| Grammar point A The material included in thispresentationisforreference use only, itisbasedoninterchangethirdeditionstudentbook and the audios weredownloadedfromtheintechange web page. Professor Castellanos isnorresponsibleforthe use thatthestudentsmake of it.
Relativeclauses A Relative Clause, also called an adjective clause, is a dependent clause that modifies a noun by making it more specific or adding additional information about it. A relative clause always contains a relative pronoun, which refers back to the noun it modifies.          Relative clauses are extremely useful because they enable writers to be more specific and they make writing more sophisticated. At the same time, they are also very confusing to many writers--and not only students, either. The most common difficulties occur in understanding the different types of relative clauses, punctuating relatives, choosing the right pronoun, and agreement.  THE STRUCTURE OF RELATIVE CLAUSES         Relative clauses are one kind of dependent clause, introduced by a relative pronoun that refers to the main noun the clause depends upon. A relative clause always immediately follows the noun it modifies. Like all clauses, relative clauses have a subject and a verb. The relative pronoun may be the subject of the clause, but it isn’t always.                        (Main noun)       (Rel. Pro)I ate the ice cream that wasin the freezer.                               (Subj)(Verb)
A relative pronoun is usually the first word of a relative clause; however, in some cases the pronoun follows a preposition:          We have many blessings for which we are deeply grateful.  Additionally, when the relative pronoun is not the subject of the relative clause, it may be omitted entirely (especially in spoken English):          I didn’t eat the pie you were saving for tonight.  When the pronoun is the subject, it cannot be omitted:          *I ate the ice cream was in the refrigerator.
TYPES OF RELATIVE CLAUSE         There are two types of relative clause. Both types modify nouns, but the first type makes a noun more specific, while the second type adds extra facts or information about a noun. It’s important to understand these two types of relative clause because they not only differ in meaning, but they are punctuated differently and often use different relative pronouns.  Type 1--Clauses That Make Nouns Specific :         Women who work are happier than women who don’t work.         In the above sentence, the relative clauses who work and who don’t work are used to make the noun women more specific. This type of relative clause changes the meaning of the noun it modifies.          Women who work and women who don’t work are two different groups of women. Without the appropriate relative clauses, this meaning would not be clear:          *Women are happier than women. This type of relative clause is sometimes called a Restrictive Relative Clause because it restricts or limits the meaning of a more general noun. Women who work is more restricted than the general noun women.
Type 2--Clauses that Add Information :         Going to the movies, which I love to do, can be very expensive.         In the above sentence, the relative clause which I love to do is used to say something extra about going to the movies, but it does not change the meaning of that phrase.         If this clause were removed, the basic meaning of the sentence would be unchanged. Going to the movies can be very expensive. This type of clause is sometimes called an Unrestricted Relative Clause since the meaning of the noun it modifies is not restricted or limited by the clause.
CHOOSING A RELATIVE PRONOUN         Thethreemostcommonrelativepronouns are who, which, and that.         Thechoice of pronoundependsuponthenountheclauserefersto and onwhattype of relativeclauseisused.  Who --refersto a personorpeople.--maybeusedwith a clausethatmakes a nounspecific--maybeusedwith a clausethataddsinformation Peoplewholive in New York lead verybusylives.My sister, whoworksforthe YMCA, leads a very active life.  Which --refersto a thingor concept--ismostoftenused in clausesthataddinformation--issometimesused in a clausethatmakes a nounspecific ( usuallywhen a speaker orwriterwantstosound more formal).          TheEmpireStateBuilding, whichusedtobethetallestbuilding in theworld, isstill a popular touristattraction.        Thelessonswhichwehavelearned are no more importantthanthelessonswhichwehaveyettolearn.
That --isusedonly in clausesthatmake a noun more specific--mostoftenrefersto a thingor concept--issometimesusedtoreferto a personorpeople, (usuallyonly in informal writingor in speaking)  Thebookthat you gave me islostThekidthat I babysitthrewyourbook in thetrash.          Note:Somepeopleconsiderthatinappropriatewhenreferringtopeoplealthoughmostwriters  and speakers use it quite naturally. If you wishtobe formal, always use whofor a personorpeople:  Thechildwhothrewyourbookawaywasonlythreeyearsold.
Where and When --are usedfor a clausethatrefersto a place or time --maybeusedforclausesthatmake a noun more specific --maybeusedforclausesthataddinformation          New York isa placewherepeople of manydifferentcultureslive and worktogether.         New York City, wheremillions of immigrantslive, issometimescalled a MeltingPot.         The 1960's wasa timewhenmanyAmericansbegantoquestiontheactions of  theirgovernment. In the 1970's, whenmany new rights and freedomshadbeengained, peoplebeganto lead quieter, more privatelives.

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Unit 9a

  • 1. Englishcourselevel2 Prof. José Ignacio Castellanos| UPN-111 Guanajuato |Unit 9| Grammar point A The material included in thispresentationisforreference use only, itisbasedoninterchangethirdeditionstudentbook and the audios weredownloadedfromtheintechange web page. Professor Castellanos isnorresponsibleforthe use thatthestudentsmake of it.
  • 2. Relativeclauses A Relative Clause, also called an adjective clause, is a dependent clause that modifies a noun by making it more specific or adding additional information about it. A relative clause always contains a relative pronoun, which refers back to the noun it modifies.         Relative clauses are extremely useful because they enable writers to be more specific and they make writing more sophisticated. At the same time, they are also very confusing to many writers--and not only students, either. The most common difficulties occur in understanding the different types of relative clauses, punctuating relatives, choosing the right pronoun, and agreement. THE STRUCTURE OF RELATIVE CLAUSES         Relative clauses are one kind of dependent clause, introduced by a relative pronoun that refers to the main noun the clause depends upon. A relative clause always immediately follows the noun it modifies. Like all clauses, relative clauses have a subject and a verb. The relative pronoun may be the subject of the clause, but it isn’t always.                       (Main noun)       (Rel. Pro)I ate the ice cream that wasin the freezer.                               (Subj)(Verb)
  • 3. A relative pronoun is usually the first word of a relative clause; however, in some cases the pronoun follows a preposition:         We have many blessings for which we are deeply grateful. Additionally, when the relative pronoun is not the subject of the relative clause, it may be omitted entirely (especially in spoken English):         I didn’t eat the pie you were saving for tonight. When the pronoun is the subject, it cannot be omitted:         *I ate the ice cream was in the refrigerator.
  • 4. TYPES OF RELATIVE CLAUSE         There are two types of relative clause. Both types modify nouns, but the first type makes a noun more specific, while the second type adds extra facts or information about a noun. It’s important to understand these two types of relative clause because they not only differ in meaning, but they are punctuated differently and often use different relative pronouns. Type 1--Clauses That Make Nouns Specific :         Women who work are happier than women who don’t work.         In the above sentence, the relative clauses who work and who don’t work are used to make the noun women more specific. This type of relative clause changes the meaning of the noun it modifies.         Women who work and women who don’t work are two different groups of women. Without the appropriate relative clauses, this meaning would not be clear:         *Women are happier than women. This type of relative clause is sometimes called a Restrictive Relative Clause because it restricts or limits the meaning of a more general noun. Women who work is more restricted than the general noun women.
  • 5. Type 2--Clauses that Add Information :         Going to the movies, which I love to do, can be very expensive.         In the above sentence, the relative clause which I love to do is used to say something extra about going to the movies, but it does not change the meaning of that phrase.         If this clause were removed, the basic meaning of the sentence would be unchanged. Going to the movies can be very expensive. This type of clause is sometimes called an Unrestricted Relative Clause since the meaning of the noun it modifies is not restricted or limited by the clause.
  • 6. CHOOSING A RELATIVE PRONOUN         Thethreemostcommonrelativepronouns are who, which, and that.         Thechoice of pronoundependsuponthenountheclauserefersto and onwhattype of relativeclauseisused. Who --refersto a personorpeople.--maybeusedwith a clausethatmakes a nounspecific--maybeusedwith a clausethataddsinformation Peoplewholive in New York lead verybusylives.My sister, whoworksforthe YMCA, leads a very active life. Which --refersto a thingor concept--ismostoftenused in clausesthataddinformation--issometimesused in a clausethatmakes a nounspecific ( usuallywhen a speaker orwriterwantstosound more formal).         TheEmpireStateBuilding, whichusedtobethetallestbuilding in theworld, isstill a popular touristattraction.        Thelessonswhichwehavelearned are no more importantthanthelessonswhichwehaveyettolearn.
  • 7. That --isusedonly in clausesthatmake a noun more specific--mostoftenrefersto a thingor concept--issometimesusedtoreferto a personorpeople, (usuallyonly in informal writingor in speaking) Thebookthat you gave me islostThekidthat I babysitthrewyourbook in thetrash.         Note:Somepeopleconsiderthatinappropriatewhenreferringtopeoplealthoughmostwriters and speakers use it quite naturally. If you wishtobe formal, always use whofor a personorpeople: Thechildwhothrewyourbookawaywasonlythreeyearsold.
  • 8. Where and When --are usedfor a clausethatrefersto a place or time --maybeusedforclausesthatmake a noun more specific --maybeusedforclausesthataddinformation         New York isa placewherepeople of manydifferentcultureslive and worktogether.        New York City, wheremillions of immigrantslive, issometimescalled a MeltingPot.        The 1960's wasa timewhenmanyAmericansbegantoquestiontheactions of theirgovernment. In the 1970's, whenmany new rights and freedomshadbeengained, peoplebeganto lead quieter, more privatelives.