Training Model
Step 1

Conduct training
needs analysis
Step 2

Develop training
objectives

Step 7

Step 3

Measure traini...
Needs
Analysis
Organizational Analysis
(Where is training needed?)
• Identification of deficits (e.g., skill-based, attitu...
Training
Objectives
It is best if objectives are:
• Specific (regarding what needs to be learned)

• Measurable (regarding...
Basic Learning
Principles
1) Feedback (best if it is specific and immediate)

2) Transfer of Training (e.g., transfer what...
“Hands-on” Training
Methods
On-The-Job Training (OJT)

• One of the most frequently used training methods (especially with...
“Hands-on” Training
Methods (cont)
Job Rotation (or Cross-Training)

• Employees can perform more that one set of job task...
Information Presentation Training
Methods
1) Lectures
•

Relevant to groups of various sizes

•

Difficult to tailor to in...
Simulations
1) Behaviorally-based (e.g., flight simulator training, police
officer training)
•

Computer-based, physical e...
Recent T
raining T
opics
Cultural Diversity T
raining
• Increase awareness and appreciation of
differences in customs, nor...
M
entoring P
rograms
Mentor

Protege

Mentor teaches a protégé how to perform specific
tasks; develop within the organizat...
Sexual Harassment
Sexual Harassment (Types)
1) Quid Pro Quo (sex as a condition of employment or
basis for employment deci...
Sexual Harassment Awareness Questions

1) If a consensual relationship already existed
between two employees, than no grou...
Sexual H
arassment (Some K F
ey actors)
• Investigating the record as a whole
• Viewing the totality of the circumstances ...
Sexual Harassment Training
1) Establish a written policy prohibiting harassment
•

Define sexual harassment

•

Outline co...
Sexual Harassment Training (cont.)
b) Definition of sexual harassment
•

Use of scenarios, vignettes

•

Role playing

•

...
Sexual Harassment Training (cont.)
3) Establish effective complaint procedures

a) Have multiple designated officials to w...
Vignettes
1.

A group of male sales representatives come to see you. They say
they no longer want to be sent on out-of-tow...
Vignettes (cont.)
4.

Ann, a female supervisor, has recently complained to management
about the ongoing sexual advances an...
Training Evaluation
Criteria
1) Reaction criteria (e.g., via Participant Reaction Forms)
•

Assessment of how participants...
M
easuring T
raining E
ffectiveness
1) Did any change occur?

2) Was the change due to training? (Internal
validity)

3) W...
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Training

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Training

  1. 1. Training Model Step 1 Conduct training needs analysis Step 2 Develop training objectives Step 7 Step 3 Measure training results Review available training methods Step 4 Step 6 Design/select training methods Implement training program Step 5 Design training evaluation approach Adapted from T. C. Parker, “Statistical Methods for Measuring Training Results,” in Training and Development Handbook, 2nd ed., ed. R. L. Craig (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976). Copyright © 1976. Used by permission.
  2. 2. Needs Analysis Organizational Analysis (Where is training needed?) • Identification of deficits (e.g., skill-based, attitudinal) • Introduction of new technology, procedures, systems • Address staffing needs (e.g., strategic planning efforts, projected personnel needs) Task Analysis (What needs to be trained?) • Use of job analysis information (e.g., specific tasks and/or KSAs to be trained) Person Analysis (Who needs to be trained?) • Use of performance appraisal information (objective and subjective data) to help determine employee strengths and weaknesses
  3. 3. Training Objectives It is best if objectives are: • Specific (regarding what needs to be learned) • Measurable (regarding how will learning be assessed) • Sequenced for optimal learning • Consistent with the organization’s needs, goals, and capabilities (e.g., resources)
  4. 4. Basic Learning Principles 1) Feedback (best if it is specific and immediate) 2) Transfer of Training (e.g., transfer what is learned back to the job) 3) Reinforcement (use of desired rewards for “proper” performance) 4) Practice (opportunity to apply what is learned during training to the job)
  5. 5. “Hands-on” Training Methods On-The-Job Training (OJT) • One of the most frequently used training methods (especially with regard to skill acquisition) • Training is specific to the job tasks (e.g., use of actual tools, equipment, procedures) • Easy transfer of training back to the job • Training is dependent on the skill/knowledge and time availability and motivation level of the trainer • Often unstructured regarding such things as: what is taught, how things are taught, the timing and sequencing of what is taught, and the time spent (focus) on what is taught • Difficult to determine when, or if, mastery of skills has been achieved Vestibule Training (Conducting training sessions on actual job equipment in an area away from the job site) • No damage to equipment, or stoppage of processes, if mistakes are made • Allows the observation of employees performance in a controlled environment before they are allowed to work on actual job equipment • Easy transfer of training back to the job • Sometimes used as an assessment of ability during a probationary period
  6. 6. “Hands-on” Training Methods (cont) Job Rotation (or Cross-Training) • Employees can perform more that one set of job tasks (allows for easier coverage of jobs in case of absences) • Employees are more able to assist others in specific job duties • Difficult to match employees skills and abilities to one job, let alone several ones • Jobs usually need to be relatively similar in the KSAs that they require Apprentice Training (Learn job skills from a qualified employee across time)
  7. 7. Information Presentation Training Methods 1) Lectures • Relevant to groups of various sizes • Difficult to tailor to individual needs 2) Workshops/Seminars/Conferences • Transfer of training can be problematic 3) Audio-visual (e.g., videotapes, CDs, DVDs, films, slide presentations) • Ensures consistency of content and presentation • Some methods are not easily revised (e.g., costly) • After initial cost of production, relatively cheap to use • Allows the review of performance • Videos are difficult to modify • Making videos can be quite expensive 4) Computer-Based Instruction (or Computer Assisted Instruction) and Web-Based Training • Can be individually tailored to match individual needs or ability level (& individualized assessment possible) • Use of realistic graphics • Assessment and feedback can be provided quickly
  8. 8. Simulations 1) Behaviorally-based (e.g., flight simulator training, police officer training) • Computer-based, physical equipment • Permits practice and the introduction of events, obstacles, situations • Saves training time • Allows the review and evaluation of performance 2) Role Playing (individual or group) • Types of training include assertiveness, conflict resolution (e.g., customer complaints), sales approaches • Evaluate performance and provide feedback • Actual behavior and performance assessment can be unstructured 3) Simulation Exercises (e.g., Assessment Center-type) 4) Behavior Role Modeling • Observe proper behavior • Perform behavior • Receive feedback regarding performance of behavior • Receive reinforcement for proper behavior • Have an opportunity to practice behavior on the job if feasible (transfer of training)
  9. 9. Recent T raining T opics Cultural Diversity T raining • Increase awareness and appreciation of differences in customs, norms, preferences, etc. • Diversity in ideas, skills, interests creates the potential for more creative and better decisionmaking • Increasing importance of this due to globalization
  10. 10. M entoring P rograms Mentor Protege Mentor teaches a protégé how to perform specific tasks; develop within the organization; grow as a person How should the mentor and protégé be paired? • Assigned versus non-assigned • Cross-gender/race versus same gender/race
  11. 11. Sexual Harassment Sexual Harassment (Types) 1) Quid Pro Quo (sex as a condition of employment or basis for employment decisions) 2) Environmental harassment (behavior of a sexual nature that is unwelcome and that unreasonably interferes with one’s work performance or creates an intimidating, hostile, or repressive work environment)
  12. 12. Sexual Harassment Awareness Questions 1) If a consensual relationship already existed between two employees, than no grounds exist for sexual harassment 2) An employee must follow a company’s sexual harassment complaint procedure before filing a suit of harassment 3) A company is not liable for harassment that occurs outside of the work environment 4) An organization can be responsible for harassment of its customers/clients 5) The law protects men against sexual harassment by females 6) Only a manager or supervisor can sexually harass an employee 7) A company that takes immediate corrective action regarding harassment is less likely to be found liable for the violation 8) A company that has a written policy against sexual harassment has little to worry about in terms of legal liability
  13. 13. Sexual H arassment (Some K F ey actors) • Investigating the record as a whole • Viewing the totality of the circumstances (e.g., nature of the relationship, nature of the sexual advances, context in which the behaviors occurred) • Examining the evidence on a case by case basis • Conduct is potentially illegal if the organization “knew or should have known” of sexual behavior Sources of harassment: • Supervisors (company responsibility; agent of the company) • Co-workers (corrective action) • Clients (extent of company control)
  14. 14. Sexual Harassment Training 1) Establish a written policy prohibiting harassment • Define sexual harassment • Outline complaint procedures • Ensure confidentiality of complaints • Guarantee protection of those who complain • Outline disciplinary action against harassers • Tie policy to mission statement of organization Training Program Components a) Introduction and support from top management • Establish a shared understanding & agreement regarding acceptable and unacceptable behavior • Mandatory attendance (management and nonmanagement personnel)
  15. 15. Sexual Harassment Training (cont.) b) Definition of sexual harassment • Use of scenarios, vignettes • Role playing • Group discussion exercises c) Communicate nature and extent of the problem d) Explain individual, institutional, and legal solutions
  16. 16. Sexual Harassment Training (cont.) 3) Establish effective complaint procedures a) Have multiple designated officials to whom complaints can be made b) Train designated officials in “intake” and investigative interviews c) Train 1st line supervisors (crucial) • Selection interview • Orientation • Performance appraisals d) Develop complaint process • Stop harassment immediately (if exists) • Address victim’s needs • Discipline harasser (if necessary)
  17. 17. Vignettes 1. A group of male sales representatives come to see you. They say they no longer want to be sent on out-of-town assignments with female colleagues because they are afraid of sexual harassment charges. Do you assure the men they don’t have to travel with women? Tell the men their fears are groundless? Arrange for a sexual harassment training session? Call a department meeting to discuss the matter? 2. Barb just lost a lot of weight. She starts coming to work in very short, tight skirts and clinging tops. Do you ask nothing? Call Barb in to tell her to dress more appropriately? Send Barb a memo asking her to dress more appropriately? 3. XYZ Company is your biggest account. The buyer has been making unwelcome sexual advances to several women in your office. Do you ask the women to ignore it? Tell the buyer not to come back? Tell the buyer to change his behavior? Call the buyer’s boss?
  18. 18. Vignettes (cont.) 4. Ann, a female supervisor, has recently complained to management about the ongoing sexual advances and innuendo to which she is exposed on the plant floor. The Plant Manager reminded her that she was informed about this climate before she accepted her position. She has been told that she is going to have to be more assertive and learn to deal with this if she expects to keep her job. 5. Richard and Janet have worked together for several years. Richard grabbed Janet’s behind when she was drinking from the water fountain. When Janet objected, Richard apologized and has never repeated this behavior again.
  19. 19. Training Evaluation Criteria 1) Reaction criteria (e.g., via Participant Reaction Forms) • Assessment of how participants felt about the training program (e.g., adequacy of content coverage, usefulness of material, how material was delivered) 2) Learning criteria (assessment of what was learning immediately following training) 3) Behavioral criteria (did learning that occurred during training transfer back to the job) 4) Results criteria (did the training lead to positive organizational outcomes e.g., increased profit, better output, less injuries/accidents)
  20. 20. M easuring T raining E ffectiveness 1) Did any change occur? 2) Was the change due to training? (Internal validity) 3) Was the change consistent with the organization’s goals? 4) Can the change that occurred generalize to other people and locations? (External validity)

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