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Olvl Geography

  1. 1. ‘O’ level Geography(2235) Physical and Human Geography Notes NOTE: IF YOU HAVE FOUND ANY ERROR OR MISSING INFORMATION, PLEASE CONTACT ME AT iceburning96@gmail.com Version Notes: V6.0 Aesthetically changed the notes V6.1 Edits to Tourism and Industries V6.5 Major Edits to Human Geography and added most missing stuff V7.0 (Coming Soon) Adds Diagrams for all the formation and fill up all the required examples, and officially completes 1st complete edition of the O level Geography Notes 1 • Qns: To what extend does the type of materials extruded during a volcanic eruption affect its level of devastation? (8M) • Given factor i.e. Ash, explained with e.g. • Given factor i.e. Gas explained • Other factor explained i.e. Population density explained with e.g. • Other factor i.e. forecast explained with e.g. • Award 8 marks. • 3 (+), 3(-), 2 e.g.s LDQ Requirement• Human • Tourism • DLC • 6A S 2G (6As So Goody Good) • Industries • SSRP • MTLCGLMT (Mother Tongue Language Can Get Low Marks Too) • ICCCLMT(Invest Confidently 2 Create Linkages, Money and Technology) • Development • GET HERPES • ILL • QHILLS • Physical • Plate Tectonics • Benefit of Volcanoes • FTPGO • Weather and Climate • LADCOM • SSSF (Effect) • Soil erosion • Surface Erosion • Sedimentation • Flooding • Natural Vegetation • BRA • KPP • Rivers and Coast • CASH • TSSS ©2012AlgernonW.S.C.Version6.5
  2. 2. 2 • Block Mountain • Convergence Formation • Cooling and sinking convection currents in the upper mantle causes two plates to move towards each other. • Compressional forces from the opposite ends of the crust push the rock within the area towards each other causing reverse faults to appear, the central block is raised to form a block mountain. • Divergence Formation • The rising and spreading convectional currents of magma in the upper mantle moves laterally, drags and causes the plates to split and move apart. • Tensional forces from opposite ends of the crust pull the rock within the area away from each other causing normal faults to appear, the crust on either side of the normal faults move apart, they sink and leave the central block standing higher than the rest, thus forming a block mountain. • E.g. Vosges and Black Forest Mountain • Fold Mountain • Oceanic-Continental plate convergent zone formation • Cooling and sinking convection currents in the upper mantle causes two plates to move towards each other. • As the thinner and denser oceanic crust subduct under the thicker and less dense continental crust, the thick layers of sediment on the ocean floor and on the continental edge were compressed, bended, folded, contorted and uplifted to form fold mountain ranges. • E.g. Andes in South America formed by the Nazca and South American plates converging • Continental-continental plate convergent zone formation • Cooling and sinking convection currents in the upper mantle causes two plates to move towards each other. • As the two continental plates converge, rock layers along the plate boundaries fracture and bend then are folded, contorted and uplifted to form fold mountain ranges. • E.g. Himalayas formed by Eurasian and Indonesian Plate converging • Rift Valley • Divergence Formation • The rising and spreading convectional currents of magma in the upper mantle moves laterally, drags and causes the plates to split and move apart. • Tensional forces from opposite ends of the crust pull the rocks within the area away from each other causing normal faults to appear. • As the crusts on either side of the normal faults pull apart, the crust in between sinks to form a rift valley. • E.g. Great East African Rift Valley ( Nubian African plate and Somalia African plate) • Convergence Formation • Cooling and sinking convection currents in the upper mantle causes two plates to move towards each other. • Compressional forces from opposite ends of the crust push the rocks within the area towards each other causing reverse faults to appear. • As the crust on either side of the normal faults push the two crust together, the crust in between sinks in to form a rift valley. The escarpment on both sides gets eroded and falls off. • E.g. Basin and Range Province in Western North America • Ridges • The rising and spreading convectional currents of magma in the upper mantle moves laterally, drags and causes the plates to split and move apart. • Along plate boundaries, magma wells up from the mantle, cools and forms mid- oceanic ridges on the ocean floor. • E.g. Mid Atlantic Ridge • Ocean Trenches • Cooling and sinking convection currents in the upper mantle causes two plates to move towards each other. The thinner and denser oceanic plate is subducted beneath the thicker and less dense continental plate forming an oceanic trench, which is a long narrow depression parallel to the plate boundary. • E.g. Mariana Trench in Philippines • Volcanoes • Divergent formation • Rising and spreading convectional currents in the upper mantle cause the (name of plate) to diverge due to tensional force. Magma rises through the long fissures created by plate divergence. Lava cools and solidifies on the ocean floor to form submarine volcanoes. The solidification of lava also helps to extend the ocean floor in a process known as sea-floor spreading. When the volcanoes are high enough to rise above sea level, they form volcano islands • Convergent formation • Convectional currents of magma in the upper mantle cool and sink and cause a continental and oceanic plate to collide, the oceanic plate being thinner and denser gets squeezed into the magma along subduction zone. Under great pressure, the oceanic plate melts in the magma of the upper mantle. Pockets of magma rises through fissures in the crust. The magma may cool and solidify within the crust and form intrusive rocks or escape to the surface as lava, cool and solidify to form volcanoes. • E.g. Mt St. Helen, Distributed along plate boundaries-Pacific Ring of Fire Hotspot volcanoes Hotspot are permanent, fixed and localized zones of magma source beneath the crust They are far away from plate boundaries but due to the hotspots, magma rises continuously through fissures in the crust to the earth’s surface and repeated eruptions over a period of time help to build up a submarine volcano or volcanic island when it rises above the sea level. As the plates move away from the hotspot, new volcanoes formed above it. Over time, a chain of volcanoes with the oldest farthest away from the most active nearest to the hotspot. E.g. Hawaii, Mauna Loa Types of Volcano • Shield Volcano • Fluid Lava • Gentle sides made of layers of lava • Acid Volcano • Steep slops due to acid lava • Violent eruptions • Ash and Cinder Volcano • Formed by ash and cinder building up into a symmetrical cone • Created by violent eruptions • Composite Volcano • Viscous lava forced out, violent eruption • Steeper at the crater, with a gentler base • Submarine Volcano • Volcanoes that are under the sea DefinitionsPlateTectonics©2012AlgernonW.S.C.
  3. 3. 3 Basic Lava Acid Lava Formed from the rising magma at constructive plate boundaries Formed from melting of Oceanic crust at subduction zones More Fluid(low silica content) Less fluid (high silica content) Erupt at very high temperatures (1100 to 1200 degree Celsius) Erupts at lower temperatures (about 800 degree Celsius) Less viscous. Takes longer time to solidify. Moves through a longer distance before solidifying (features tend to cover longer great distance) Viscous. Soon cools and solidify, hence travels a shorter distance before solidifying Gentler Eruption Violent Eruption Lava and steam ejected Ash, rocks, gases, steam Shield, Hotspot Acid, Ash and Cinder, Composite • Magma • Molten rock • Magma Chamber • Source of molten rock • Lava • Magma reaches the earth surface • Vent • Opening on the earth surface where magma escapes • Secondary cone • Cone forming on the side, connected by the secondary pipe • Crater • A depression at the top of a vent • Formed as lava, gas and ash are blasted upwards from the main vent • Ash and Gas cloud • Airborne material from the volcano • Solid • Ashes, Cinders, Bombs • Gases • Steam, Carbon Dioxide, Sulfur dioxide History History of eruption (Active, Dormant, Extinct) Location Whether it is converging(acidic) or diverging(basic), near coast eruption causes Tsunamis May Materials i.e. Types of materials ejected out of volcano Fool Forecast i.e. Warning signs Every Emergency Procedures , evacuation plans, level of preparedness Person Population density i.e.. The higher the density, generally more potential loss of lives and impact of destruction • Benefits • Formation of soil • Lava and pyroclastic material are weathered to form fertile soil for farming. The weathering is particularly rapid in warm, wet conditions in the tropical areas. The minerals released make it possible for farmers to reap rich harvests • E.g. Mt. Merapi, Java, Indonesia • Tourism for revenue and employment • Volcanic features appealing to tourist • Hot springs at Mt. Fuji, Japan • Precious stones and minerals • Vulcanicity sometimes produce precious stones and minerals such as silver, gold, diamonds, copper, lead and zinc in some igneous and metamorphic rocks • Bougainville, Papua New Guinea • Geothermal energy • Heat beneath the earth’s surface can be used to generate electricity to warm houses and power industries • E.g. New Zealand, Iceland, Japan, US • Other Uses • Sulfur from eruption used to surface roads and manufacture bricks • Problems • Massive destruction by volcanic materials • Loss of lives and livestock and money for capital to start a new life • Acid rain due to the sulfur dioxide which changes into sulfurous acid • Pollution (E.g. Lake Nyos that released carbon dioxide cloud of 50 m, killing 2000 people) LDQVolcanoes©2012AlgernonW.S.C.
  4. 4. 4 • Formation • Rising and spreading convectional currents cause (name of plate) to diverge/Cooling and sinking convectional currents generated by the heat in the mantle cause (name of plate) to slide past each other • The downward movement of the subducting plate, where plates diverge and where plates slip past each other, the movement is far from smooth. • The rocks are under enormous stress as the plates moving in opposite direction get stuck because of tremendous friction. • As the rocks are forced to bend, large amounts of stored energy are built up. • The stress in the rocks become so great that the rocks finally jerk free to new positions along the fault line. • This results in the release of the stored energy in the form of seismic waves which make the ground vibrate. • Hazards and impact • Fires • Often not caused directly by earthquake but may be caused by damaged wires, overturned stoves or broken gas pipes when the ground is shaken which result in injuries, deaths, collapse of infrastructures and homelessness • Landslides • The sliding down of large amounts of rocks or soil from the mountain or hill slope • Tsunamis • Subduction processes causes uplifting of lighter plate, causing displacement of the water resulting in the formation of large waves • Loss of lives • Could result directly or indirectly from earthquake • Much depends on the speed and availability of emergency relief • Aftershocks • Could be as strong as earthquake • Collapse of Infrastructure • Urban features may not be designed to withstand earthquake • Foundation may be weakened • Repair works are imperative to avoid collapse • Negative economic consequences • Destruction of infrastructure • Spread of diseases • Lack of proper sanitation in temporary shelters pose health threats like Cholera and typhoid which spread rapidly • Trauma • Disasters can leave their victims paranoid or mentally scarred • Survivors have to deal with emotional pain after losing their love ones • Disruption of jobs • Workplace destroyed, unable to get back to work and earn a living • Factors • Magnitude (Any 2 eq) • Higher the magnitude, the more damage • How much impact a earthquake does • Depth of focus (Any 2 eq) • Shallow focus leads to a stronger earthquake as vibrations are felt more strongly. This is because the shockwaves have travelled a shorter distance before reaching the earth’s surface and little energy is lost. • Distance from epicenter (any 2 eq) • Shockwaves of energy are felt more strongly at the epicenter. • Time of Occurrence (any 2 eq) • Late night to early morning, people are caught unaware • Geology (Mexico City VS Acapulco) • Hard rocks allow shock waves to pass through readily, hence minimizing the shaking • Soft rocks tend to allow shock waves to slow down, expand and amplify itself, thus resulting in more violent shaking • Population density (Alaska VS Kobe) • Sparse population and infrastructure minimize extend of damage • Terms • Focus • Point of release of energy within the Earth’s crust • Epicenter • Point on the Earth’s surface that lies directly above the focus • Seismic Waves • Energy that is released • Adaptation • Forecast • Earthquake monitoring and warning system (Japan, Indonesia) • Sophisticated instrument and advanced technology is essential like seismometers, computers, public warning signals or broadcasts, underwater tsunami sensors • Limitations: Money, Talent • Construction • Building Structures • Design • Fire Proof Materials • Strengthening existing infrastructure • Steel frames and rods, fireproof materials, automatic shut-off valves in gas pipes and electric supplies • Planning location of infrastructure • Location of infrastructure away from earthquake-prone area • Population Distribution • Education • Regular Drills in schools with familiar warning signals are vital • Posters and signs provide public with timely advice • Geography lessons • Level of preparedness • EQ drills, medical facilities, shelter and food supplies, rescue teams, transport system and evacuation plans. • Tsunami and other warning system • Distribution • Circum-Pacific Belt • San Francisco 1906 • Japan 2011(9.0), Kobe 1996(7.2) • Indonesia Aceh 2004(9.0) ,2012(8.9) • Mediterranean-North Indian Belt • Kashmir 2005(7.6) DefinitionsLDQEarthquakes©2012AlgernonW.S.C.
  5. 5. 5 • Weather refers to the average atmospheric conditions of a specific place over a relatively short periods of time – 24 hours. (Singapore) • Climate refers to the average atmospheric conditions of a specific region over a considerable period of time, usually 30 to 35 years. (South East Asia) • Climate remains largely unchanged but weather may change from day to day. • Climate Change • Climate change is a shift in the average weather condition that a region has been experiencing over a long period of time. • The Earth’s Climate has been changing, where past temperature changes took place slowly over tens of thousands of years. • Global Warming leads to: • Melting of ice and rising sea levels • Extreme weather conditions such as severe storm, heat waves and droughts • Possible extinction of plants and animal species • Causes: • Enhanced Greenhouse Effect • An increase in release of greenhouse gases due to human activities into the environment which leads to the rise in the Earths average temperature, which is know as Global Warming • Green House Gases • Methane(Trap Heat) • Carbon Dioxide (Trap Heat) • Nitrous Oxide (Acid rain from nitric acid) • Sulfur Dioxide (Poisonous gas) • Solutions (Carbon Emission) • Kyoto Protocol of 1997 • Many countries signed, including Singapore, USA and Canada pulled out • Copenhagen Convention 2009 • Failed as many countries disagreed with the terms • Precipitation • Water falling from the atmosphere onto the Earth's surface where the form of precipitation depends on the temperature of the place where it falls • Convectional rain • Very common in tropical regions and temperate regions during summer • On the hot day, air above the ground gets heated and rises. • Air cools and condenses as it rises above saturation point(100% relative humidity) • The water droplets accumulate to form clouds • When the water droplets in the clouds are too heavy to be suspended, convectional rain falls • This is often accompanied by lightning and thunder • Characteristics • Falls over a small area(few kilometers) • Heavy but short-lived • Occurs in the late afternoons • Relief rain • Occurs in places with highland near water bodies • Air from a sea or a large lake carries larger amounts of water vapor • As moist air is blown towards a mountain range, the air is forced to rise, cool and condense. • Clouds are formed and falls as rain when the water droplets become too heavy. • Relief rain falls mainly on the windward side of the mountain. • On the leeward side, cold dry air descends and is warmed. • E.g. Rain on the Hilo Side of Mt. Mauna Loa • Relative Humidity The proportion of water vapor present in the air, in relation to the maximum amount the air can hold at particular temperature, expressed as a percentage Saturation occurs when the air carries the maximum amount of the water vapor it can hold at that temperature • Availability of sources of water vapor • Temperature DefinitionsLDQWandC©2012AlgernonW.S.C.
  6. 6. 6 • Latitude • The distance (in degrees) to the north and south of the Equator • Temperature at the poles and the Equator are different because the Sun’s rays travel different distances and strike the Earth’s surface at different angles. • The longer the distance travelled through the atmosphere, the more heat lost by reflection and scattering • Sun’s rays reaches the lower latitudes more vertically, concentrated on a smaller area, radiation are more intense leading to higher temperature • Sun’s rays reaches the higher latitudes obliquely (at an angle), radiation scattered, less intense, less heating of the surface, longer distance through the atmosphere, more heat loss • Altitude • The height of a point above the sea level • Temperature decreases with increasing altitude • Normal lapse rate: On average, temperature falls by about 6.5◦C for every 1000 meters increase in altitude as places near the sea level (low altitude) are warmer because the Earth’s surface absorbs heat from the Sun directly and air at high altitude is thin and is unable to absorb heat as effectively as dense air because it has smaller concentration of gases to trap heat • Distance from the sea • The difference in the rate of heating and cooling of land and sea has an effect on the temperatures of coastal areas where land heats up and cools down more quickly than the sea. • Near to the sea – Maritime Effect • Coastal areas experience cooler summers and warmer winters • These places have a smaller temperature range at an annual scale • Far from Sea – Continental Effect • Inland areas experience warmer summers and cooler winters • These places have a larger temperature range at an annual scale • Cloud Cover • The amount of clouds over an area • Places with more cloud cover experience a smaller difference in day and night temperatures, smaller temperature range • Places with less cloud cover experience a larger difference in day and night temperature • Ocean Currents • Classified into warm and cold currents • Warm currents comes from Equator, Cold currents comes from Poles • Microclimatic Factors • Area with vegetation is much cooler than a concrete surface • Concrete surface absorb heat in the day and release the heat at night • Pressure and Wind • Air pressure • The downward force exerted by the weight of air per unit area on the Earth’s surface also affected by temperature • Low pressure occurs when altitude is higher. Air molecules are far apart and air becomes thinner. • High pressure occurs when altitude is lower. Air molecules are closely packed and air becomes denser. • Wind • The horizontal movement of air from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure • Local Winds • Regional Winds • Global Winds • Coriolis Effect • As winds move across the Earth, they are deflected • Deflection is the change in direction of the winds • Winds are deflected to the right in the Northern hemisphere and left in the Southern hemisphere • Breezes • Sea Breeze: • Cooling effect on coastal areas in the day so cool air over sea (high pressure) replaces warm air on the land (low pressure) • Land Breeze: • Land loses heat faster than the sea at night so cool air over land(high pressure) replaces warm air over sea (low pressure). • Monsoon • South West (June to September) • Summer in Northern Hemisphere and winter in Southern Hemisphere. • Cold air from Australian continent(south; high pressure) blows towards Indian sub-continent(north; low pressure) • Winds are deflected to the right as they enter into the Northern Hemisphere • Moisture carried by the wind brings heavy rain to southwestern India and Bangladesh. • North East (October to April) • Winter in Northern Hemisphere and summer in Southern Hemisphere • Winds from Indian sub-continent (north; high pressure) blow toward Australian continent (south; low pressure). • Winds are deflected to the left as they enter into the South Hemisphere. • Winds blow across the Asian continent and are cold and dry, bringing little rain to India and Bangladesh. LDQElementsofWeather©2012AlgernonW.S.C.
  7. 7. 7 • Floods occur when land that is usually dry is submerge by large amounts of water. • Natural causes(Flood) • Excessive rainfall • Floods occur when rainwater is unable to seep into the ground quickly enough, or rivers overflow their banks because river channels cannot contain the excess water • Tropical storms • Tropical cyclones are intensely low pressure areas of around 950mb generating strong winds with speeds about 120-200km/h • When two tropical air masses meet, one of them is lifted up over the other forming a low pressure zone • As air rises, condensation of water vapor occurs, and latent heat is produced • Cyclonic circulation also occurs which is anti-clockwise in the NH and clockwise in the SH • Latent heat causes the air to be warmer, lower the pressure • Water from the seas is hence drawn into this low pressure system forming the eye of the cyclone • Storm Surges (Indonesia) • Occurs when strong winds raise the waves in the ocean to exceptionally high levels, causing them to crash onto the coast and flood the land. • Melting snow (Japan) • Melting of snow in spring releases large amounts of water into the rivers, causing them to overflow their banks. • Common in places experiencing cool climate during change of season • Movement of the Earth’s surface • Earthquake can bring about landslides or trigger off tsunamis which results in flood • Human causes(Flood) • Cleaning of forest (Kalimantan) • Lack of vegetation cover to hold the soil together on slopes. Soil is thus eroded and deposited in rivers, making them shallower. • Bare slopes increase surface runoff and volume of water flowing into rivers. (SSSF) • River is over its bank full discharge and flooding occurs when rivers overflow. • Urban development • The clearing of land for development of housing and industries, thus increasing built-up areas. • Concrete pavement and tarred roads prevent infiltration or rainwater from seeping into the ground (0% infiltration, 100% surface runoff) • Less natural vegetation is available to intercept the rain. • Increase in surface run-off or overland flow flowing into rivers result in flooding. • Enhanced greenhouse effect • Human activities most likely causes enhanced greenhouse effect. • Global warming results in climatic changes such as higher rainfall, which in turn leads to incidences of floods resulting in ice caps melting, hence sea level rise • Impact • Loss of lives • Flood often occur when least expected • People are often not prepared and thus drown • Impact is higher near floodplains, which are densely populated due to soil fertility • Damage to property and infrastructure • Floods damage homes, roads, power supply etc. • Such damage is very costly and takes a long time to repair • Spread of diseases • Homeless flood victims are housed in makeshift shelters. • Crowded conditions without proper sanitation can cause outbreak of diseases • Damage to the environment • Trees, vegetation and natural habitats of animals can be destroyed • Fertile soil for agriculture • Regular flooding of rivers enable fertile alluvium deposits to be produced. • Global atmospheric processes(Both) • Abnormal weather phenomena such as El Niño and La Niña can result in floods or droughts. • El Niño is the warming of surface ocean waters at the southeastern part of Pacific Ocean • Surface temperature of ocean off the coast of South America heats up. Air above oceans becomes hot and humid • Extreme weather like heavy rain and thunderstorm • Under normal conditions warm ocean currents flow west towards the Asian continent and the underlying cold nutrient-rich water rises along the east Pacific coast of the Americas • Every few years this trend reverses • Rise in air pressure over Indian ocean(Indonesia, Australia), Fall in air pressure over Peru, causing a change in wind direction • Warm waters pushed eastwards, causing an accumulation of warm waters near Peru • Causes rainfall in normally dry areas(Peru) and extensive drought in Eastern areas(Australia) • Atmosphere is also affected by the sea temperature as evaporation from the vast pool of warm water in the Pacific generates violent thunderstorms • La Niña is the vice versa of El Niño LDQFloodscauses©2012AlgernonW.S.C.
  8. 8. 8 • Building artificial levees and dykes(Prevention) • Walls of sand, stone and concrete are built along river banks to increase the capacity of the river to hold water. • + This makes it more difficult for flood waters to overflow into the plains due to the increased depth and hence capacity of the river channel. • - If flood waters go beyond levees, they may prevent the water from flowing back into the river. • Construction of dams(Prevention) • Dams control the amount of water flowing into the rivers, using gates to hold back or release water. • + Allows the control of water level in the river channel. Dams are multi-purpose, can be used for HEP or irrigation. • - Expensive and not all valleys are suitable. Can drastically affect river environment upstream and downstream. Dam breaching can be disastrous as the sudden flow of a lot of water creates massive floods • Building control(Prevention) • Maps showing flood-prone areas provide information for developers to ensure that floods would not affect the buildings they construct. • + Minimize the damage to critical and expensive structures • - In places with land constraint, this is limited in its usefulness since it is almost unavoidable to develop most land areas. Opportunity cost for any unused land is high. • Channelization • Combining of methods including deepening, widening, straightening, clearing or lining of the river channel • + May prevent some flooding and gives a degree of human control over flow of river. • + Channel water from flash floods rapidly to end point, preventing floods along the way. • - Expensive due to opportunity cost. • Flood Insurance(Protection) • Residents in flood-prone areas can have their property insured against flood, so that they can afford to repair their property if floods occur. • + Minimize the cost of damage to individuals or companies since they can use insurance pay outs to do repair work. • - Since it is a protection measure, it does not prevent floods. Frequent floods and payouts may raise insurance premiums and add to cost of business. • - Individuals or small business may not afford to pay for the premiums or are too complacent to want to buy insurance. • Post-flood management measure(Protection) • Plans can be made by authorities to evacuate victims when floods occur. • Foreign aid may also be offered to help flood victims. • + Immediate relief to areas affected by floods • - Political factors may prevent aid from reaching places where they are required • - Foreign aid may come with strings attached and hence may not be welcomed by receiving countries • Watershed management(Prevention) • Programs can be implemented to manage the entire watershed by conserving vegetation cover or re-planting trees so as to reduce surface run-off. • + Long term measure and helps to prevent flooding in the first place by increasing infiltration and reducing surface run-off - Needs time and money to conserve an area and undertake afforestation or re-forestation. Effect will take years to be seen. • Creating floodways/buffer zones • Designating an area along the river where no construction is allowed. • + Allows the river to flow and flood naturally. • + Area can be developed and made suitable for nature walks • - opportunity cost of leaving large tracts of land unused is high especially for cities or countries with land constraints • Monitoring and Education (Prevention/Protection) • Scientist can use modern technology to monitor weather patterns and warn of floods in advance • + Citizens can be educated on how to react and emergency routes to take when floods occur. This minimizes loss of lives. • - LDCs usually do not have the capacity in terms of money and manpower to use modern technology required for weather monitoring. Their funds are usually put into other more urgent uses like development or relief efforts. • Improving soil stores • Improve the soil with manures and fertilizers. These also help the soil to hold water as they allow infiltration. • Mulches and plastic sheets spread across the surface to prevent evaporation • Crop rotation • Trees planting to form windbreaks especially along the coast. • + All these help to reduce soil erosion, surface runoff, which will remove the important humus and topsoil, without which the soil loses its fertility and crops cannot grow. • - The people need to be educated on the importance of conserving the soil store. People in LDCs may be hard to reach due to the remoteness of their homes and the high illiteracy rates. LDQFloodProtectionandPrevention©2012AlgernonW.S.C.
  9. 9. 9 • Cloud seeding(Protection) • Cloud seeding induces the formation of rain. • Substances that enable water droplets to form more easily are dispersed into air by airplanes. • + Helps to bring on rain especially in large areas affected by droughts. It has helped to ease the toughest drought in Thailand in 7 years by 80% and put out the occasional forest fires • - Cost of cloud seeding is very high, hence LDCs may not be able to afford them. • - Success is not always guaranteed as a RH of at least 60- 70% is required before the method can be effectively used. • Post-drought management(Protection) • International aid organizations can provide money, food and water to countries affected by drought. • + Provides immediate relief to drought stricken places • - Foreign aid may not be welcomed as they may come with strings attached • Management of agricultural practices(Prevention) • Efforts is put in to increase vegetation in drought-affected areas in order to prevent deserfication. • Instead of growing crops that are highly dependent on water, the crops that are more resistant to droughts can be planted. • + Long term measure and helps to tackle the problem at its roots by addressing the cause of droughts. • - LDCs are torn between development and conservation. • Using high tech farming techniques • Use of soil-less farming like aeroponics where a bit of nutrient solution is delivered straight to the roots of the crops or hydroponics where water can be recycled and crops grown closely • + A lot of water is saved in the farming process as minimal water is required or water can be recycled. • - LDCs may not be able to afford the high cost of adopting these methods. Neither do they have the skilled manpower to man these high tech machines used in the farms. • Using proper irrigation techniques(Prevention) • Irrigation brings water to areas through the use of man-made channels • + Proper irrigation minimizes water loss, and helps conserve water. • - LDCs may not be able to afford the high cost of purchasing these equipment, especially for subsistence farmers. They may also lack the skills to operate them. Definitions/LDQ Droughtcauses,impact,Protectionand Prevention©2012AlgernonW.S.C. • A drought is a prolonged period with little or no rainfall. • Natural causes(Droughts) • Delayed rain or insufficient rainfall • Occurs mainly in arid or semi-arid regions, and in tropical monsoon regions, when monsoon winds that bring rain are delayed. • Human causes(Droughts) • Reduced forest cover • Reduced vegetation cover results in lower rates of transpiration. • Less water vapor in the atmosphere leads to fewer clouds formed. ( 75% of rain that falls in a TRF forms clouds in 48 hours) • Soil exposed to direct sunlight dries up quickly. Soil becomes dry as it loses its humus to provide the moisture that binds it. It gets easily eroded and cannot support vegetation. • Enhanced greenhouse effect • Global warming can also cause drought in places with drier climates • High temperatures increase the rate of evaporation, drying up land, rivers and lakes • Overuse of water • Places with rapid population growth require more water for homes, industry and agriculture. Farming is the highest use of water. • High Population growth • ↑in farming ↑population growth • Poor land management like overgrazing( due to cattle ranching), over cultivation(from 1 to 3 harvests without fallowing), mining without land reclamation • Impact • Damage to the environment • Prolonged droughts can cause desertification in arid and semi-arid regions, making the ground dry and barren. • Forest fires and haze • Prolonged droughts cause vegetation in forest to become very dry. Vegetation thus catches fire easily.
  10. 10. 10 • Biome: Living part of an ecosystem which can be grouped into 3 types, forest, grassland, deserts • Distribution • Temperature and precipitation can influence plant growth. • Plant growth is more abundant in areas where temperature are consistently above 26°C than in areas where temperature fall below 6°C. • Mangrove forest • It is found mainly in areas experiencing tropical climate along sheltered coastal regions and places where rivers constantly deposit clay and silt. • It grows in the sheltered intertidal zones where the water is saline, waterlogged and oxygen deficient soil • Saline or brackish water • Waterlogged soil • Soil deficient in oxygen • Dense and luxuriant • Adaptations and Characteristics • Leaves • Special glands to excrete salt • Other store salt in the old leaves which are dropped and carried away by water • Thick and leathery leaves to reduce excessive transpiration • Some have drip tips to remove the excess water • Flowers and fruits • Fruits germinate when they are still on the tree and fall onto the mud when they are ripe and take root and grow • Buoyant fruit float in water, carried a certain distance before germinating • Mangrove flowers are intricately designed and some are colorful to attract insects to pollinate. Pollinators of these flowers include birds, moth, bats and wind. • Structure • Grows to a height of 2~40m • Horizontal zones of mangroves species • Avicennia trees • Pencil-like roots that colonize just above the level of the lowest tide • Roots have pores on them that helps them breathe in air • Some species of mangroves have filtration mechanism to exclude salt in the absorption of water • Rhizophora trees • Prop roots • Helps the tree to anchor firmly in the muddy ground and help in aeration as they are exposed for at least most of the day between tides • Bruguiera • Knee Roots • Resembles bent knees, exposed portions of these roots help in aeration of the whole root • Wide spreading roots improves anchorage in the unstable mud Coniferous Forest Found in places that experience a cool continental climate which experiences seasons Temperature range from -40°C to 20°C Low amount of precipitation, usually in the form of snow, 300mm to 600mm in a year Located in Alaska, northern Canada, northern USA and Russia • Adaptations and Characteristics • Leaves • Evergreen • Retain leaves so that photosynthesis can take place whenever temperature rises above 6°C • Needle-like with small surface area to reduce water loss due to transpiration • Store water for use in winter • Flowers and Fruits • Trees bear female and male cones, female cones produces seeds, male cones produce pollen that can be dispersed by wind or animals after pollination • Bark and branches • Thick bark to protect from long, cold winters • Flexible branches that slope downwards to enable snow to slide off easily • Roots • Shallow, spreading roots, enabling trees to absorb water easily from soil surface when snow melts • Diversity and density • Few species as not many trees can adapt to the climate so they grow in pure stand • Forest are not dense as the climate does not support dense vegetation growth • Structure • No distinct layer • Generally uniform in height about 20m to 30m • Tree grows close together • Little Undergrowth DefinitionsLDQMangroveandConiferousforest©2012AlgernonW.S.C.
  11. 11. 11 TRF is found in places that experience the tropical equatorial climate, examples include the Amazon Basin in South America, Congo Basin in Africa and parts of Southeast Asia • Year round high temperature allows plants to photosynthesize, grow continuously and shed leaves throughout the year, so the leaves are evergreen and features a dense and luxuriant vegetation, also have a microclimate due to continuous, interlocking canopy. • Layers • Adaptations and Characteristics • Leaves • Broad and dark leaves in the lower section • Maximize capture of sunlight in competitive environment • Contains more chlorophyll • Generally thick and leathery • To withstand the heat and reduce loss of moisture during transpiration • Smooth and waxy, with drip tips • Rainwater can run off easily • Drip tips to allow excess water to drip off. This is to prevent growth of bacteria which is encouraged by the hot and humid conditions as bacteria on the leaves will hinder photosynthesis. • Bark and Branches • Smooth and thin bark as it need not protect itself from cold or dry weather • Branches found at the top one-third of the trees so that light can be obtained for photosynthesis • Shallow-spreading crown due to intense competition for sunlight • Huge buttress roots • Support the weight of the tall emergent so that they do not topple easily • Diversity • May have more than 400 species of trees per hectare • Flowers and fruits • Bright and colorful • Emergent and taller trees depend on wind for pollination. The others, however, need animals due to the still wind within the forest. • Structures • Emergent Layer (50m) • Trees have tall, thick and straight trunks • Canopy layer (30m) • Tree crowns interlock • Presence of epiphytes and lianas and parasitic plants • Understory layer (15m) • Trees with narrower crowns • Presence of parasitic plants • Shrub layer (5m) • Tree sapling and woody plants found • Undergrowth layer (0m) • Sparse due to lack of sunlight that reaches the forest floor • TMF found in places that experience the tropical climate but with distinct wet and dry seasons which is located in South Asia, South China and northern Australia • Adaptations and characteristics • Leaves • Are deciduous ,shed leaves during the dry season to minimize loss of water through transpiration since loss of water takes place through stomata or opening on the leaves • Smooth and waxy with drip tips to allow rainwater to drain off easily. This is to discourage growth of bacteria that would hinder photosynthesis • Bark and Branches • Thick and coarse to protect the trunk from heat and dryness during the dry season and withstand extreme heat from natural forest fires • Also found around the middle of trunks as trees grow less dense than tropical rainforest. It is a more “open” forest as the canopy does not interlock so tightly. • Roots • Deep tap roots to tap water source deep under the ground as rainfall is irregular throughout the year and there is a distinct dry season with almost zero rainfall. • Diversity and Density • About 200 species per hectare, less species compared to tropical rainforest due to inconsistent rainfall • Plant growth is abundant but less dense than tropical rainforest • Structure • Canopy layer (30m) • Trees can grow to 25~30m in height. They are more spread out than those in a tropical rainforests, plants such as creepers, vines, epiphytes and parasitic plants are found within this layer • Understory layer (15m) • The trees in the understory are about 15m in height • Undergrowth (0m) • Bamboo thickets and grasses grow densely here during the wet season. They are dense during the dry season. DefinitionsLDQTMFandTRF©2012AlgernonW.S.C.
  12. 12. 12 • Uses of forest • Maintaining the water supply, nutrients in the soil and natural treatment of waste water • Replenishes oxygen and removing carbon dioxide • Habitat for flora and fauna, thus protecting the coast • Recreation, research and education • Deforestation • The permanent clearing and destruction of forest due to human activities is know as deforestation • Causes • The growing world’s population is the main cause of rapid deforestation • More people are dependent on the forest as a resource hence demand for land increases • The rate of deforestation is especially high in less developed countries • Kalimantan • Occupies 70 percent of the island of Borneo • Rapid rate of deforestation for the last 25 years, and between 2000 and 2002, deforestation rose to 1200 km2 a year is brought about by human activities like agriculture, mining and logging. LDQDeforestationinKalimantan©2012AlgernonW.S.C. • Problems • Loss in biomass • The Earth’s biomass refers to the combined weight of all organism which is measured in terms of kilocalories of stored energy • The reduction of biomass in Kalimantan reduces its ability to support plant and animal life. • Loss of Biodiversity • The Kalimantan rainforest are home to about 400 bird species and 10000 plant species. • Due to deforestation, the biodiversity of plants and animals are reduced which leads to extinction of species • Change in the nutrient cycle • The removal of vegetation following deforestation results in the loss of leaf litter and affects the nutrient cycle. • Soil are leached due to the absence of roots. • Absorption of rainwater is reduced, the soil becomes infertile and cannot support vegetation • Change in the quantity of water • When trees are removed, less transpiration takes place. • Cloud formation is reduced and there is low rainfall. • Flood could also be trigged by deforestation • Change in the quality of water • When rainforest are cleared, soil is eroded and is washed away easily by rain into nearby rivers. • This increases the sediment level of the rivers and makes the water muddy. • The sediment changes the pH level, making the water acidic. • Air pollution • Huge forest fires cause dust and smoke to be suspended in the air which results in haze. • Haze can cause people to suffer from health problems especially respiratory problems. • It will indirectly affect the tourism industry Biosphere Atmosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere
  13. 13. 13 • Causes • Increase in demand for agricultural land use • One cause of deforestation in Kalimantan is the increase in demand for land due to increase in agricultural activities • People were moved to Kalimantan to ease overcrowding in areas like Java and Sumatra • There was also a demand of land use from plantation companies especially for the planting of oil palms • Growth of settlements • As population increases in Kalimantan, more land is cleared for housing • More people are moving to urban settlement such as towns and cities to live and work. • This expansion is know as urbanization. • Balikpapan in East Kalimantan is an example of a town that is affected by urbanization • Improved transport networks • Transport networks like road and railways are constructed to link settlements in Kalimantan allowing access to previously remote forested areas in Kalimantan making it easier for people to destroy more areas of the rainforest. • Growth of industries • Heavy logging has resulted in West Kalimantan losing about 1600 km2 of forest each year. • Mining companies has caused loose soil to be washed away into a nearby river. • Use of chemicals has led to the poisoning of animals • Forest fires • Forest fires caused the destruction of 24000 sq. km of rainforest in Kalimantan between 1997 and 1998. • Vegetation debris such as tree stumps, branches, twigs and leaves catch fire easily during the dry season, causing forest fires. • Conservation • It refers to the careful use of resources to protect forest from destruction • +Forest could be set aside as nature reserves. • +Successfully managed with WWF. • -Nature reserve maintenance and deployment of trained rangers are expensive and difficult. • -Uninformed tourist might trample on fragile forest environment and disturb plant and animal life • Controlling forest fires • Indonesian government has implemented a policy that makes it illegal to clear forest by burning. • +Integrated Forest fires Protection System and a National Fire Management Plan have been set up monitor forest fires. • +Forest Fires awareness campaigns to discourage the local people from using fire to clear forest for farmland. • +Singapore provide satellite images that can detect hot spots in the remote parts of the forest, Fire fighting can then be more effective. • -Some plantation companies continue to burn forests because it is the cheapest way to clear land. • -As population increases, causes of burning increase as more land is needed for agriculture • -Natives use fire as it is their traditional way of clearing land for agriculture • -Corruption and poor policing makes it difficult to enforce law against burning. Haze continues. • -Firefighting requires highly trained personnel and expensive equipment. • Afforestation and reforestation • Afforestation refers to the planting of trees on areas that were not covered with forest. • MOF involves local community, local governments and logging companies in its Reforestation Program • +Restored 90000ha of forest annually • +Locals participate in reforestation efforts • +Commercial lumberjacks must replant and retain 25 commercially valuable trees per ha of areas logged and fund restoration work on areas logged. • -Rates of which forest are restored are slower than rates at which they are cleared. 90kha replanted versus 250kha cleared in 2000. Efforts are hampered by lack of funds, skills and incentives for local participation • -Most trees grown are fast growing teak(5yrs). However, this creates a monoculture forests that lack the biodiversity of the TRF and hence their ability to survive is low. • Controlled logging • Controlled logging involves careful management of forest that are being logged through law enforcement, education and selective cutting. • Fines and imprisonment are imposed on logging companies that violate laws and policies • In selective cutting, only mature and commercially valuable trees can be cut • +Forest can regenerate and cut wastage • +Slows rate of deforestation as compared to clear cutting • +Minimize erosional effect as logged areas still retain some trees. • -It is difficult to monitor logging and detect illegal logging activities due to weak policing and corruption • -Insufficient manpower and vastness of forest has allowed illegal logging to continue undetected • -A significant variety of plant species could be damaged in the process due to lianas that twine around them affecting biodiversity. LDQDef.Causesandmanagement©2012AlgernonW.S.C.
  14. 14. • Evapotranspiration • Water is removed from the surface of the Earth to the atmosphere by two distinct mechanism: Evaporation and transpiration • Interception • Capture of precipitation by the plant canopy and its subsequent return to the atmosphere through evaporation • Through fall • The movement of water from the leaves to the ground • Infiltration • It refers to the movement of water into the soil layer. • If rainfall intensity is greater than the infiltration rate, water will accumulate on the surface and runoff will begin. • Percolation • It is the movement of water in the underlying rock which tend to be more compact, progress is thus slow • Water Table • The imaginary line between the saturated rocks and unsaturated rocks where percolation happens • Through flow • Horizontal flow of water within the soil layer which normally takes place when the soil is completely saturated with water where rates of maximum flow occur on steep slopes • Groundwater • Water continuing to flow downward eventually reaches a permanent store of water know as the ground water. • Movement of groundwater horizontally is called groundwater flow. • Parts of River • River source • Tributaries • Confluence • River Estuary 14 • Speed • Gradient of land • The steeper the gradient of the land, the faster the flow • Roughness of a channel • The rougher the river channel, the slower the river flow • Energy used to overcome friction and obstacles • Wetted Perimeter • Wetted perimeter: Total length of the river sides and bed • Larger wetted perimeter Increase friction Speed slowed down • Sinuosity of River • This refers to the presence of loops. Winding rivers tend to flow slower than straight rivers • Sinuosity is measured by route distance divided by direct distance • Volume • Size of drainage basin • ↑size of drainage basin↑volume↑energy • Presence of vegetation • ↑Presence of vegetation↓surface runoff↓river volume • Permeability of rocks • ↓Permeability of rocks↑volume↑energy • Climate • ↑rainfall↑volume↑energy • ↓temperature↓evaporation↑volume↑energy • Drainage System • River Discharge • Volume of water flowing through a particular point in the river in a given time • Discharge(m3/sec) = area of cross section(m2) x velocity of flow(m/sec) • Drainage basin • Area of land drained by a river and its tributaries • Watershed • Boundaries of a drainage basin • Drainage Density • Total length of all the streams and rivers in a drainage basin divided by the total area of the drainage basin • Patterns • Dendritic drainage • Rectangular drainage • Radial drainage • Centripetal drainage • Trellis drainage Upper Course Middle Course Lower Course Channel Narrow, Shallow Wider, deeper Widest, Deepest Gradient Steep Less steep Almost flat Volume of water Low Higher Highest • Reduction in volume • Little or no precipitation • Rivers flows over an arid area when there is high rate of evaporation • River flows over permeable rock which allow water to sink in • Flood water brought by a storm has drained away • Reduction in Speed • Reduction in gradient • River flows into another body of water such as sea or lake • Increased in wetted perimeter so more friction encountered • Water flows into the shallow section of the rive • Obstructions such as rock outcrops increase friction DefinitionsLDQRivers©2012AlgernonW.S.C.
  15. 15. 15 • Corrasion • River uses its load to grind against the bed and sides • The action would dislodge the materials and carry them away • This process operates in 2 ways (Vertical Depth; LateralWidth) • Potholes are the products of corrasion • Attrition • Loosened materials that are being carried away collide against one another • Over time, they would become smaller and eventually reduced to fine particles called silt • Solution • The solvent action of water dissolves soluble materials and carry them away in solution • Hydraulic Action • The breaking down of rocks form the bed and banks of the river by the force of the running water • Usually there are lines of weakness like joints and cracks in the river • The work of hydraulic action forms plunge pools (small lakes) • Traction • Larger rocks slide and roll over the river bed which move only if the speed of the river is great enough • Saltation • Coarse sand and other small rocks fragments are lifted up briefly so that they bounce along in a series of jumps along the river bed • Suspension • Fine minerals are carried away in suspension • Solution • Soluble minerals in the rocks are carried away in solution Before Urbanization After Urbanization Longer Lag time • Vegetation intercept rainfall • Slower surface runoff due to vegetated landscape Shorter lag time • Water flows quickly across concrete surface • Less vegetation for interception Lower peak discharge and higher river volume • More infiltration Higher peak discharge and higher river volume • Lesser infiltration DefinitionsStormHydrographandCASH/TSSS©2012AlgernonW.S.C.
  16. 16. 16 • Upper • Rapids • Series of short and fast-flowing turbulent flows of water • Formation • River flows over alternating bands of gently inclined resistant and less resistant rocks • River flows very quickly over the outcrops of resistant rock • Waterfalls • A waterfall is a sudden, steep, vertical flows of fast flowing water falling from great heights • River flows over rocks of different resistance • The less resistant rock is eroded much faster than the more resistant rock causing a steepening of the gradient along the river course. • As more erosion of the less resistant rock occurs, water then plunges from a great height to hit the river bed below with tremendous force. • Repeated pounding of the river bed may leave a depression at the base of the waterfall. • This depression is deepened as rocks and boulders swirl around, forming a plunge pool. • OR • Due to land displacement , faulting causes land to be displaced which causes difference in height • Water cascades down the fault scarp, forming a waterfall • Gorge • Steep and narrow valley with steep, almost vertical sides • When river flows across resistant rocks, it will erode vertically faster than the sides of the valley can be worn away. • This results in a deep and narrow valley with almost vertical slopes • OR • As undercutting occurs behind the plunge pool, the layer of hard rock becomes increasingly unstable and eventually breaks off, causing the waterfall to retreat backwards. • As this process repeats and waterfall begins to retreat upstream, it leaves behind a deep, steep-sided gorge • Potholes • Cobbles and pebbles that are trapped in slight hollows of the river bed swirl about in the currents and turbulence of the fast-flowing water • They drill the holes, enlarging and deepening the holes  abrasion • 2 or several holes may join to form larger potholes • As more potholes are formed, the river bed is deepened • Interlocking spurs • Main process at work is the downward or vertical erosion creating new slopes called spurs • Water twists around obstacles such as rocks and boulders, producing “snaking” pattern • Middle • Meanders • A pronounced loop in the course of a river • In the middle course, gradient is gentler, downward cutting is reduced, increased volume of water and load used more for lateral erosion, deposition occurs • Water flows faster on the outside bend than on the inside bend of the river. • Fast flowing water on the outside bend erodes the river bank and slow moving water deposits sand and mud on the inside bend. • Where the river bank is being eroded a steep river cliff is created. • The deposited sand and mud creates a slip-off slope. • Ox Bow lake • As meanders continue to migrate laterally the river continues to erode and deposit material. Eventually the curves of the river channel become very close. • Erosion on the outside bends and deposition on the inside bends continues over time. The meanders change shape and grow in size. • The river continue to erode and deposit material. Eventually the curves of the river channel become very close. • Erosion on the outside bends and deposition on the inside bends continues over time. The meanders change shape and grow in size. • The river breaks through this thin barrier. The water no longer flows round the meander but straight along the new channel. • The old course of the river channel becomes an ox-bow channel becomes an ox-bow lake and this lake soon dries out. • Lower • Floodplains and levees • Flooding is frequent in floodplains • Once out of the channel, water encounters larger wetted perimeter  more friction  speed reduced  deposition occurs • Accumulation of alluvial deposits after repeated flooding forms the levees • Deltas • As a river loaded with silt reaches the river mouth, its speed slows down due to the sea. Silt particles accumulate into larger particles through flocculation. Being heavier, these particles are deposited at the river mouth, the platform of alluvium rises above water, forming a delta. As the main river gets silted up and blocked, the river overflows into different channels called distributaries • 3 types of deltas • Arcuate Delta (Mekong and Nile Delta) • Triangular or fan shaped which is formed when alluvial deposits are evenly spread out • Bird’s foot delta (Mississippi Delta) • Formed when river discharge is high and load is enormous • Sediments extend seaward  Sediment deposited is more than what tides and currents can remove • Estuarine delta • Sediments are deposited in a long an narrow submerged estuary • Sediments do not grow beyond estuary as they are washed away by waves and currents once outside the estuary. DefinitionsRiverFeatures©2012AlgernonW.S.C.
  17. 17. 17 • Re-alignment • Straightening of the river channel • Removes meanders and increases speed of the water( sinuosity affects velocity) • + Allows water to flow from one area more quickly and minimize deposition • Faster flow = more energy to transport materials, less deposition • Lesser sediments  “deeper river bed” • - Ecosystems may be destroyed as the habitats of affected plants and animals are destroyed • - Disappearance of wetlands as the river flows over a smaller land area. USA has a ‘no net loss in wetland’ policy which aims to discourage channelization. When channelization is carried out along the river, it is necessary to create another wetland in another area along the river. • Re-sectioning • Widening and deepening of the river channel • + Increases the channel’s ability to hold water • + More surface runoff from surrounding areas can enter river • - Area in the channel downstream may not be able to contain the increased flow of water. The channel overflows and flooding results. • Replace soil on the river banks and bed with cement and granite • + Less friction  Increase speed of the river flow, water move away from area faster • + Greater energy, less deposition which makes the river shallower • - Sediments get carried downstream or into the ocean have resulted in less sunlight reaching the seabed, affecting the growth of marine life such as sea grasses and coral reefs • Bank Protection • Building artificial levees or dykes • They are walls of sand, stone or concrete built along rivers that overflow their banks • + Increase capacity of the river to hold water, hence reduces chance of flooding • - Continual build up of sediments on the riverbed make the channel shallower. Over the years, either the dykes have to be built higher or expensive dredging has to be done. • Concrete structures like gabions and revetments are built along a river channel to divert the flow of water from the river banks to the center of river channel. • + This protects the river banks from being eroded by the force of running water, thereby reducing the amount of sediments that flow into the river. • - Continual build-up of sediments behind these structures make the channel shallower. When prolonged rain occurs, water may still overflow these structures and lead to flooding • - In fact, these structures make it difficult for flood waters to retreat quickly after a flood. • Planting Vegetation • + Planting vegetation along a river bank can protect river banks against erosion as the roots of the trees and the other plants hold the soil firmly together • + They also slows down surface runoff, buying time for infiltration and prevent large amount of water from entering the river channel at the same time(SSSF effect) • - Excessive shade from vegetation planted along river banks prevent sunlight from reaching the river bed, killing aquatic plants and affecting aquatic food chains • Protection Measures • Flood insurance • + Payout and compensation lessen financial burden on those affected by floods • - Premiums will rise and add to cost of business • Build flood resistant structures • + Unaffected by floods • - Cost will increase • Floodways/buffer zones • Designate areas along banks of river where no structure can be built • + No damage in a flood • - Opportunity cost of land affected • Dam • Concrete structure built across a river so as to control flood. However, they often serve multi-purpose (E.g. Provide water for irrigation and generate HEP) • + It regulates the flow of water, preventing fluctuations between excessively high and low water levels. Floods are thus prevented. This constant flow of water also allows navigation the whole year round rather than just seasonal navigation • + Water stored behind the dam can be used for irrigation, enabling farming areas to have double or triple-cropping even when there is a shortage of rain. 1/3 of world’s harvest comes from irrigated land • + The water flows at great pressure through pipes. The great force of the water turns a turbo-generator to generator to generate HEP. Availability of electricity helps stimulate industrial growth • + Reservoir and dam can be a fishing ground or tourist attraction • - Dam breaching can cause very serious and sudden floods which catch people unguarded (Si Chuan earthquake, almost breached) • - Areas have to be flooded to create the reservoir. Habitats of flora and fauna would be lost forever. People have to be resettled(Three gorges dam) • - Silt is trapped behind the dam. Soil in the lower course is no longer fertilized by flooding. More money has to be spent on chemical fertilizers instead. Abuse may lead to eutrophication.( Aswan High Dam) • - Greater erosion of river bed and delta downstream as less load is transported as more energy is left • - Decrease in the flow of freshwater into the sea increase the salinity of coastal areas. The high salt content pollutes the coastal areas and causes it to become less fertile • - Fish cannot swim freely up and down the river, unable to reproduce(salmon) • Increase loss of water through evaporation when a lot of water is stored behind the lake. • -Irrigation and stagnant water can breed mosquitoes and water snails which spread diseases. LDQRiverManagement©2012AlgernonW.S.C.
  18. 18. 18 • Swash • Forward movement of the onto the beach • Carries sediments from the ocean and deposits it on the shore • Backwash • Water that flows back under the pull of gravity • Transport sediment down the beach and erodes the beach • Constructive Waves • It build the coasts known also as spilling breakers • Waves break frequently on a gentle coastal slope • Less frequent wave period (6-7 waves breaking/min) • More powerful swash than backwash • Builds coasts by deposition • Destructive Waves • It erode the coasts known also as plunging breakers • Plunges over when breaking on a steep slope • More frequent wave period (10-14 waves breaking/min) • More powerful backwash than swash • Erodes coast • Can be created during storms or tsunamis • Factors of Wave Energy • Wind Speed • The greater the speed of the wind, the larger the waves • Fetch • Fetch is the distance the wind blows over water • The longer the fetch, the stronger the waves • Natural Events • Big waves generated by displacement of land E.g.Tsunami • Human Events • Boats and ships can temporarily generate large waves and change the direction of wave • Zone lying between the land and the sea • Constantly changing as it is constantly shaped by coastal erosion • Source of load • River at coasts • Brought down by cliffs by mass-wasting • Eroded from cliffs by wave attack • Transported from adjoining coasts • Stirred up from the seabed near the shore • Due to the oblique incoming waves, the swash rushes up the shore diagonally carrying materials along the same path. The backwash, owing to friction and gravity, returns straight down the beach at right angles to the sea, dragging along some of the materials in the same direction. • This is repeated when the next wave breaks. Materials are then moved along the beach by long shore drift • As the materials are carried across the beach, they become smaller, more rounded and sorted. • Therefore, the further the materials are from where they start to drift, the smaller they become. • At the same time, long shore currents are also moving materials on the seabed parallel to the coast. Back Shore Stretches landwards from high tide level Reached by storm waves Foreshore Lies between low tide shoreline and high tide shoreline Covered during high tide Offshore Never exposed even during low tide Zonation of coast DefinitionsLDQWaves©2012AlgernonW.S.C.
  19. 19. 19 • Corrasion • Rock fragments hurled against the coast and break up the rocks forming the coast • Attrition • Rock particles carried by the waves collide with each other and break down into smaller, smoother and more rounded particles • Solution • Process by which rocks are dissolved in the seawater • Hydraulic Action • Impact of waves pounding repeatedly against the coast will weaken rocks. • Water surges into rocks and compresses the air • Retreat of waves result in the decrease in pressure and air expands • Repeated action weakens lines of weaknesses • Coastal erosion factors • Wave size • The stronger the waves, the more powerful they are at eroding the coasts • Factors affecting the energy of waves • Length of fetch • Wind speed • Gradient of the coastal slope determines whether the type of waves is constructive or destructive • Rock Composition and Structure • Less resistant rocks eroded faster than more resistant rocks • Lines of weakness also increases vulnerability to erosion • Position of coasts • Exposed to strong prevailing winds • Erosion • Sheltered coasts • Deposition • Climate • Certain periods with strong prevailing onshore winds • Human interference • Coastal defenses such as seawalls reduces coastal erosion by decreasing wave energy • Headlands and Bays • Headlands and Bays usually develop along an exposed coast where alternative bands of rocks of different resistant at almost right angle to the coast. • Continuous erosion of the rocks of different resistance will cause the coast to be eroded unevenly. • Rapid erosion of the less resistant rocks will cause the area to curve inwards to form the bays. The resistant rock will be eroded more slowly to form cliff headlands protruding into the sea. It has a steep rock face. • Sometimes, headland and bays occur in a single rock type with lines of weakness aligned at right angle to coasts • As waves approach the indented or uneven coast, they reach the water off the headlands first and are slowed down. When one part of the wave is slowed down before the other part, the wave front becomes curved. This is called wave refraction. • The wave front curves in at the headland and causes energy to be concentrated at the headlands, eroding them. It curves out at the bay and its energy is dissipated, resulting in deposition. • Over time, the coastline is straightened again. • Cliff and Shore platform • Waves attack a steep slope coast through processes such as hydraulic action and abrasion, they make a notch. • Prolonged erosion of the notch causes it to become lengthened and enlarged to form a cave Further undercutting of the cave causes its overhanging roof to collapse and a steep cliff face is formed. • As the cliff continues to be eroded and processes 1-3 repeated, it retreats inland, leaving behind a flat surface known as a shore platform. • The wave –cut platform is covered with rock fragments from the receding cliff. Rocks carried by swash and backwash smoothen the shore platform by abrasion. Some debris is deposited into the sea, forming an offshore terrace. • As the wave-cutting platform lengthens, wave attack at the base is reduced. Weathering and mass wasting on the cliff are now more important than marine erosion • Sea Arch, Stack and Stump(Not in Syllabus, but need to know) • Due to wave refraction, wave energy is at the headlands. The waves will attack structural weaknesses (faults)by • Surging into them trapping the air inside, which explodes when they retreat, and removing any loosened rocks(hydraulic action) • Abrading them with rock fragments they carry (Abrasion) • Dissolving any soluble mineral in the rock(solution) • The erosional processes create hollows at these lines of weakness • Continued erosion enlarges and lengthens a sea cave until it finally cuts right through the headland or meets with another sea cave on the other side of the headland. A bridge of rock above an opening in the headland, sea arch is formed. • Active undercutting of the sides of the opening in the headland by waves, and weathering and mass wasting make the arch progressively unstable. It finally collapse and an isolated pillar of rock called a stack is formed. • The stack can be further eroded, leaving a stump. The stump can be covered during the high tide. DefinitionsLDQCASHandcoastalfeatures©2012AlgernonW.S.C.
  20. 20. 20 • Beach • A beach is an accumulation of materials on the shore • The deposition on the beach occurs between the low water level and the high water level that is reached by the storm waves only. • Materials are sorted on the beach. Finer materials like sand are found nearer the water’s edge while bigger and coarser materials are deposited further inland. • Spit • A spit is a long, narrow low lying ridge of sand and shingle. One of its end is connected to land while the other end projects into the sea or lies across a bay or estuary. • When its free end is hooked, it is called a hooked spit. • Sand dunes are often found on a sand spit. • The area of sheltered water between the spit and the open sea is called a lagoon. • Formation • A spit is formed by long shore drift. Waves breaking obliquely at the shore move material along the shore in a zigzag manner by swash and backwash and along the seabed parallel to the coast. • This combined movement of material, called long shore drift, does not change direction when the coastline has a bay or river mouth. Instead the LSD will continue to transport material in its original direction for some distance. • The material is transported by LSD into the sea. The larger sized material is deposited in the slack water and the finer material is carried further away before it is deposited. • When deposits are adequate enough to rise above the water, they form an extension to the land(a spit). The spot will increase in length as long as the input of materials exceeds the amount that is washed away. • Wave refraction or occasional changes in wind direction may cause the free end to curve to form a complex spit or hooked spit. • A spit is often stabilized by vegetation. Sand dunes on spits are formed by winds that carry sand and deposit it around obstructions such as vegetation or driftwood. • Tombolo • A tombolo is a ridge of sand or shingle linking the main land to an island or linking two islands • It could have started as a spit that increased in length until it joined a nearby island or it could have formed when two spit meet one from each side of a different land mass that faces each other • Bars • A bar is a long narrow ridge of sand or shingle that runs parallel to the coast. • The deposits usually run parallel to the coast. • Bay mouth Bar • A bar that lies across the mouth of a bay and joining the lands at the two ends. • It could have started as a spit growing and stretching across the bay, two spits joining together • An offshore bar driven towards the coast • Offshore bar • An offshore bar, stretching parallel to the coast, is formed a distance offshore. • It develops on a gentle slope which has been deposited with some eroded materials. As the water is shallow, Friction causes the waves break long before the waves arrive at the coast and this causes deposition to occur • A ridge slowly builds up in the shallow water and the presence of this underwater ridge causes more materials to build up as waves break against it. • When deposition is sufficient large, it will rise above water to form an offshore bar. • Mudflats • When fine material such as silt and clay is deposited in the sheltered waters of bays, river mouths • When saltwater tolerant plants like mangroves colonize there mudflats, more sediment will be trapped. • Sand Dunes • Ridge of loose sand piled up by wind action at the coast • Stabilized by vegetation and shrubs DefinitionsDepositionalLandform©2012AlgernonW.S.C.
  21. 21. 21 • Seawalls • Made of concrete + Absorbs energy of waves and protects coasts against strong waves • In the past sea walls were straight and deflected the energy of the waves away from the coast. In doing so, however, they suffered a lot of expensive damage in a short period of time due to undercutting which wears away the base of the seawall + Sea walls are very expensive but should last 10-30 years. - Loss of beaches + Modern sea walls have a curved slope which breaks up the energy of the wave and prevents water going over the top of the wall during heavy storms E.g. Singapore most common coastal defense is Seawalls • Breakwaters • A breakwater is often used to protect as harbor but may be used to protect a stretch of coastline • They are usually made of concrete or blocks of stone but recent cheaper alternative suggestion have included oil drums and used tires. • They have to be strong enough to take the full force of the waves. • Waves will break against the breakwater before reaching the shore + Acts as obstacle to create a zone of quiet water behind it and encourages deposition - Since they have to be built in the water, they are expensive to build S$1 million each - Areas unprotected by breakwater still eroded - Need to build many breakwaters in an area - E.g. Built at East Coast Park • Groyne • The best form of natural defense is a beach which efficiently absorbs the energy of the waves. Along many coasts, however, long shore drift causes the beach to thin out in places and erosion of the land behind becomes a problem. • Groyne are designed to interrupt long shore drift and build up in the beach. Transported materials trapped on the side of the groyne facing the long shore drift. • They are usually made of tropical hardwood which are more resistant to marine borers and erosion. • A few are made of concrete, steel or in more recent times large rocks. • They are built at right angles to the shore and spaced about 50-100 meters apart. - Groynes may have a life of 15-20 years but often have to be replaced rather than repaired. - Whenever sand on one beach is increased(updrift), other beaches down the coast lose a lot of sand. This process often leads to a domino effect. Once one groyne is put into place, another is needed at the beach next door - On the down drift side of the groyne, the beach will not be replenished by materials carried by the long shore drift and gets starved of sediments and the clearer water cause erosion - Spoils the beauty of the coastal environment - E.g Groynes in Crescent Beach, Canada • Gabions + Wire cages containing small rocks to form a wall to protect the coast against erosion about 1mx1m square - They are stacked to form a simple wall. They are used to protect a cliff or area in the short term only, since they are easily damaged by powerful storm waves and the cages tend to rust very easily + Gabions have the advantage of ease of use and are relatively cheap - But their life span is short - Ruin natural beauty of the coastal environment • Revetments + A cheaper alternative to sea walls is the revetment • This is a sloping feature which breaks up or absorbs the energy of the waves but may let water and sediment pass through • Revetments are shoreline structures constructed parallel to the shoreline and generally sloped in such a way as to mimic the natural slope of the shoreline profile and dissipate wave energy as the wave is directed up the slope. • The older wooden revetment consist of posts fixed into the beach with wooden slats between. • Modern revetments have concrete or shaped blocks of stone laid on top of a layer of finer material. • Riprap • Rock armor or riprap consists of layers of very hard rock with the largest, often weighing several tons, on the top. Riprap has the (+) advantage of good permeability plus it looks more natural. + They also absorb wave energy as they are rocks LDQHardEngineering©2012AlgernonW.S.C.
  22. 22. 22 • Planting mangrove • Prop roots or kneed roots anchor the trees firmly to the ground. • These roots also bind the soil together, protecting it from erosion + Places with mangroves suffer less damage from tsunami destruction • Beach nourishment • Where long shore drift is a serious problem and the supply of beach material is poor, it may be necessary to supplement the natural system by adding lorry loads of sand and shingle to the beach • The natural processes will then spread the material along the coast to help build up the natural defenses. This is called beach nourishment. • Sometimes dredgers may be anchored offshore and the sediment sprayed on to the beach using high pressure hoses - Effects of beach nourishments usually last for only about ten years - Cost is extremely high • Miami Beach VS Florida Beach • Encouraging growth of coral reefs + Coral reef reduce the speed of the waves approaching the shore. • Stabilizing coastal dunes + Coastal dunes act as barriers along the coast and protect human property like houses and roads - Loss of vegetation to stabilize dunes results in dunes ‘moving’ inland • Retreat (Last Resort) • The physical relocation of a structure away from the shoreline on the same property, or the complete removal of all structure form the shore zone • A graphic representation of part or all of the Earth’s surface and cartography is the making of maps. • Types of maps • Aerial • Topography • Grid System • Easting • Northings • 4-Fig Reference • 6-Fig Reference • Map Scale • Small Scale • Large area of the Earth’s surface • Lesser Detail • Large Scale • Small area of the Earth's surface • Greater details • North • True North • 90°N • A fixed point • Magnetic North • Direction in which needle on compass points • Moves around True North • Not Fixed • Grid North • Direction in which all the imaginary easting point • Many fixed points • Contours • Line on a map which join all points having the same height above mean sea level • Vertical Interval • Difference in height between two contours • Index Contour • Every fifth contour printed darker for emphasis • Spot Height • Represents a point whose height above sea level or depth below sea level has been accurately measured • Trigonometrical Station • It is a short concrete pillar erected on the ground at a point whose height above sea level has been accurately measured. • Bench Mark • It is a mark that is cut into the wall od a building or into a rock. • Slopes • Vertical Exaggeration • Increase vertical scale of the contour section relative to the horizontal scale • Bring out the main relief features • VE=Vertical Scale/ Horizontal Scale • Gradient • Gradient= Vertical distance/ Horizontal distance • Height Difference/ Horizontal Difference • Remember: Answer is in a ratio! DefinitionsLDQSoftEngineeringandMapReading©2012AlgernonW.S.C.
  23. 23. 23 • Trend • Largest and fastest growing industry(US$1 trillion in 2010) with 30% exports and 6% services. It ranks 4th after fuel, chemical, automotive, up to 10% of GDP, 6-7% of world’s jobs. Tourist receipts from 2001’s US$463billion to 2010 US$1 trillion, ↑ 115% • Arrivals from 1950’s 25 million to 2010’s 940 million, ↑3660% • Events • 2001/9/11 911 • 2002/10/12 Bali Bombing • 2003 SARS • 2008 Global Financial Crisis • 2011/2012 European debt crisis • Types of Tourism • Niche Tourism • MICE Tourism • Meeting • Incentives • Conventions • Exhibition • Volunteer Tourism • Adventure • Medical • Ancestry • Domestic Tourism • Travel within their own country • International Tourism • Travel to other countries • Change of nature of tourism • Trends • Susceptible to unpredictable events disease outbreak and economic downturn • Affect only temporary, overall trend is increasing • Reason for change • Improvement in transport and technology • Demand Factors (Tourist generating area) • Disposable income • Money for tourism after expenditure, savings and taxes • Economic condition improve due to industrialisation(DCs) and the trend of transference • Leisure time • More time to travel, time available outside the demands of work or duty, may be more inclined to travel • Changing lifestyle • Form of relaxation and an avenue for self-discovery • Supply Factors(Destination area) • Attraction • Places at destination that attract tourist • Natural, Cultural/Historical/Human-made, Event • E.g. Great Wall of China, Mt Everest in Nepal • Amenities • Quality of facilities like toilets or hotels at the destination • Facilities like accommodation in Singapore which range from $49 to $1000 per night • Modern shopping malls house retail outlets, restaurants and entertainment outlets eg. Orchard Road • Affordability • The measure if the price is low and valuable for the trip to the destination • Air Travel has become cheaper, especially with the entry of low-cost/budget carries offering low ticket prices. E.g. Tiger Airlines, SCOOT by SIA and Jet star, where flights to KL cost only $50 one way • Advertising • Measure of how well tour companies bring about tours to the destination • Attractive advertising, a country or place may promote itself as a favored tourist destination by advertising through the various media. E.g. Taiwan 2012- Heart of Asia • Availability of information: People can access information E.g. Weather information, travel cuisine, travel forums of other countries through the internet • Accessibility • Measure of amount of different types of transportation to the destination • A place which is easily accessible is more attractive to tourists • Well-developed transport network in terms of land, sea and air routes. Eg. Singapore is connected to more than 174 cities by more than 74 airlines VS Angkor Wat in Cambodia with only 10 airlines • Ancillary • Basic services to the tourist at the destination • These services include marketing, reservation and coordination among different tour agencies operating within the same country. • Often, a national body, such as a tourism board, as well as tourist offices, and visitor Centre, are set up to promote tourism and help coordinate efforts • Quality of Service • Measure of how well is the service a the destination • Pleasant experiences might prompt tourist to make repeat visits or even recommend the country/place to their friends • E.g. 1995 Smile Singapore Campaign, GEMS-Go the extra mile for service • Globalisation • MICE tourism availability at the destination • Government Barriers • The erosion of political barriers has boosted tourist travel into and out of countries which previously had strict travel restrictions. • E.g. Domestic travel within Europe due to break away of iron curtain and introduction of the unified currency, Euros(€). DefinitionsLDQTourism©2012AlgernonW.S.C.
  24. 24. 24 • Positive impacts • Economical • Foreign Exchange • Money earned is used to pay for the countries’ expenditure(construction of schools, roads and import of goods) • Allows Singapore to enjoy a higher standard of living • Multiplier Effect • Tourism circulates money spent by tourist through the country, which is used several times and goes into other sectors of the economy, and as it circulates, its value multiplies to several times its original value, thus simulates the economy. • Indirect Taxation • Taxes have been imposed on goods and services consumed • Revenue from such taxes is used by the government to build roads and schools • The tourist is indirectly contributing towards such projects by spending money • Creates Employment • Direct • Labor-intensive industry(creates jobs in services in service industries e.g. hotels, transport and retailing) • Indirect • The tourism industry can also create jobs in other industries, such as the primary and secondary industries • Improves accessibility • Creates goodwill • Exposes people attending conventions, meeting and exhibitions to the possibility of their putting their investments in Singapore. Airshow, F1 race, Youth Olympic. Investments will speed up the economic growth and expansions of both countries • Increase in foreign investments • Foreign investors are attracted to set up new businesses, which will further enhance the host country’s attractiveness to foreign investors of other industries • E.g Macau has thriving industries such as textiles, electronics and toys, as well as notable tourist industry, which boast a wide range of hotels and resorts • Stimulation of infrastructure development • Tourism can induce the local government to make infrastructure improvements such as better water and sewage systems, rods, electricity, telephone and public transport networks, all of which can improve quality of life for residents as well as facilitate tourism • Social • Force of peace • Locals can enjoy facilities • Preservation of festivals • Encourage production of ethnic handicrafts • Preservation of buildings • Civic involvement and pride • Environmental • Conservation of heritage and buildings • The old derelict shop houses and warehouses in Clarke Quay along the Singapore River have been restored and given a new lease of life as pubs and restaurants • Protection of environment • Potential valuable tourist destinations such as beaches, forest and mountains are likely to be conserved by the local people and governments • This can be done by establishing national parks and wildlife parks • By protecting the natural environments, the destruction of these habitats of plant and wildlife are kept to a minimum LDQ©2012AlgernonW.S.C.Impacts
  25. 25. 25 • Negative impacts • Economical • Leakage • The direct income for an area is the amount of tourist expenditure that remains locally after taxes, profits and wages are paid outside the area and after import purchased and these subtracted amounts are called leakage. • Import leakage • Commonly occurs when tourist demand standards of food and equipment of products that host country cannot supply, then importing of external products. E.g. Evian Water at hotels • Export leakage • MNCs and large foreign business have substantial share in the import leakage, but in LDCs they are the only ones who have capital to start a business • Inflation • Increasing demand for basic services and goods from tourist will often cause price hikes that negatively affect local residents whose income does not increase proportionately. • E.g. Research found that due to tourism, the price for locals increased by 8% • Unequal development • As a result of the emphasis of developing the tourism industry, resources may not be channeled to the primary or secondary industries • Unequal development of the industries and a possible over dependence on tourism • Tourism perpetuates unequal development across places: international and national • Rural vs. Urban areas e.g. Nepal • Economic dependence • Developing countries with little ability to explore other resources, have embraced tourism as a way to boost the economy • Over-reliance on tourism, carries significant risks to tourism-dependent economies especially in times of crisis. • Terrorism- livelihood will be affect. Tourist-related businesses make heavy losses, amenities are under-utilized and workers are retrenched. • Seasonal Unemployment • Off peak seasons vs. peak seasons • Fluctuating tourist arrivals • When the economies of the major industrial countries were not doing well in the 1980s, fewer people from there countries went on tours and there was a fall in global tourist arrivals • In 1997, the Asian economic crisis and in1998, the haze also caused a drop in tourist arrivals (2011/2012 European Euro currency crisis) • Also could occur owing to change in preference of tourist e.g. from city-based attractions to beach resorts to eco-tourism, creating a economic slow-down in tourism-related activities • Spiralling costs • During tourist boom a shortage of hotel rooms and shortage of labor in tourist-related services may lead to spiralling cost • Fall in service standards • A fall in service standards may make Singapore unpopular with tourists • Causes labor shortage in other sectors of economy. E.g. Manufacturing and construction. Many young job- seekers tend to be attracted to the glamour of tourism • Infrastructure costs • Developers may want the government to improve the airport, roads and other infrastructure, and possibly to provide tax breaks and other financial advantage, which are costly activities for the government. • May reduce government investment in other critical areas like education and health • Discrimination • Discrimination against locals may arise as tourist are willing to pay higher prices • Result in social tension and unrest LDQ©2012AlgernonW.S.C.Impacts • Social • Conflict of resource use • Commodification • Economic inequality • Clash of values • Crime generation • Touting • Resettlement of locals • Destruction of buildings • Environmental • Destroying the environment • Pollution • Destructive human activities • Endanger species • Depletion of natural resources • Alteration of ecosystem
  26. 26. 26 • Sustainable tourism • Sustainable tourism meets the present needs of tourists and the host country while protecting and enhancing opportunities for future generations. • Development of tourism and its related activities can exert pressure on the local communities and the physical environment beyond its carrying capacity. • Fragile environment, such as coasts, forest and mountains, are most vulnerable to mass tourism • Who Should help conserve? • Planning Authorities • Planning authorities such as local governments or national government agencies play a crucial role in controlling the rate and scale of development in tourist areas • Businesses • For the long term success of tourism, economic gains should not be the only motivation for businesses • Tourist • Tourist also play a significant role in making tourism sustainable. Learning about the culture, tradition and background of a destination would enable tourist to better appreciate the locals way of life as well as the problems they face. • Tourist can also play their part by paying attention to the local customs at their travel destination, such as the need to remove foot wear at certain places of worship • Non-Government Organizations • Independent pressure groups or campaigning organizations that are usually non profit-orientated are formed to defend or promote a specific cause are known as non governmental organizations. • These groups evaluate the threats of and opportunities for tourism in an area • They also conduct research and determine whether an area will be subjected to any potential harm by tourist • If an area is under threat of development, these NGOs may conduct campaigns solicit signatures for petitions, or organize protest to exert pressure against these unfavorable plans • E.g. World Wide Fund for nature • Ecotourism • Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of the local people • +Travel to natural destinations, minimises impact, builds environmental awareness, provides direct financial benefits for conservation, respects local culture, supports human rights and democratic movements • -Natural-based tours are not always environmentally sustainable, as visits to these areas do not guarantee that care has been taken by tourist and tour operators to minimise negative impact on the environment • -Some tour operators also view large number as a source of higher income, hence, visitor numbers are not controlled • E.g. Islands in Phuket, Thailand Perhentian Redang, Tioman • Community-based tourism • It refers to the process of tourism development and management that includes, consults, and benefits the local community, especially in the context of rural villagers and indigenous people in less developed countries • +Tourism generate considerable employment, including opportunities to develops and own their own business. • Higher per capita income and an improved lifestyle, increased opportunities for women and youth. • +Give local people control over tourist activities and benefit economically from them • -Communities lack the knowledge to manage the development, like locals capturing endangered animals for entertainment for tourist • -Only small portion of the money goes to the local community, which may be insufficient to fun certain community-based tourism projects as tourist have used up most of their expenditure on air travel or foreign tour operators • -Unrealistic expectation of tourist might lead them to become dissatisfied with the conditions of the rural settings and make unreasonable demands to the people there, resulting in conflict with the local communities • E.g. Umphang Thailand LDQ©2012AlgernonW.S.C.Management
  27. 27. 27 • Types • Primary • Directly involving natural resources • Low value-added goods, with exception of Mining for iron and diamond • Low profit margin, technology and skilled workers • Vulnerable to natural disaster, weather and price change • E.g. Farming, Forestry and mining • Trends • ↑Mechanism • ↓Reliance on natural input • Secondary • Involve the processing and transforming of raw materials obtained from primary activities or packaging of manufactured goods • Light Industries • Less raw material • Light weight goods • E.g. Weaving cotton into fibre and garment factory • Heavy Industries • Bulky machinery • Large and heavy goods • E.g. Steel works and Car factory • Weight gaining • Weight losing • Tertiary • Involves selling and exchanging goods and services • E.g. Baking, education, tourism, entertainment, transportation • Classified into two categories, high and low value- added services • Quaternary • Involves handling and processing information and knowledge, research and development • E.g. Bayer and GSK • Trend of Transference • It is the large scale movement of manufacturing industries from DCs(e.g. Britain) to LDCs (e.g. India) to lower operating cost • Industrialisation • Process whereby the machine assisted production of goods develops greater importance in an economy or a country. DefinitionsLDQ©2012AlgernonW.S.C.Industries • Tiers of NIEs • 1st Tier (Four Asian tigers) • Growth rates and rapid industrialization between early 1960s and 1990s • Singapore • Taiwan • Hong Kong • South Korea • 2nd Tier • Those that started in the 1980s and are experiencing rapid growth • Mexico • Brazil • Philippines • Malaysia • 3rd Tier • Those that started in the 1990s. Some are experiencing rapid growth similar to first tier NIEs • China • India • In Karnataka and Bangalore • Electronic products • Software • Vietnam • Chile • Characteristics of NIEs • Fast rate of growth in manufacturing • Manufacturing sector expand rapidly • Level of employment in industries and its total employment in NIEs rise • Brazil’s employment in manufacturing sector from 14% in 1950s to 24% in 1980 • Thailand. 3% of exports are manufactured products in 1960 vs 80% today • Rising share of world export in manufactured products • NIEs become major exporters of manufactured products • First tier NIEs share went from 2% of world’s merchandise exports to 10% in 2003 • Fast growth in real per capital income • NIEs enjoy fast growth in REAL per capita income • E.g. South Korea went from US$100 in 1963 to about US$25000 in 2007. Singapore’s GDP per capita is US$49000 in 2009 • They are thus able to bridge the gap between themselves and the DCs(spread effect)