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  1. 1. Storage, Multimedia and File Organization CIS 105
  2. 2. <ul><ul><li>List the benefits of secondary storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and describe storage media that are available for personal computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiate among the principal types of secondary storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe how data is stored on a disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the benefits of multimedia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain how data is organized, accessed, and processed </li></ul></ul>Storage and Multimedia: The Facts and More
  3. 3. Secondary Storage <ul><li>Separate from the computer itself </li></ul><ul><li>Software and data stored on a semipermanent basis (Unlike memory, not lost when power is lost) </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Memory vs. Storage (Volatile) (Non-volatile) <ul><ul><li>Temporarily holds instructions to be completed and data to be used with those instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds data, instructions, and information for future use. </li></ul></ul>Access time = nanoseconds (billionths of a second) Access time = milliseconds (thousandths of a second)
  5. 5. Cost and Speed
  6. 6. Formatting Formatting is the process of preparing a disk, hard disk, or CD for reading or writing. Formatting organizes the disk into storage locations called tracks ( a band that forms a circle on the disk). Formatting breaks the tracks into sectors which are small pie-shaped areas. Data stored in sectors must be retrieved for use and placed in memory. The time required to access and retrieve data is called access time . Tracks Sectors (Cluster: 2-8 sectors)
  7. 7. Care of Floppy Disks
  8. 8. Hard Disk Characteristics <ul><li>Platter </li></ul><ul><li>Low (vendor) and High Level (operating system defines), Format </li></ul><ul><li>Partitions </li></ul><ul><li>Removable available </li></ul><ul><li>IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) </li></ul><ul><li>SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) – daisy chaining </li></ul><ul><li>RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) – level 1 (mirroring) and Striping </li></ul>
  9. 9. RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) Can be Combined (RAID LEVEL 0)
  10. 10. Compact Disks <ul><li>CD-ROM - drive can only read data from CDs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROM stores up to 700 MB per disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary medium for software distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CD-R - drive can write to disk once </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk can be read by CD-ROM or CD-R drive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CD-RW - drive can erase and record over data multiple times </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some compatibility problems trying to read CD-RW disks on CD-ROM drives </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Digital Versatile Disk (DVD) <ul><li>Short wavelength laser can read densely packed spots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD drive can read CD-ROMs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity up to 17GB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for full-length movies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound is better than on audio CDs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Several versions of writable and rewritable DVDs exist </li></ul>
  12. 12. CDs and DVDs <ul><li>CD-ROM (compact disk) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>700 MB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single track </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DVD-ROM (digital video disk) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4.7-17 GB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denser; 2 layers </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Disk Terms Superdisk, Zip, USB Flash High Capacity Portable Disks/Drives Small opening in floppy disk with tab to slide to cover/expose notch; indicates whether info can be written to disk Write protect notch Table of info used to locate files on a disk FAT (File Allocation Table) # sides (2) x tracks (80) x sectors/track (18) x 512 (bytes/sector) = 1.44MB Density 2-8 sectors; smallest unit of space to store data Cluster Pie-shaped arcs making up track. 512 bytes; Sector Narrow recording band; forms circle on disk surface Track Process of preparing disk by organizing into locations (tracks/sectors) Formatting Portable, inexpensive, 3.5” Floppy disk/diskette
  14. 14. Storage Strategies <ul><li>Enterprise Storage Systems (ESS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on availability, protection, organization, and back up of storage in a company. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidate storage so that operations run as efficiently as possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RAID, tape libraries, Storage Area Networks (SAN) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Warehouses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralizes the computing environment, in which large megaservers store data, information, and programs, and less powerful client devices connect to the megaservers to access these items </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Trivia Storage vs Memory? 3 Types of RAID? Storage Strategies? Temporary vs future; Speed Enterprise Storage Systems Data Warehouse Mirrored Striped Combination
  16. 16. Multimedia <ul><li>Presents information with text, illustrations, photos, narration, music, animation, and film clips </li></ul><ul><li>Not practical until the advent of the optical disk </li></ul>
  17. 17. Organizing and Accessing Data <ul><li>Database </li></ul><ul><li>File </li></ul><ul><li>Record </li></ul><ul><li>Field </li></ul><ul><li>Character </li></ul><ul><li>Key Field </li></ul>
  18. 18. File Organization <ul><li>Three major methods of organizing data files in secondary storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indexed </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Sequential File Organization <ul><li>Records are stored in order according to a key field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a particular record is desired, all prior records must be read first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To update a record, a new sequential file must be created, with changed and unchanged records </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tape storage uses sequential organization </li></ul>
  20. 20. Direct File Organization <ul><li>Also called random access </li></ul><ul><li>Go directly to desired record by using a key </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer does not have to read all prior records </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requires disk storage </li></ul>
  21. 21. Indexed File Organization <ul><li>Combines elements of sequential and direct methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Records stored sequentially, but file also contains an index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Index stored sequentially, contains record key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data accessed by record key </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><ul><li>the benefits of secondary storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The types of storage media that are available for personal computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the principal types of secondary storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how data is stored on a disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the benefits of multimedia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how data is organized, accessed, and processed </li></ul></ul>If asked, can you explain…
  23. 23. Questions? ? ? ? ? ?
  24. 24. Terms to Know: Storage, Multimedia & File Management <ul><li>Access time </li></ul><ul><li>Backup </li></ul><ul><li>Bad sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Character </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster </li></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM </li></ul><ul><li>Database </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Versatile disk (DVD) </li></ul><ul><li>FAT (File Allocation Table) </li></ul><ul><li>Field </li></ul><ul><li>Formatting </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmented </li></ul><ul><li>Key field </li></ul><ul><li>Preformatted </li></ul><ul><li>RAID </li></ul><ul><li>Record </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Server </li></ul><ul><li>Striping </li></ul><ul><li>Tracks </li></ul><ul><li>USB Flash Drive </li></ul><ul><li>Zip drive </li></ul>
  25. 25. Sources <ul><li>Capron; Computers: Tools for An Information Age, 8 th Ed. 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Pfaffenberger; Computers in Your Future 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Clipart </li></ul>