Made ByO Isaac Cilia AttardO Sean ButtiġieġO Leo AġiusO Calvin EllulO Zak Azzopardi
FormationCoal formation begins when thin layers ofsilt covers plant material that died and fell into a swamp or bog. Each year new layers of plant material falls into the swamp until the weight of the overlying sediments drives the water out forming peat. As the heat and pressure increaseddue to more overlying sediment peat turns into true coal when the carbon content reaches 25%.
What is peat? Peat is partially carbonizedvegetable matter that formed in bogsand swamps. Peat is the first stage in the formation of coal. Peat is a brown to black accumulation of woody plant material. It has a highmoisture content of about 75%. Peat burns freely when dried.
Lignite Coal Coal formation continues as increasing heat and pressure turns peat into lignite brown or black coal. It is the first true coal. Lignite coal is between 25-35% carbon. It often displays the original woody structure in the rocks. It burns readily with a smoky flame and has astrong odor. Generating plants use lignite coal to produce electricity.
Bituminous coalO Bituminous coal is black and has a glassy luster with distinct bands and no evidence of a wood structure. Bituminous coal has a carbon content of 35-45 percent.O Bituminous coal has a higher carbon content between 44 to 86 percent pure carbon. This coal does not crumble when exposed to air. It is used to make coke for the steel industry and supplies heat for industrial processes.
Anthracite coalAnthracite coal is a metamorphic rockwith a glassy luster. It has a shell-likefracture and is harder to ignite thansedimentary coals. Anthracite coal has thehighest carbon content of all the coal. It isbetween 86 and 98 percent pure carbon.Anthracite coal is used for heating homesbecause it burns with little smoke or odor.