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Biomass | Willie McGhee


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Biomass | Willie McGhee

  1. 1. Carbon Accounting for Scottish Biomass Contact Willie McGhee, Director BioClimate Research & Development 18b Liberton Brae Edinburgh UK EH16 6AE Tel: +44 (0)131 672 3782
  2. 2. Experience with carbon accounting Director :– BioClimate Research and Development Ltd. (Plan Vivo Foundation) (2001-present) Project development, carbon standards, Director :- Borders Forest Trust (Environmental NGO) (1996-present) Carbon sales in the voluntary market from afforestation Supply Manager :- Green ergy Bioenergy, supply of woody biomass for energy production (2006 – January 2009) Bioenergy supply Founder & Managing Director :- Edinburgh Centre for Carbon Management (1996-2006) Forestry and land use change carbon consultancy, research and project development Trustee :- Scottish Forestry Trust:- Forestry research Trustee :– Scottish Power Green Energy Trust, Small scale renewable energy grant awards
  3. 3. Presentation contents <ul><li>What biomass to count? </li></ul><ul><li>Woody biomass and climate change? </li></ul><ul><li>Data sources and reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring carbon in trees and forests </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainties in data </li></ul><ul><li>Politics in counting carbon </li></ul><ul><li>The future </li></ul>
  4. 4. What biomass to count? <ul><li>Biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon based and is composed of a mixture of organic molecules </li></ul>
  5. 5. Woody biomass and climate change <ul><li>Kyoto Protocol Articles </li></ul><ul><li>Article 2.1 – protection and enhancement of sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases & promotion of sustainable forest management activities </li></ul><ul><li>Article 3.3 – the net changes in GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks…….limited to afforestation, deforestation and deforestation since 1990… </li></ul><ul><li>Article 3.4 – allows accounting for carbon stock changes……arising from other activities including the management of forests </li></ul>
  6. 6. Woody biomass and climate change 1. Uptake in new growth forest planting, regeneration 2. Enhance sink of existing forests fertilisation 3. Reduce emissions from existing forests continuous cover 4. Reduce deforestation longer rotations 5. Increase storage in products new timber products 6. Materials and FF substitution substitution bioenergy Intact Forest Products 1 2 3 4 5 6
  7. 7. Data sources and reporting <ul><li>Biomass data for carbon accounting in the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry Sector (LULUCF) </li></ul><ul><li>National Environmental Technology Centre NETCEN – prepare main UK Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse Gas Inventories for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland 1990-2006 [AEA Technology September 2008] </li></ul><ul><li>Development of a UK based forest carbon inventory is undertaken by Forest Research </li></ul><ul><li>Centre for Ecology and Hydrology lead the Land Use Change and Forestry Sector data – use carbon accounting model </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Scottish Forestry Strategy Implementation Plan 2007-2008 Annual Net Carbon Savings – 10.5MtC (from 2006)? </li></ul><ul><li>Net CO 2 emissions (MtCO 2 )from LULUCF activities in Scotland (GHGEI 1990 -2006, AEAT) </li></ul><ul><li>2001 -4.0MtCo2 </li></ul><ul><li>2002 -4.2MtCo2 </li></ul><ul><li>2003 -4.2MtCo2 </li></ul><ul><li>2004 -4.6MtCo2 </li></ul><ul><li>2005 -4.6MtCo2 </li></ul><ul><li>2006 -4.5MtCo2 </li></ul><ul><li>LULUCF CO2 uptake approximates to 7.6% of Scotland’s total CO 2 emissions (MtCo2 equivalent) total in 2006 </li></ul>Data sources and reporting
  9. 9. <ul><li>Methods for of modelling carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Process Based Modelling (PBM) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Accounting Modelling (CAM </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement of carbon flux </li></ul>Modelling carbon in trees and forests Robert Matthews Forest Research Biometrics, Surveys and Statistics Division Alice Holt Research Station, Farnham
  10. 10. Modelling carbon in trees and forests Atmospheric carbon Woody biomass Non-woody biomass Wood products Dead wood and litter Soil organic matter
  11. 11. Modelling carbon in trees and forests <ul><li>Process Based Models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>radiation is intercepted by the canopy, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>converted to assimilates, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allocated to foliage, stem & roots, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lost to respiration, litterfall & root turnover </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>C-FLOW used by CEH for GHGEI - Tier 3 under IPCC definitions (2 types of input data and two sets of parameters) </li></ul><ul><li>CARBINE – Forestry Commission – modelling forests </li></ul><ul><li>A-SORT & B-SORT – Forestry Commission – modelling wood products </li></ul>Modelling carbon in trees and forests
  13. 13. <ul><li>Measurement of stock change by periodic inventory </li></ul>Modelling carbon in trees and forests <ul><li>0.33-0.45tm3 softwood, 0.49-0.56tm3 hardwood </li></ul><ul><li>One cubic metre of green timber contains approximately </li></ul><ul><ul><li>500 kg water (50% moisture content) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>250 kg carbon or ~910 kgCO 2 </li></ul></ul>Robert Matthews Forest Research Biometrics, Surveys and Statistics Division Alice Holt Research Station, Farnham
  14. 14. DEWAR, R.C. AND CANNELL, M.G.R. (1992) Carbon sequestration in the trees, products and soils of forest plantations: an analysis using UK examples. Tree Physiology 11, 49-71 Modelling carbon in trees and forests
  15. 15. <ul><li>Based on Forestry Commission Yield Tables (Edwards and Christie 1981) </li></ul><ul><li>Dewar and Cannell (1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Cannell and Dewar (1995) </li></ul>Modelling carbon in trees and forests
  16. 16. <ul><li>Monitoring carbon exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Net ecosystem flux is measured </li></ul><ul><li>4 long term flux stations – Griffin near Aberfeldy </li></ul><ul><li>Drawback is cost </li></ul><ul><li>The rate of carbon accumulation in a Sitka spruce plantation in Scotland 6 tonnes of carbon per hectare per annum** </li></ul>Modelling carbon in trees and forests **Clement, R., Moncrieff, J.B., and Jarvis, P.G. 2003, Net Productivity of Sitka Spruce Forest in Scotland. Scottish Forestry , Vol. 57, No.1 pp5-10
  17. 17. Modelling carbon in trees and forests A summary of the carbon exchange (in tonnes of carbon per hectare per year) associated with the main components of oak woodland (general yield class 6 m3 ha-1 yr-1) at the Straits Enclosure flux station in Hampshire. For comparison with the value for increment given here (4.0 tC ha-1 yr-1), a value of 3.8 tC ha-1 yr-1 was obtained for net ecosystem exchange in 2000 using eddy correlation. Note that the quantity of carbon added to the soil carbon stock on an annual basis is unknown and, if significant, would reduce the quantity of carbon lost through litter decay. Adapted from BROADMEADOW, M AND MATTHEWS, R.W. (2003) Forests, Carbon and Climate Change: the UK Contribution Research Information Note, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh Respiration 5.9 Net increase in soil carbon ? New litter input from Foliage 2.0 Seeds 0.6 Wood 1.1 Understorey 0.4 Total 4.1 Net primary productivity (new biomass) 14.0 – 5.9 = 8.1 Net removal of CO2 from atmosphere 14.0 - 5.9 – 4.1 = 4.0 Decay of litter 4.1 - ? = ? Gross primary productivity (photosynthesis) 14.0 Increment (net biomass accumulation) to Stem wood 2.7 Roots 0.5 Branches 0.5 Shrubs 0.3 Total 4.0
  18. 18. Uncertainties in data Robert Matthews Forest Research Biometrics, Surveys and Statistics Division Alice Holt Research Station, Farnham
  19. 19. Uncertainties in data <ul><li>Limitations of forest and woodland statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Imprecise categorisation of woodland </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete data capture – non FCS funded establishment </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations of the carbon models </li></ul><ul><li>Shortening rotation lengths </li></ul><ul><li>No thinning </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted use and availability of species data </li></ul>
  20. 20. Politics <ul><li>Scottish Government News 18 th September 2007 – DROP IN GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>BBC News 18 th September 2008 – RISE IN GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  21. 21. Politics
  22. 22. Politics <ul><li>The FCTU have welcomed today's announcement by the Scottish Conservatives that they will oppose any proposals to lease out parts of the National Forest Estate to private investors and we now call on the Scottish Government to acknowledge the widespread opposition expressed through their own consultation and to withdraw the proposals without delay. </li></ul><ul><li>9 FEBRUARY 2009NEWS RELEASE No: 12178 </li></ul><ul><li>Woodland Creation &quot;must happen&quot; says Minister </li></ul><ul><li>Scotland must plant enough trees to cover a space 25 times the size of Edinburgh if it is to complete its vision of 25 per cent woodland cover by 2050. </li></ul><ul><li>Announcing a woodland expansion strategy paper today, Environment Minster Michael Russell said that an increase in woodland planting must happen and innovative proposals are needed to allow it to happen. </li></ul><ul><li>One option currently out for consultation is to lease some of the national forest estate to allow other companies to manage the forests. The income from this could generate around £200 million and would enable woodland creation rates to more than double to 10,000 hectares a year. </li></ul><ul><li>More trees will play a significant role in fighting climate change and providing many economic, social and other environmental benefits. Currently, around 10 million tonnes of CO2 are locked up by Scotland’s forests each year. If woodland creation rates can be doubled then there is scope for locking up an additional 4.4 million tonnes per year by 2050. </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Future <ul><li>Monitoring of forest carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term carbon flux network (CFN) – Griffin (University of Edinburgh since 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive forest health monitoring EU/ICP-Forests Level II </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent Sample Plots </li></ul><ul><li>UK Woodland Assurance Scheme (UKWAS) </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Condition Monitoring EU/ICP- Forests level I </li></ul><ul><li>UK forest condition survey network (FCS) </li></ul><ul><li>National inventory of woodlands and trees (NIWT) </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Enterprise sub compartment database (SCDB) </li></ul><ul><li>Survey of small woodlands and trees (SSWT) </li></ul><ul><li>Land cover map 2000 (LCM2000) </li></ul><ul><li>More monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Improved modelling </li></ul><ul><li>Updated yield tables </li></ul><ul><li>More precise mensuration data </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>More accurate and precise carbon accounting through research into:- </li></ul><ul><li>growth and yield of native tree species </li></ul><ul><li>tree and stand dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Longevity of timber products </li></ul><ul><li>Forest soils and effects on soils by forest operations </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts of climate change on tree species and forests </li></ul>The Future
  25. 25. Thank you Contact Willie McGhee, Director BioClimate Research & Development 18b Liberton Brae Edinburgh UK EH16 6AE Tel: +44 (0)131 672 3782