Waste | Jim Baird

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Waste | Jim Baird

  1. 1. Carbon Accounting in the Waste Sector<br />Prof Jim Baird<br />Caledonian Environment Centre<br />Glasgow Caledonian University<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Scotland’s Waste<br /><ul><li>Households
  3. 3. 3.2 Million Tonnes
  4. 4. Offices/Schools/Shops/Industry
  5. 5. 8.4 Million Tonnes
  6. 6. Construction and Demolition
  7. 7. 10.4 Million Tonnes</li></ul>2<br />
  8. 8. Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC)<br />Tightened up standards for operation<br />Required pre-treatment of waste prior to landfill<br />And Perhaps most significantly:<br />Set targets for the diversion of Biodegradable Municipal Waste<br />Municipal Waste<br />Biodegradable<br />3<br />
  9. 9. Definitions<br />Municipal Waste<br />EU - waste from households, as well as other waste, which, because of its nature or composition, is similar to waste from household<br />UK – Waste Collected by or on behalf of the Local Authority<br />Biodegradable<br />Any waste that is capable of undergoing anaerobic or aerobic decomposition, such as; food and garden waste; and paper and cardboard<br />Leads to Biodegradable Municipal Waste (BMW)<br />4<br />
  10. 10. Effect of Recycling on Biodegradable tonnage<br />3.2Mt/yr<br />2.5Mt/yr<br />1.2<br />Landfill Directive Targets<br />1.0<br />2.0<br />1.5<br />1.32<br />0.88<br />0.6<br />2020<br />2013<br />2010<br />2002/3<br />2005/6<br />5<br />
  11. 11. Implications<br /><ul><li>By 2010 – need 300kt/yr treatment capacity
  12. 12. 5 of these</li></ul>6<br />
  13. 13. Implications<br /><ul><li>Or
  14. 14. 4 of these</li></ul>7<br />
  15. 15. Implications<br /><ul><li>Or a lot more of this:</li></ul>8<br />
  16. 16. Or Even better -<br />9<br />
  17. 17. Evolving Drivers – Recycling Targets<br /><ul><li>Scotland currently recycles/composts around 30% of MSW
  18. 18. New recycling/composting targets:
  19. 19. 40% by 2010
  20. 20. 50% by 2013
  21. 21. 60% by 2020
  22. 22. 70% by 2025
  23. 23. New National Waste Plan with single outcome agreements for each local authorities
  24. 24. Max. 25% mixed waste treated using efficient energy technologies (e.g. EfW)</li></ul>10<br />
  25. 25. First Wave:<br />Recycling and Composting<br />11<br />
  26. 26. CO2 E<br />CO2 E<br />Resources<br />Resources<br />CO2 E<br />Landfill<br />Householders (Councils)<br />Waste<br />Sector<br />Energy Sector<br />Manufacturing Sector<br />Business Consumers<br />Reprocessor<br />Materials<br />EfW<br />12<br />
  27. 27. Current Situation -41%Recycling<br />An Example Council<br />Population: 60,000 households<br />13<br />
  28. 28. Increased Recycling – 52% Recycling<br />14<br />An Example Council<br />Population: 60,000 households<br />
  29. 29. Carbon Impacts – 4 Components<br />Collection – vehicles locally collecting waste<br />Local Reprocessing – includes transport to markets<br />Displacing Virgin Material<br />Landfilling residual<br />15<br />
  30. 30. Displacement of Virgin Materials<br />16<br />
  31. 31. Carbon Emissions – Recycling Programmes<br />17<br />
  32. 32. Carbon Emissions – Recycling Programmes<br />18<br />
  33. 33. Carbon Emissions – Recycling Programmes<br />19<br />
  34. 34. Carbon Emissions – Recycling Programmes<br />20<br />
  35. 35. Carbon Emissions – Recycling Programmes<br />21<br />
  36. 36. Scotland’s Emissions Mt CO2E<br />22<br />
  37. 37. Scotland’s Carbon Emissions (CO2E)<br />Scotland<br />Scotland’s Waste Sector<br />2.36Mt (4%)<br />59Mt<br /><ul><li>Fugitive landfill Emissions
  38. 38. Gas Recovery
  39. 39. Energy Sector
  40. 40. Industrial Processes
  41. 41. Agriculture
  42. 42. Land Use/Forestry
  43. 43. Waste
  44. 44. Collection
  45. 45. Reprocessing
  46. 46. Recycled materials</li></ul>23<br />
  47. 47. Impact of Scotland’s Municipal Waste<br />3.2Mt/yr to manage – two scenarios<br />Scenario 1 No recycling – all waste to landfill<br />Scenario 2 52% recycling – remainder to landfill<br />Expanding of kerbside collection services<br />Recycling Centres<br />Focus of organic materials being recovered<br />24<br />
  48. 48. Impact of Scotland’s Municipal Waste<br />25<br />
  49. 49. CO2 E<br />CO2 E<br />Resources<br />Resources<br />CO2 E<br />Landfill<br />Householders (Councils)<br />Waste<br />Sector<br />Energy Sector<br />Manufacturing Sector<br />Business Consumers<br />Reprocessor<br />Materials<br />EfW<br />26<br />
  50. 50. Waste Management Contributing to Scotland’s Carbon Reduction Programme<br />Landfill Diversion – helping to reduce the 2.36Mt/yr<br />BMW reductions help – Landfill gas as energy recovery remains critical<br />Doesn’t address commercial organic wastes though<br />Recycling – helping to reduce the 59Mt/yr<br />Small contribution to emissions from collection<br />Through raw material substitution – major contribution<br />Yet what fiscal carbon mechanism works to support the waste sector?<br />none<br />27<br />
  51. 51. But what about Waste Prevention<br />Avoiding the production of waste is best<br />Taking a basket of materials (Paper/card/plastic/textiles/glass/metals)<br />Avoided CO2 per tonne of material (USEPA data)<br />Apply 10% reduction of these materials across MSW and C&I waste streams in Scotland<br />Predicts 1Mt/yr in CO2TE emissions reduction!<br />28<br />
  52. 52. Waste Supporting Carbon Reduction<br />Well targeted waste policies have a compounding effect and could contribute 6% towards Scotland’s 80% reduction targets<br />29<br />
  53. 53. To Conclude:<br />Waste Management can play an important role in reducing Scotland’s GHG Emissions<br />The IPCC Reporting Mechanisms limit the extent to which the waste sector is credited for its contribution.<br />30<br />

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