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Global Protocol for Community Scale GHG Accounting | Susan Carstairs

  1. Global Protocol for Community Scale GHG Accounting September 2014 Susan Carstairs
  2. 2 Purpose of study • To learn about the degree of our dependence on fossil fuels • To test the feasibility of applying the GPC • To examine whether a local account could assist in motivating action on emissions reduction
  3. 3 Trial application in Lochaber
  4. 4 Results 80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 CO2e t
  5. 5 Reflections on results Per capita figure high at 18.77t CO2e vs Highland 9.5t (DECC 2013) Presence of large industries - Smelting 3.39t - Quarrying 2.61t Inclusion of areas not normally accounted - Fishing 1.2t Geographical factors - Use of energy at home per HH - Lochaber 7.39t Scottish average 6.2t (CCF) - Road transport - Lochaber 3.8t Scottish average 2t (DECC)
  6. 6 Comments on data compilation • High quality data – Electricity from DECC – Non electricity fuel data contributed from public bodies and local industries – Transport fuel data contributed for fishing, passenger railways, steam train – MSW from Highland Council – Industrial emissions reported to SEPA through SPRI – Livestock based on June census
  7. 7 Data cont. • Medium quality data – Use of fuels other than electricity – Road transport based on DfT AADF – Rail freight based on research (Clarke and Van Kalles) – Waste water emissions based on population • Low quality data – Off grid gas data not available
  8. 8 Comments on value of GPC • Clear and consistent with UK national inventory • Use of energy needs to be disaggregated • Transport emissions complex • Tourism has a very significant effect – on transport but also on waste and energy
  9. 9 Last but not least • Consumption emissions not accounted - both higher than territorial and rising rather than falling (Barrett et al, 2013) • ICLEI – USA and PAS 2070 propose ways to deal with this through a hybrid account • GLA has carried out a trial assessment of PAS 2070 for London (BSI, 2014)
  10. 10 London • Three reports for 2010 • London Energy and Greenhouse Gas Inventory – 5.51t CO2e per cap • Direct Plus Supply Chain – 10.05t CO2e per cap • Consumption Based Methodology – 14.15t CO2e per cap
  11. 11 Is it useful? • To motivate local action on reduction - Initial meetings with businesses, public sector bodies and environmental activists - Clear interest in a local account - Need to be integrated with local government efforts • To understand the nature of our dependence
  12. 12 References ARIKAN, Y, DESAI, R, BHATIA, P and FONG, W.K, 2012a, Global Protocol for Community Scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GPC) version 0.9, C40 Cities and ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability Barrett, J, Peters, G, Wiedmann, T, Scott, K, Lenzen, M, Roelich, K, Le Quere, C, 2013, Consumption based GHG emission Accounting: a UK case study, Climate Policy, 13 (4) 451-470 Brander, M, Carstairs, S, Topp, KFE, 2013, Global protocol for community scale greenhouse gas emissions, Greenhouse Gas Measurement and Management, 3 (3-4), pp149-165 British Standards Institution, 2013, PAS 2070: specification for the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions of a city, British Standards Institution, 2014, Application of PAS 2070 – London United Kingdom, BSI Standards Authority, London Clarke, G and Van Kalles, M, 2011, Emissions Benchmarking: considering the viability of a rail freight study, AECOM, Dept for Transport Druckman, A, Buck, I, Hayward, B, Jackson, T, 2012, Time gender and carbon: A study of the carbon implications of British adults’ use of time, Ecological Economics, 84, pp153-163 ICLEI-USA, 2012, US Community protocol for accounting and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions, Kennedy, C, Steinberger, J, Gasson B, Hansen, Y Hillman, T, Havranek, M, Pataki, D, Phdungsilp, A, Ramaswami,A, Mendez, GV, 2010, Methodology for inventorying greenhouse gas emissions from global cities, Energy Policy, Vol 38 pp 4828- 4837

Editor's Notes

  1. Understanding 2. GPC draft 0.9 issued in March 2012 and this was the version used the aim was to see how easy it would be to access the data required with relatively few resources of time and money And to reflect on whether the information gave the basis for understanding and action 3. Use of energy in the home constitutes
  2. Lochaber – 2 wards of Highland Council 5180 square kilometres Population 19930 HC ward data Fort William 6129, Caol and corpach 4864 + Kinlochleven 914, Spean Bridge 881, Mallaig 858, and 16 villages Extremely rugged terrain Ben Nevis, crofting, fishing, farming, aluminium, quarrying