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Carbon management and rural livelihoods | Elaine Muir


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Plan Vivo Foundation

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Carbon management and rural livelihoods | Elaine Muir

  1. 1. Plan Vivo – Carbon management and rural livelihoods• The Voluntary Forest Carbon market• Voluntary Carbon Standards• The Plan Vivo Standard• Applicability of The Plan Vivo Standard to forestry in Scotland Contact Elaine Muir email: Tel: 0131 672 3782 | Fax: 0131 672 9299 Tower Mains Studios 18b Liberton Brae Edinburgh EH16 6AE 1
  2. 2. The Voluntary Carbon market• Not required by the law, not regulated by overarching authority• Credits known as VERs• Companies and individuals offset their emissions on a voluntary basis to claim climate or carbon neutrality• Standards have been developed to provide transparency and quality assurance• Voluntary carbon market transacted about 131 million tCO₂ in 2010• Largest share of sales = REDD (29%), A/R (around 8%)• Innovation and experimentation for future compliance schemes 2
  3. 3. Why voluntary markets for forest carbon?• Compliance markets NOT working for land-use• Costly, complex and bureaucratic 3
  4. 4. Voluntary forest carbon standards• Increase transparency• Provide quality assurance CAR 2% CCB + VCS 2% CCB Other 3% 6% SGS 4% ISO 14064 37% Plan Vivo 10% VCS + ACR 35% 4
  5. 5. The Plan Vivo System and StandardsPlan Vivo: a standard and system• Tailored for projects working with rural communities to conserve and restore ecosystems and build sustainable livelihoodsHistory of Plan Vivo Stems from a 1994 DFID funded research project in Mexico Objective: to assess whether rural communities can access carbon finance 5
  6. 6. How does it work? What is a plan vivo?• Range of activities: Afforestation/reforestation, agroforestry, forest conservation and restoration• Participatory planning: Participants draw up plan vivos (management plans)• Individual (smallholder) or group (e.g. community forest) 6
  7. 7. How are carbon services quantified?The project generates technical specifications for each land-use.• Additionality• Baseline (absence of project)• Project scenario• Leakage• Risks to sustainability e.g. fire(determine risk buffer level 10-30%) 7
  8. 8. Carbon benefits of different land-use activities over time Avoided deforestation Afforestation / agroforestry Project ProjectCarbon stock Baseline Baseline 20-40 years Approximate carbon benefits Approximate carbon benefits • 40 tC/ha miombo woodland • 15 tC/ha agroforestry systems • 120 tC/ha secondary tropical forest • 60 tC/ha mixed use plantations • 200 tC/ha primary tropical forest • 100 tC/ha tropical hardwoods Multiply by 3.67 for CO2e 8
  9. 9. Transacting carbon services (PES agreements)• Project enters into agreements with individual producers or community groups for their carbon services• E.g. farmer, 1ha afforestation, agrees to sell 300 tCO₂ at $3.60/ tonne Community banker in Kiyanga issuing a PES payment to a producer, TFGB project 9
  10. 10. How are results monitored?Monitoring and furtherextension supportprovided by local staff,with assistance andoversight(emphasis on transferof technical capacity,gradualdecentralisation ofroles) 10
  11. 11. Conditional payments for ecosystem servicesYear Target/milestone Payment1 33% plot established $/ local currency2 66% plot established3 100% established5 85% survival + average dbh710…15… 11
  12. 12. Achievements so far• Projects under development or operational in 14 countries• >4500 participants with plan vivos• >20,000 hectares under management• ~$6 million channelled to developing countries• 1,000,000 tCO2 certified to date 12
  13. 13. The Markit Environmental Registry• Ensuring transparency and traceability• Example serial numberPV-PVC-UG-100000000000171-01012010-31122010-1539717-1569716-MER-0-A 13
  14. 14. How is PES financed? 14
  15. 15. Certificate Issuance history 15
  16. 16. How is finance shared? Certification $0.35 Verification, marketing? $0.65 Admin’ monitoring, etc Example price: $1.40 $6 / tCO2 Staged payment to• Producers must receive an communities/ equitable share producers $3.60 16
  17. 17. Project example: Trees for Global Benefits• Set up in 2003• Coordinated by Ecotrust• Scaling-up from 30 to 700 over 7 years• Expansion to new activities• Further expansion to REDD+• Socio-economic impact study showing poverty reduction• Links to microfinance 17
  18. 18. The Plan Vivo Standard: applicability to the Woodland Carbon Code Similarities Differences• Both set out robust • Focus on developing requirements for voluntary countries carbon projects, enabling • Focus on communities and consistent measurement of benefit sharing, to break carbon uptake cycle of poverty and• Both have a system of environmental degradation. independent quality assurance 18
  19. 19. ContactElaine Muirelaine@planvivofoundation.orgTel: 0131 672 3782 | Fax: 0131 672 9299Tower Mains Studios18b Liberton BraeEdinburgh EH16 6AE 19