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Replicate Strategy in REPLICATE EC-H2020-Smart Cities Lighthouse Project

This is the presentation delivered on 17th September 2020 to the rest of the 16 Lighthouse project. This presentation showed the main findings of the following article in Open Access: To cite this article: Calzada, I. (2020), Replicating Smart Cities: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Cities 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartcities3030049. To access and download the article: https://www.mdpi.com/2624-6511/3/3/49

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Calzada, I. (2020),
Replica3ng Smart Ci3es:
The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project,
Smart Ci)es 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartci3es3030049.
REPLICATION Strategy:
City-to-City Learning
Dr Igor Calzada, MBA, FeRSA
University of Oxford
www.igorcalzada.com/publications
Replication Task Group Meeting
17th Sept 2020
Replication strategy in Fellow Cities
Calzada, I. (2020),
Replica3ng Smart Ci3es:
The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project,
Smart Ci)es 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartci3es3030049.
OUTLINE
1. RATIONALE
2. EMPOWERING FELLOW CITIES (from the early beginning)
3. HOW HAVE WE PROCEEDED?
4. REPLICATION STRATEGY in REPLICATE
5. CONCLUSIONS: 5 Conclusions + 5 Policy Recommendations
Calzada, I. (2020),
Replica3ng Smart Ci3es:
The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project,
Smart Ci)es 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartci3es3030049.
1. RATIONALE
Calzada, I. (2020),
Replica3ng Smart Ci3es:
The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project,
Smart Ci)es 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartci3es3030049.
According to a policy report on Replication by the
EC in 2018:
• Replication is like the quest for the Holy Grail:
everyone is searching but no one seems to be
able to find it (IRIS project, Gothenburg,
2019)
• The replication of smart urban energy, mobility
and ICT solutions for an European urban
future may be difficult to achieve.
• Nevertheless, replication can be FACILITATED
through a network of lighthouse and
follower/fellow cities’ stakeholders by putting
them learning from each other.
• It is what we have been implementing for the
whole year 2019.
• Starting from February 2016, engaging
Follower/Fellow cities’ representatives and
stakeholders.
1. Rationale
1. Rationale
Calzada, I. (2020),
Replicating Smart Cities:
The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project,
Smart Cities 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartcities3030049.
1. Rationale
• 1. How to address the issue of replication among smart cities in the
H2020-SCC FP?
• 2. Since 2016, we have been researching on this question, to better
informed Replicate lighthouse and fellow cities and implement a
policy-informed and robust action research approach for Replication
in Replicate:
Why might replication not be happening among smart cities as a
1. unidirectional,
2. hierarchical,
3. mechanistic,
4. solutionist, and
5. technocratic process?

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Replicate Strategy in REPLICATE EC-H2020-Smart Cities Lighthouse Project

  • 1. Calzada, I. (2020), Replica3ng Smart Ci3es: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Ci)es 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartci3es3030049. REPLICATION Strategy: City-to-City Learning Dr Igor Calzada, MBA, FeRSA University of Oxford www.igorcalzada.com/publications Replication Task Group Meeting 17th Sept 2020 Replication strategy in Fellow Cities
  • 2. Calzada, I. (2020), Replica3ng Smart Ci3es: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Ci)es 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartci3es3030049. OUTLINE 1. RATIONALE 2. EMPOWERING FELLOW CITIES (from the early beginning) 3. HOW HAVE WE PROCEEDED? 4. REPLICATION STRATEGY in REPLICATE 5. CONCLUSIONS: 5 Conclusions + 5 Policy Recommendations
  • 3. Calzada, I. (2020), Replica3ng Smart Ci3es: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Ci)es 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartci3es3030049. 1. RATIONALE
  • 4. Calzada, I. (2020), Replica3ng Smart Ci3es: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Ci)es 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartci3es3030049. According to a policy report on Replication by the EC in 2018: • Replication is like the quest for the Holy Grail: everyone is searching but no one seems to be able to find it (IRIS project, Gothenburg, 2019) • The replication of smart urban energy, mobility and ICT solutions for an European urban future may be difficult to achieve. • Nevertheless, replication can be FACILITATED through a network of lighthouse and follower/fellow cities’ stakeholders by putting them learning from each other. • It is what we have been implementing for the whole year 2019. • Starting from February 2016, engaging Follower/Fellow cities’ representatives and stakeholders. 1. Rationale
  • 6. Calzada, I. (2020), Replicating Smart Cities: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Cities 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartcities3030049. 1. Rationale • 1. How to address the issue of replication among smart cities in the H2020-SCC FP? • 2. Since 2016, we have been researching on this question, to better informed Replicate lighthouse and fellow cities and implement a policy-informed and robust action research approach for Replication in Replicate: Why might replication not be happening among smart cities as a 1. unidirectional, 2. hierarchical, 3. mechanistic, 4. solutionist, and 5. technocratic process?
  • 7. Calzada, I. (2020), Replicating Smart Cities: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Cities 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartcities3030049. 2. EMPOWERING FELLOW CITIES (from the early beginning)
  • 8. Calzada, I. (2020), Replicating Smart Cities: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Cities 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartcities3030049. 2. Empowering Fellow Cities in REPLICATE: Since Feb. 2016
  • 9. Calzada, I. (2020), Replicating Smart Cities: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Cities 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartcities3030049. 3. HOW HAVE WE PROCEEDED?
  • 10. Calzada, I. (2020), Replicating Smart Cities: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Cities 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartcities3030049. 3. How have we proceeded? Conducting Action Research/Social Innovation ’It is tempting, if the only tool you have is a hammer, to treat everything as if it were a nail’ (Maslow, 1966)
  • 11. Calzada, I. (2020), Replicating Smart Cities: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Cities 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartcities3030049. 3. How have we proceeded? Five Transitions (from Social Innovation)
  • 12. Calzada, I. (2020), Replicating Smart Cities: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Cities 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartcities3030049. www.replicate-project.eu/city2citylearning 3. How have we proceeded? City-to-City Learning Programme
  • 13. Calzada, I. (2020), Replicating Smart Cities: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Cities 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartcities3030049. 3. How have we proceeded? Generic Benchmarking on Replication H2020
  • 14. Calzada, I. (2020), Replicating Smart Cities: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Cities 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartcities3030049. 4. REPLICATION STRATEGY IN REPLICATE
  • 15. Calzada, I. (2020), Replicating Smart Cities: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Cities 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartcities3030049. The Main Objective was to reach replicable and adaptive solutions for the Fellow Cities. Specific Objectives were: 2016: Tast 1. SINGULARITY To assess Fellow Cities’ Critical Factors 2017-2018: Task 2. SCALABILITY To analyse Fellow Cities’ Multi-Stakeholders composition (via Penta Helix*) 2019: Task 3. ADAPTABILITY To promote a sharing participative environment organising networking activities particularly among all Replicate Cities’ (Lighthouse and Fellow) stakeholders: Outcome > https://replicate-project.eu/city2citylearning 2020: Task 4. REPLICABILITY To finally enable formulating REPLICATION PLANS by the three Fellow Cities (Ongoing). 4. Replication Strategy in REPLICATE: 4 Tasks *Calzada, I. (2021) Smart City Citizenship, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc. ISBN: 978-0-12-815300-0.
  • 16. Calzada, I. (2020), Replicating Smart Cities: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Cities 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartcities3030049. 1> Singularity (Task 1) 2> Scalability (Task 2) 3> Adaptability (Task 3) Resulting in: City-to-City-Learning Programme for 4> Replicability (Task 4) Lighthouse Cities Fellow Cities 4. Replication Strategy in REPLICATE: 4 Tasks
  • 17. Calzada, I. (2020), Replicating Smart Cities: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Cities 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartcities3030049. Task 2: Multi-Stakeholders’ Composition Survey + 3 Validation Workshops Task 3: City-to-City- Learning Programme 6 Webinars D8.5: Weblink www.replicate- project.eu/city2 citylearning D8.4: Report PENTA HELIX FRAMEWORK: MULTI-STAKEHOLDERS’ NETWORK BEHAVIOUR PRIVATE SECTOR PUBLIC SECTOR CIVIL GROUPS SCIENCE & ACADEMIA SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS SMART CITY SECTOR ICT Energy Mobility D8.6 Essen RP D8.7 Nilüfer RP D8.8 Lausanne RP 2017-2018 Task 2. Achieved 2019 Task 3. Achieved 2020 Task 4. Ongoing Task 1: Critical Factors’ Assessment 3 Workshops 2016 Task 1. Achieved D8.1 Essen CFA D8.2 Nilüfer CFA D8.3 Lausanne CFA 4. Replication Strategy in REPLICATE: 4 Tasks Task 4: Replication Plans
  • 18. Calzada, I. (2020), Replicating Smart Cities: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Cities 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartcities3030049. LAUSANNE 6th June 2016 ESSEN 3rd November 2016 NILÜFER 29th November 2016 1. While Essen focused substantially on Energy policies, as a consequence of being appointed European Green Capital, Lausanne and Nilüfer showed rather more diversified picture. 2. Lausanne’s preferences blended Mobility and Energy. 3. Nilüfer, ultimately highligthed its singular context characterised by a strong Legal, Political/Institutional, and Economic/Financial path-dependency. Task 1: Critical Factors’ Assessment (through 3 Workshops)2016: 25 Participants 30 Participants 70 Participants 4. Replication Strategy in REPLICATE: Task 1: Singularity
  • 19. Calzada, I. (2020), Replicating Smart Cities: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Cities 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartcities3030049. 2017- 2018: Task 2: Multi-stakeholders’ Composition: Through Survey & 3 Validation Workshops 1. SURVEY: 35 QUESTIONS • Data collection time-frame: • 25 July 2017 – 25 July 2018. 2. VALIDATION WORKSHOPS: 10 + 1 QUESTIONS • Essen: 19th September 2017. 14 participants • Lausanne: 12th December 2017. 8 Participants • Nilüfer: 29th May 2018. 41 participants 4. Replication Strategy in REPLICATE: Task 2: Scalability
  • 20. Calzada, I. (2020), Replicating Smart Cities: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Cities 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartcities3030049.
  • 21. Calzada, I. (2020), Replicating Smart Cities: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Cities 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartcities3030049. 1/1. PUBLIC SMART LIGHTING 1/2. LINKED OPEN DATA 1/3. SMART MOBILITY PLATFORM 2/1. START-UP PROMOTION (CAMP ESSEN) 2/2. IMPACT HUB RUHR 2/3. ESSEN 51 3/1. E-TAXIES 3/2. E-RECHARGING SYSTEM 3/3. SMART CITY PLATFORM 4/1. PLAINES-DU-LOUP ECO-DISTRICT 4/2. PLAINES-DU-LOUP: GEOTHERMAL ENERGY 4/3. EQUIWATT, ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAMME: ECO-SOCIAL OPERATIONS 5/1. METHODOLOGIES TO CO-DESIGN 5/2. OPEN DATA MOVEMENT 5/3. ONE CITY APPROACH 6/1. GRASSROOTS EMPOWERMENT 6/2. BOTTOM-UP ENERGY EFFICIENCY 6/3. INDUSTRIAL SPIN-OFF ECOLOGIES 2019 Task 3: City-to-City-Learning Programme Through 6 Webinars www.replicate-project.eu/city2citylearning 5 Feb 21 Mar 7 May 9 Jul 26 Sep 20 Nov 4. Replication Strategy in REPLICATE: Task 3: Adaptability
  • 22. Calzada, I. (2020), Replicating Smart Cities: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Cities 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartcities3030049. 2020 Task 4: Replication Plans 4. Replication Strategy in REPLICATE: Task 4: Replicability www.replicate-project.eu/city2citylearning
  • 23. Calzada, I. (2020), Replicating Smart Cities: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Cities 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartcities3030049. 5. CONCLUSIONS: 5 Conclusions + 5 Policy Recommendations
  • 24. Calzada, I. (2020), Replicating Smart Cities: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Cities 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartcities3030049. 5. Conclusions Smart Cities journal article (OA)
  • 25. 5. Conclusions: 5 Policy Recomendations 1. Conclusion: Unidirectional < Multidirectional Unidirectional replication strategies may not be readily adopted by FC primarily because of the lack of adaptability to local contexts and possibly due to the fact that cities require more complex and elaborated interventions to achieve broad social acceptance. 1. Policy Recommendation: As City-to-City Learning Programme showed, stakeholders from different cities engaged in conversations tailored not only to solutions but also to their specific problems, particularly now in the unique post-COVID-19 smart cities’ era.
  • 26. 5. Conclusions: 5 Policy Recomendations 2. Conclusion: Hierarchical < Radial The given hierarchical model might, not necessarily, but even unwittingly, exclude the perspectives and interests of citizens and particular groups of stakeholders. 2. Policy Recommendation: The RP of the 3 FC can produce highly relevant content regarding data protection and governance in line with the GDPR, even advancing several aspects not even assessed in the smart city actions of the LC. COVID-19 is showing how important is to be ready for a resilient response to the pandemic in reducing vulnerabilities by which citizens are increasingly exposed when using public transport.
  • 27. 5. Conclusions: 5 Policy Recomendations 3. Conclusion: Mechanistic < Dynamic During the City-to-City Learning Programme, stakeholders from FC further asked specific questions about adapting, tailoring, prototyping, or scaling up certain tested interventions. 3. Policy Recommendation: The identification of a different typology of stakeholders and, particularly, specific stakeholders in each city now allows FC to follow a dynamic approach.
  • 28. 5. Conclusions: 5 Policy Recomendations 4. Conclusion: Solutionist < Iterative The fourth conclusion is related to the iterative nature of the decision-making process in each FC rather than copy-pasting solutions. 4. Policy Recommendation: Due to the iterative process beyond the solutionist logic, FC have included two main aspects in their RPs: (i) Data governance and how to protect citizens’ digital vulnerabilities (ii) Specific pandemic measurements
  • 29. 5. Conclusions: 5 Policy Recomendations 5. Conclusion: Technocratic < Democratic Smart cities purely replicating models may thus end up clearly fostering the lack of democratic accountability and thus, inevitably neutralizing even the watchdog role of local stakeholders. 5. Policy Recommendation: There is significant room for manoeuvre for local stakeholders in their ability to pick and choose, adapt, and prototype between innumerable intervention models and networks.
  • 30. Calzada, I. (2020), Replica3ng Smart Ci3es: The City-to-City Learning Programme in the Replicate EC-H2020-SCC Project, Smart Ci)es 3(3): 978-1003. DOI: 10.3390/smartci3es3030049. Thank you