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APPLIED SOCIAL THEORY: Frankfurt School and Critical Social Theory

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At the Policy department at the University of Birmingham Aston, Dr Calzada delivered the lecture on 'Frankfurt School and Critical Social Theory'. He underlined the importance of this third-way of approaching policy and social issues in-between Marxist and Weberian theory. Jurgen Habermas centred his main contribution and the debate around democracy, digital commons and participation.

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APPLIED SOCIAL THEORY: Frankfurt School and Critical Social Theory

  1. 1. Lecture  7:     Frankfurt  School   Dr  Igor  Calzada  &  Dr  Anton  Popov        
  2. 2. 0.-­‐  INTRO:   The  origin  of  the  School  of   Frankfurt  and  the  CriFcal   Social  Theory    
  3. 3. •  School  of  Social  Theory  and  Philosophy   •  Associated  with  the  Ins7tute  for  Social  Research  at  the   Goethe  University  in  Frankfurt  (Germany)   •  Formed  in  the  interwar  period  in  Germany   •  By  dissidents  who  were  at  home  neither  in  the  existent   capitalist,  fascist  nor  communist  systems   •  Poin7ng  the  possibility  of  an  ALTERNATIVE  path  to  social   development   •  They  sought  to  draw  answers  from  other  schools:   an7posi7vist  sociology,  psychoanalysis,  existencial   philosophy,  and  other  disciplines.   •  Following:  Kant,  Hegel,  Marx,  Freud,  Weber  and  Lukács.  
  4. 4. •  Social  change  (Marx)   •  CriFcal  component  of  theory:  limits  of  posiFvism,   materialism  and  determinism  (Kant)     •  DialecFc  and  contradicFon  (Hegel)  
  5. 5. Cri7cal  Theory   •  The  Frankfurt  School’s   studies  combined   Marxist  analysis  with   Freudian  psychoanalysis   to  form  the  basis  of   what  became  known  as   “Cri7cal  Theory.”      The Frankfort School
  6. 6. The  Frankfort  School  Moved  to   America   •  In  1933,  when  Nazis  came   to  power  in  Germany,  the   members  of  the  Frankfurt   School  fled.  Most  came  to   the  United  States  and  many   became  influen7al  in   American  universi7es,   headquartered  at  Columbia.   •  “Cri7cal  Theory”  also   became  known  as  Cultural   Marxism.   The Coat of Arms for Columbia University
  7. 7.        CriFcal  Theory  was  essen7ally  destruc7ve  cri7cism   of  the  main  elements  of  Western  culture,  including   Chris7anity,  capitalism,  authority,  the  family,   patriarchy,  hierarchy,  morality,  tradi7on,  sexual   restraint,  loyalty,  patrio7sm,  na7onalism,  heredity,   ethnocentrism,  conven7on  and  conserva7sm.            Cri7cal  Theorists  recognized  that  tradiFonal  beliefs   and  the  exisFng  social  structure  would  have  to  be   destroyed  and  then  replaced  with  a  “new  thinking”   that  would  become  as  much  a  part  of  elementary   consciousness  as  the  old  one  had  been.  Their   theories  took  hold  in  the  tumultuous  1960s.    
  8. 8. Ins7tute  for  Social  Research    •  The  first  Marxist  oriented  research  school  was  in  Europe     •  Scholars  at  school  developed  a  cri7cal  theory  of  society  called   kri$sch  Therorie  which  was  designed  for  a  specific  approach   to  interpre7ng  Marxism   •  This  approach  sought  to  revise  Marx’s.  Cri7que  of  capitalism   and  the  idea  that  revolu7on  was  the  best  way  to  change  the   social  and  poli7cal  structure  since  his  death   •  The  first  president  of  the  school  was  Carl  Grundberg,  who   wanted  Scien7fic  Marxism   •  Max  Horkheimer,  the  second  president,  wanted  a  more   philosophical  and  less  dogma7c  approach  which  was  open  to   diverse  intellectual  currents   •  The  dilemma  that  the  first  genera7on  of  Cri7cal  Theorists  had   “to  reconcile  was  Marx’s  emancipatory  dream  with  the  stark   reality  of  modern  society  as  conceptualized  by  Max   Weber”  (pg.  232)  
  9. 9. Ins7tute  for  Social  Research  Cont.   •  The  school  was  restrained  by  Adolf  Hitler  and  had  its   Jewish  members  exiled     •  School  was  relocated  to  Columbia  university  in  1934   •  The  term  Cri7cal  Theory  was  coined  in  1937  (this   concept  was  ini7ally  a  type  of  code  which,  while   differen7a7ng  is  adherents  from  prevailing  forms  of   orthodoxy,  also  tended  to  veil  radical  comments  in  an   environment  that  was  hos7le  to  anything  remotely   associated  with  Marxism)   •  In  1953  school  had  re-­‐established  in  post  Germany   where  they  were  s7ll  subject  to  adack  in  press  and   academia    
  10. 10. Defining  Cri7cal  Theory   •  There  is  no  clear  cut  defini7on  and  the  term   itself  is  confused  with  literary  cri7cism  and   other  approaches  to  social  theory  could  be   consider  cri7cal     •  Cri7cal  theory  offers  a  mul7disciplinary   approach  to  society,  is  subject  to  change  but  is   rooted  in  the  dialec7cal  tradi7on  of  Marx  and   Hegel    
  11. 11. Cri7cal  Theory  Cont.   •  Argues  to  have  six  Marxian  tenets  associated  with  cri7cal   theory  which  are:   1.  We  lie  in  a  society  dominated  by  the  capitalist  mode  of  produc7on,  and  a   society  based  on  exchange  principals  pf  value  and  profit   2.  The  commodity  character  of  products  is  not  simply  determined  by  their   exchange  value,  but  by  their  being  abstractly  exchanged  though  labor   3.  Capitalist  society  ensures  fe7shism  reifica7on   4.  Capitalism  is  not  a  harmonious  social  world.    Contradic7ons  between   socially  generated  illusions  and  actuality  lead  to  poten7al  crisis     5.  The  free  market  is  progressively  replaced  by  the  oligarchies  and   monopolis7c  mass  produc7on  of  standardized  goods   6.  The  progressive  rise  on  the  organic  composi7on  of  capital  per  worker   exacerbates  the  inherently  unstable  accumula7on  processes.  In  order  to   sustain  the  process  its  protagonists  u7lize  all  means  of  available  including   imperialist  expansion        
  12. 12. 1.-­‐  AUTHORS:  SOURCES  
  13. 13. •  The  term  arose  informally  to  describe  the  thinkers   affiliated  at  Frankfurt  Ins7tute  for  Social  Research:   –  Max  Horkheimer   –  Theodor  W.  Adorno   –  Herbert  Marcuse   –  Friedrich  Pollock   –  Erich  Fromm   –  Odo  Kirchheimer   –  Leo  Löwenthal   –  Franz  Leopold  Neumann  
  14. 14. Associated:     •         Siegfried  Kracauer   •         Alfred  Sohn-­‐Rethel   •         Walter  Benjamin     Followers:     •         Jürgen  Habermas   •         Claus  Offe   •         Axel  Honneth   •         Oskar  Negt   •         Alfred  Schmidt   •         Albrecht  Wellmer  
  15. 15. Antonio  Gramsci  and     Georg  Lukacs     •  Gramsci  believed  that  a  “new”  person  must  be  culturally   created  before  a  Marxist  socialist  state  could  succeed.    His   focus  was  on  the  fields  of  educa7on  and  media.   •  Lukacs    thought  that  exis7ng  cultural  norms  had  to  be   destroyed  in  order  to  replace  them  with  the  new,   revolu7onary    Marxist  principles.  He  said,  “I  saw  the   revolu7onary  destrucFon  of  society  as  the  one  and  only   solu7on  to  the  cultural  contradic7ons  of  the  epoch....  Such  a   worldwide  overturning  of  values  cannot  take  place  without   the  annihilaFon  of  the  old  values  and  the  crea7on  of  new   ones  by  the  revolu7onaries.”     •  Together,  they  founded  The  Frankfort  School    
  16. 16. The  Frankfort  School   •  In  1923,  Lukacs  and   other  Marxist   intellectuals  associated   with  the  Communist   Party  of  Germany   founded  the  Ins7tute  of   Social  Research  at   Frankfurt  University  in   Frankfurt,  Germany     Georg Lukacs Antonio Gramsci
  17. 17. G.W.F.  Hegel  (1931-­‐)     •  Hegel’s  Phenomenology  Of  The  Mind  gave   two  important  influences  on  Cri7cal  Theory.     First,  the  cri$que  which  took  form  of  internal   or  immanent  examina7on  of  various  sources   of  decep7on,  illusion,  and  distor7on  the   mind  goes  through  on  the  journey  to   absolute  knowledge.    Second,  the  belief  that   human  history  expresses  an  immanent  telos,   which  is  the  libera7on  of  individual  and   species  from  a  system  of  constraints  of  the   peoples  own  minds.  A  key  component  to   understanding  Hegel  is  that  he  assumes  that   humans  are  driven  by  a  common  interest  in   freedom.  
  18. 18. Georg  (Gyorgy)  Lukacs  (1885-­‐1971)    •  His  publica7on  History  and  Class   Consciousness  argued  “that  subjec7vity   is  annihilated  by  commodity   produc7on”   •  Blended  Marx’s  ideas  of  fe7shism  of   commodi7es  with  the  belief  that   ra7onality  is  penetra7ng  more  spheres   of  modern  life   •  It  is  said  that  Lukacs’  analyses  of   aliena7on,  commodity  fe7shism,   subjec7vity,  consciousness,  and   spontaneous  ac7on  are  the  theore7cal   bridge  to  Cri7cal  theory  
  19. 19. 2.-­‐  CONTRIBUTORS  
  20. 20. MARX  >  Social  Change   HEGEL  >  Dialect  &  ContradicFons   WEBER  >  Modern  society’s  raFonalism     KANT  >  Limits   GRAMSCI  >  Intellectuals  +  Media   LUCAKS  >  DestrucFon  of  society   1.-­‐  ADORNO   2.-­‐  MARCUSE   3.-­‐  HORKHEIMER   4.-­‐  HABERMAS  
  21. 21. 1.-­‐  Theodor  Adorno  (1903-­‐1969)   •  Adempted  to  establish  a  cri7cal  social   consciousness   •  Argued  that  objects  exist  for  us   through  conceptuality   •  In  Nega$ve  Dialec$cs,  he  insisted  that   the  dialec7c  approach  is  not  a  middle   point  between  absolu7sm  and  reality   and  was  against  the  idea  that  cri7cal   theory  should  merely  cri7cize  one   point  of  view  in  favor  of  another    
  22. 22. 2.-­‐  Hebert  Marcuse  (1898-­‐1979)   v  Background   •  Born  in  Berlin  to  a  prosperous  Jewish  family     •  Ajer  serving  in  German  Army  in  WWI,  became  associated  with   the  Social  Democra7c  Party     •  Lej  party  in  1919  in  protest  over  betrayal  of  the  proletariat   •  Went  on  to  study  philosophy  at  the  universi7es  of  Berlin  and   Freiburg   •  In  December  1942  joined  the  Office  of  War  Informa7on  as  a   senior  analyst  in  the  Bureau  of  Intelligence     •  Taught  at  Columbia  and  Harvard   •  While  there  began  research  which  led  to  wri7ng  of  Soviet   Marxism   •  Gained  world  status  during  1960s  as  a  philosopher,  social   theorist,  and  poli7cal  ac7vist   •  Career  represents  a  constant  adempt  to  examine,  defend,  and   reconstruct  Marxist  enterprise  
  23. 23. Concepts  and  Contribu7ons    v  Cri7cal  Theory   •  Stated  that  cri7cal  theory  is  a  process  of  bringing   consciousness  poten7ali7es  that  have  emerged  within  the   maturing  historical  situa7on   •  Is  a  theory  guided  by  poli7cal  prac7ce   •  Marcuse’s  cri7cal  theory  was  influenced  by  Hegel  and  Marx   •  Cri7cal  theory  of  society  is  essen7ally  linked  with  materialism   •  There  are  two  basic  elements  linking  materialism  to  correct   social  theory:     1.  Concern  with  human  happiness   2.  Convic7on  that  it  can  be  adained  through  a  transforma7on  of  the   material  condi7ons  of  existence   •  Combining  thoughts  of  Hegel  and  Marx,  he  concluded  that   history  is  the  arena  is  which  humans  seek  the  freedom  to   manifest  universal  ra7onality  
  24. 24. Concepts  and  Contribu7ons  Cont.   v  Technological  Ra7onality   •  An  extension  of  Weber’s  idea  of  ra7onaliza7on   •  Defined  term  in  his  work,  One-­‐Dimensional  Man   •  Argued  that  modern  industrial  society  was  dominated  by  a   technological  ra7onality,  with  the  working  middle  class  as  its   vocal  supporter  and  defender   •  Concerned  that  the  cost  of  material  sa7sfac7on  was  the  loss   of  individual  freedoms  and  liber7es   •  Makes  two  claims:   1.  The  workers  of  industrial  society  are  suffering  from  false   consciousness   2.  The  workers  should  not  be  happy  with  material  sa7sfac7on  but  should   be  striving  for  some  uniden7fied  nonmaterial  sa7sfac7on    
  25. 25. Concepts  and  Contribu7ons  Cont.   v The  New  Lej   •  Radical  wri7ngs  were  a  perfect  match  for  his  place  in   7me   •  He  was  looked  upon  as  the  guru  of  the  New  Lej   •  Gave  lectures  and  advice  to  student  radicals     •  Used  the  media  to  spread  to  word  of  Marxian   theory,  revolu7onary  vision,  and  libertarian  socialism    
  26. 26. Concepts  and  Contribu7ons  Cont.   v  Revolu7on   •  Entrenched  in  the  Marxist  tradi7on  is  the  necessity   for  revolu7on   •  Argued  that  Marxian  concept  of  revolu7on  implies   con7nuity  in  change   •  Proposed  a  global  revolu7on  where  capitalism  is   replaced  by  socialism   •  The  revolu7onists  that  would  challenge  corporate   capitalism  are  concentrated  at  two  opposite  poles  of   society:   1.  The  ghedo  popula7on   2.  The  middle  class  intelligentsia    
  27. 27. Concepts  and  Contribu7ons  Cont.   v Sexual  Revolu7on   •  In  favor  of  the  sexual  revolu7on   •  Against  those  who  tried  to  impose  sexual  codes  of   conduct  on  others  in  the  name  of  religion,  especially   those  who  would  invade  the  realm  of  individual   privacy   •  For  Marcuse,  sexual  repression  was  more  than  just   another  evil  capitalism;  it  represented  the  bourgeois   concept  of  love   •  In  Nega$ons,  he  condemned  the  bourgeois  era  as  an   adempt  to  isolate  individuals  from  their  natural  drives   •  Throughout  the  1960s  and  1970s,  he  was  one  of  the   most  influen7al  radical  theorists  
  28. 28. 3.-­‐  Max  Horkheimer  (1895-­‐1973)     •  Chair  of  social  philosophy  and  then  director  of   The  Ins7tute  for  Social  Research   •  Ins7tute  under  his  supervision  was  oriented   to  developing  social  theory  on  an   interdisciplinary  basis.  He  wanted  this  theory   to  benefit  from  both  the  reflec7ve  capacity  of   philosophy  and  the  rigorous  procedures  of   the  individual  sciences   •  Saw  society  as  a  totality  that  was   con7nuously  restructuring  itself  which   resulted  in  the  idea  of  social  absolute  or  a   complete  or  perfect  state  of  social   phenomenon  being  cri7cized  
  29. 29. Horkheimer  Cont.   •  Endorsed  the  idea  that  there  is  no  absolute  truth  of  reality     •  Thought  Manheim’s  Sociology  of  knowledge  to  be  prac7cally   no  less  than  theore7cally  wrongheaded  and  in  his  essay   “Tradi7onal  and  Cri7cal  Theory”  dis7nguishes  itself  from   Manheim  and  emphasizes  a  dialec7cal  representa7on  of   Marx’s  cri7que  of  poli7cal  economy  which  was  to  be  the   analy7cal  framework  for  cri7cal  theory   •  Maintained  the  idea  that  there  are  no  general  criteria  for   cri7cal  theory  as  a  whole  since  it  depended  on  a  repe77on  of   events,  Horkheimer  said  cri7cal  theory  aims  to  asses  the   breach  between  ideas  and  reality    
  30. 30. 4.-­‐  Jurgen  Habermas  (1929-­‐)   v  Background   •  Born  in  Gummersbach  in  1929   •  Grew  up  during  Nazi  regime  and  WWII:  Two  influences   that  have  a  profound  effect  on  his  thinking  and  wri7ngs     •  Studied  philosophy  at  Golngen,  Zurich,  and  Bonn,  where   he  earned  his  doctorate  in  1954   •  In  1964  he  became  a  professor  of  philosophy  at  Frankfurt   •  Perhaps  most  well  known  of  second  genera7on  of  cri7cal   theorists   •  He  was  influenced  by  the  works  of  Marx,  Weber,  and  the   early  members  of  the  Frankfurt  School   •  Wri7ngs  are  steeped  in  the  German  tradi7on  
  31. 31. Concepts  and  Contribu7ons   v  Cri7cal  Theory   •  In  his  ar7cle  “The  Tasks  of  a  Cri7cal  Theory”  he  stated  that  the   work  of  the  Ins7tute  for  Social  Research  was  basically  dominated   by  six  themes:   1.  The  Forms  of  IntegraFon  in  Postliberal  SocieFes:  Whether  in  a   democracy  or  totalitarian  regimes   2.  Gamily  SocializaFon  and  Ego  Development:  The  structural  change   of  the  bourgeois  nuclear  family  and  the  weakening  of  the   authoritarian  posiFon  of  the  father   3.  Mass  Media  and  Mass  Culture:  The  development  of  a  culture   industry  for  the  manipulaFve  control  of  consciousness   4.  The  Social  Psychology  behind  CessaFon  of  Protest:  PoliFcal   consciousness  of  workers  and  employees   5.  The  Theory  of  Art:  The  arts  as  the  preferred  object  of  an  ideology   6.  The  CriFque  of  PosiFvisim  and  Science:  Science  as  a  tool  of  the   bourgeoisie    
  32. 32. Concepts  and  Contribu7ons   v Cri7cal  Theory  Cont.   •  His  cri7cal  theory  was  inspired  by  classical  Greek  and   German  philosophy,  which  stressed  the   inseparability  of  truth  and  virtue,  of  facts  and  values,   and  of  theory  and  prac7ce   •  Wanted  a  society  where  people  are  free  to  assemble   and  communicate  openly   •  Communica7on  and  understanding  of  language  are   the  keys  to  understanding  and  comprehending   knowledge   •  Described  the  ideal  speech  situa7on  as  one  that  is   un-­‐coerced,  free  for  all  people,  and  in  which  all   people  are  treated  equally  
  33. 33. Concepts  and  Contribu7ons  Cont.   v Communica7on  Theory   •  Concerned  with  reformula7ng  Marxian  theory  in  the  light  of   twen7eth-­‐century  social  changes   •  Expands  Marx’s  concep7on  of  humanity  by  adding  language  to   work  as  a  dis7nct  feature  of  species-­‐being   •  To  escape  the  philosophical  historical  materialism  of  Marxist   thought,  he  proposed  that  a  theory  cannot  be  7ed  to  concrete   ideals  of  human  life   •  Instead,  it  must  orient  itself  to  the  range  of  learning  processes  that   are  opened  at  any  given  7me     •  The  use  of  language  as  a  significant  aspect  of  human  development   led  Habermas  to  concentrate  on  how  undistorted  communica7on   might  lay  the  founda7on  for  the  emancipa7on  of  individuals  
  34. 34. Concepts  and  Contrib7ons   v Communica7on  Theory  Cont.   •  Distorted  communica7on  is  similar  to  Marx’s  false   consciousness   •  Use  of  undistorted  communica7on  reveals  the   influence  of  Freudian  psychoanalysis  on  his   communica7on  theory   •  Argued  that  individual’s  life  worlds  are  influenced  by   constant  interac7on  with  others  and  with  society’s   social  structures  
  35. 35. Concepts  and  Contribu7ons  Cont.   v Ra7onality  and  Modernity   •  Cri7cal  of  Western  industrial  democracies  for  their  reduc7on  of  the   human  world  to  some  form  of  economic  efficiency   •  Believed  that  ra7onality-­‐the  ability  to  think  logically  and  analy7cally-­‐ is  more  than  a  strategic  calcula7on  of  how  to  achieve  some  chosen   end;  it  is  a  form  of  communica7ve  ac7on   •  Ra7onal  behavior  serves  the  individual’s  best  interest  and  is  a  key   ingredient  in  understanding  others  during  social  behavior   •  Ideas  of  ra7onality  led  him  to  explain  modernity   •  The  concepts  of  ra7onality  and  modernity  come  together  in  his   examina7on  of  the  life  world   •  Also  cri7cal  of  scien7sm-­‐iden7fying  knowledge  with  science-­‐because   of  its  rela7on  to  posi7vism   •  Believed  that  cri7cal  theory  should  be  a  cri7que  of  knowledge,   opposed  posi7vism  because  it  adempted  to  objec7ve  knowledge  
  36. 36. Concepts  and  Contribu7ons  Cont.   v Democracy   •  Democracy  must  be  seen  first  and  foremost  as  a  process   that  results  when  certain  kind  of  social  interac7on   prevails   •  Democracy  should  be  seen  as  a  par7cular  way  by  which   ci7zens  make  collec7ve  and  ra7onal  decisions   •  Envisioned  a  deliberate  democracy  where  a   government’s  laws  and  ins7tu7ons  would  be  a   reflec7on  of  free  and  open  public  discussion   •  According  to  Habermas,  modern  democracies  of  the   West  are  dominated  by  poli7cal  legi7ma7on    
  37. 37. Relevancy   •  Cri7cal  theory  is  generally  about  the  role  of  power  in  social   rela7ons   •  Cri7cal  theory  has  existed  since  the  forma7on  of  the   Ins7tute  for  Social  Research  at  Frankfurt  University  in  1923     •  Contemporary  cri7cal  theorists  have  increasingly  turned   their  aden7on  to  the  media  and  other  forms  of   entertainment  in  their  examina7on  of  modern  culture     •  Cri7cal  theory  cannot  be  characterized  by  a  par7cular  set   of  methodological  techniques  and  theore7cal  proposi7ons;   however,  it  is  s7ll  a  coherent  approach  to  the  social  world   that  is  separate  from  other  types  of  sociology  and  Marxism    
  38. 38. Cri7cisms  of  Cri7cal  Theory   •  The  first  cri7cism  of  cri7cal  theory  is  that  it  reproduces  idealist   (utopian)  posi7ons     •  The  second  cri7cism  is  that  cri7cal  theory  shows  undue  concern   about  philosophical  and  theore7cal  problems     •  The  third  cri7cism  of  cri7cal  theory  is  its  preoccupa7on  with   nega7vity     •  The  fourth  cri7cism  of  cri7cal  theory  is  the  claim  that  it  developed   from  a  purely  academic  selng  and  thus  was  isolated  from  working-­‐ class  poli7cs  (add  to  this,  the  fact  that  Marx’s  concep7on  of  the   working  class  as  a  revolu7onary  force  is  untrue)  and  became   increasingly  embroiled  in  abstract  issues  and  “second-­‐order”   discourse     •  The  fijh  cri7cism  leveled  against  cri7cal  theory  is  that  it  is  a  historical   (cri7cal  theorists  have  examined  a  variety  of  events  without  paying   much  aden7on  to  their  historical  and  compara7ve  contexts)    
  39. 39. Cri7cisms  of  Cri7cal  Theory  Cont.   •  Postmodern  cri7cal  theory  is  the  first  narra7ve  to  pose  a  possible   utopian  future  not  as  a  determinate  outcome  of  nature-­‐like  social   laws  but  rather  as  one  conceivable  discursive  accomplishment   among  many     •  Cri7cal  theory  can  either  be  a  museum  piece  or  a  living  medium  of   poli7cal  self-­‐expression  (Agger,  1976:19)   •  Cri7cal  theory  addresses  the  rela7ons  among  schooling,  educa7on,   culture,  society,  economy,  and  governance     •  Cri7cal  theory  has  also  been  applied  to  issues  related  to  crime  and   delinquency     •  In  addi7on  ,  cri7cal  theory  draws  its  orienta7on  from  a  broad  range   of  disciplines,  including  linguis7cs,  psychology,  sociology,  philosophy,   and  Marxism”  (Groves  and  Sampson,  1986:538)  
  40. 40. 3.-­‐  INTERPRETATION  
  41. 41. 1.  Main  authors   •  Adorno  and  Horkheimer:  1972  Dialec$c  of  Enlightenment   •  Horkheimer:  1974  Eclipse  of  Reason   •  Marcuse:  1964  One  Dimensional  Man     2.  DominaFon       •  do  not  engage  in  any  structural  analysis  of  society       •  idea  of  domina7on  (making  someone  do  something  you  want)    
  42. 42. •  the  ways  the  system  dominates,  how  it  forces,   manipulates,  fools  and  blinds  people  into   ensuring  its  reproduc7on  and  con7nua7on     2.1  Instrumental  Reason       •  Instrumental  reason  is  a  logic  of  thought  and  a   way  of  looking  at  the  world     •  a  way  of  looking  at  the  world  as  an  instrument  is   to  see  its  elements  as  tools,  instruments  by   means  of  which  we  can  achieve  our  ends  
  43. 43. 2.2  One-­‐dimensional  culture       •  concerned  with  culture.       2.3  The  need  for  dominaFon     •  ‘surplus  repression’     •  ‘de-­‐instrumentalising’       •   ‘repressive  desublima7on’    
  44. 44. 3.  LimitaFons  and  concerns       •  Cri7cism:   – From  ‘posi7vist’  social  scien7sts:     •  Empty  specula7on.   •  Language  difficult  and  obscure.   – From  Marxists   •  Abstract  and  specula7ve.   •  Pessimis7c    
  45. 45. Q  &  A  for  the  Seminar:   How  can  we  apply  Frankfurt  School’s  thinking  to   the  following  topics:     1.-­‐  Is  the  women  emancipa7on  s7ll  a  difficult  to   achieve  in  our  socie7es?  What  would  be  the   interpreta7on  from  the  Frankfurt  School   principles?    
  46. 46. Q  &  A  for  the  Seminar:   How  can  we  apply  Frankfurt  School’s  thinking  to   the  following  topics:     2.-­‐  Why  is  the  future  of  the  digital  commons  or   the  right  for  everyone  to  be  connected  and  to   have  the  access  to  the  digital  connect  for  free?    
  47. 47. Q  &  A  for  the  Seminar:   How  can  we  apply  Frankfurt  School’s  thinking  to   the  following  topics:     3.-­‐  Which  is  the  rela7onship  between   technology  and  human  unconscious  mind?    
  48. 48. Q  &  A  for  the  Seminar:   How  can  we  apply  Frankfurt  School’s  thinking  to   the  following  topics:     4.-­‐  Is  the  poli7cal  power  being  distributed?  Is   there  any  alterna7ve?    
  49. 49. Q  &  A  for  the  Seminar:   How  can  we  apply  Frankfurt  School’s  thinking  to   the  following  topics:     5.-­‐  Is  society  7red  to  wait,  work,  consume,  …?    
  50. 50. Thanks  for  your  aden7on  

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