Paper Code: 099
Barium Doped Bismuth Vanadate Structural and
Thermal Properties for SOFC
Sakshi Gupta and K. Singh*
School of Physics & Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala
IV th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai
Deficiency of conventional energy sources.
Need to develop an energy efficient non
conventional eco- friendly source.
Release of green house gases with
combustion of conventional energy sources.
Fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device.
It produces electricity from external supplies of fuel (anode side)
and oxidant (cathode side).
In fuel cell and battery, electrochemical reactions are used to
create electric current.
which can be replenished, while batteries store electrical energy
chemically in a closed system.
Fuel cells are different from batteries as they consume reactant,
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell
Carbonate salt electrolyte
60 – 80% efficiency
~650˚C operating temp.
cheap nickel electrode catalyst
up to 2 MW constructed, up to 100
MW designs exist
Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell
Phosphoric acid electrolyte
150˚C - 200˚C operating temp
The electrolyte is very corrosive
Platinum catalyst is very expensive
11 MW units have been tested
Polymer electrolyte Membrane
Thin permeable polymer sheet
40 – 50% efficiency
50 – 250 kW
Electrolyte will not leak or crack
Temperature good for home or vehicle use
Platinum catalyst on both sides of membrane
80˚C operating temperature
Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)
Hard ceramic oxide electrolyte
~1000˚C operating temperature
cells output up to 100 kW
High temp allows for power generation using the heat, but limits use
SOFC units are very large
Solid electrolyte have no leakage problem
High temp / catalyst can extract the hydrogen from the fuel at the electrode
Out of the fuel cells discussed above Solid Oxide
Fuel Cells (SOFCs) can be considered as a possible
solution. SOFCs provide high total efficiency in
addition to clean energy production. As well as water
energy when hydrogen is used as fuel in SOFCs
is the only emission along with energy along with
The benefits of SOFCs Include:
Energy security: reduce oil consumption, cut oil imports, and increase the
amount of the country’s available electricity supply.
Reliability: achieve operating times in excess of 90% and power available
99.99% of the time.
Low operating and maintenance cost: the efficiency of the SOFC system
will drastically reduce the energy bill (mass production) and have lower
maintenance costs than their alternatives.
Choice of fuel: allow fuel selection: hydrogen may be extracted from
natural gas, propane, butane, methanol or diesel fuel.
Constant power production: generate power continuously.
Chemical compatibility with other components of the
Similar thermal expansion coefficient to avoid cracking
during the cell operation.
Dense electrolyte to prevent gas mixing.
Porous anode and cathode to allow gas transport to the
High strength and toughness
Compatibility at higher temperatures.
desirable characteristics of
Characteristics of Solid
Availability of large number of free ions
Large number of vacancies for hopping
Free of porosity
Thermal expansion match
reducing and oxidizing environments)
The ionic conductivity of the electrolyte should be high
Chemically stable (at high temperatures as well as in
Bi2O3 + V2O5 + BaO
Grinding of required composition in
agate mortar pestle
Melting at 1250 ͦC
Splat quenching of the melted sample
X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS
Intensity (arb. units)
Reitveld refined XRD patterns of Bi4V2-xBaxO11-δ (a) as quenched x = 0.0, (b)
as quenched x = 0.05, (c) sintered x= 0 and (d) sintered x = 0.05.
Intensity (arb. units)
Reitveld refined lattice parameters of Bi4V2-xBaxO11-δ
(x = 0.0 and 0.05)
As quenched samples
Grain size range of sintered samples with x = 0.0 and
Scanning electron micrographs of Bi4V2-xBaxO11-δ (a) as quenched x = 0.0, (b) as quenched x = 0.05, (
c) sintered x= 0.0 and (d) sintered x = 0.05.
Thermal expansion coefficients and different transition
temperatures of Bi4V2-xBaxO11-δ (x = 0.0 and 0.05)
As quenched samples Sintered samples
α→β and β→γ
transitions take place take place at
at 405 ⁰C and within 533 ⁰C
the range 447-595 ⁰C
α→β and β→γ
transitions take place
within the range at
301-398 ⁰C and
414- 509 ⁰C resp.
α→β and β→γ
place within the
330-392 ⁰C and
477- 595 ⁰C resp.
• All the samples synthesized are found to be single phase.
• All the samples are found to be stabilized in α phase with
C2/m space group which is confirmed with Reitveld
• The thermal expansion coefficient found to be in the range of
the components which are used in SOFC.
• The grain size of the samples is decreasing with doping.
• I would like thank Department of Science and Technology
(DST) for the financial support.
• I would like to thank my Supervisor Dr. Kulvir Singh
(Professor and Head) School of Physics and Materials Science,
Thapar University, Patiala for his Guidance.
for providing me an opportunity to present my work here.
• I would like to thank Dr. P.C. Ghosh (Organizer ICAER 2013)