47 iit powai_ppt


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47 iit powai_ppt

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  In view of rising costs, pollution & fear of depletion of oil and coal, the government around the world are encouraging to seek energy from renewable source of energy such as wind, biomass, solar and tidal energy.  The potential of wind energy of a source is very large. The energy available in the winds over the earth’s surface is estimated to be 2.1 X 10 7 MW, which is of same order of magnitude as the present energy consumption on the earth.  The utilization of energy from wind is widely used for reducing the dependence on fossil fuel.  Wind mill also used in isolated or less developed area, where either grid connection can not reach or would be too costly.
  3. 3. CAUSES OF WIND Winds are caused from two main factors  Heating & cooling of the atmosphere  The rotation of the earth with respect to atmosphere & its motion around the sun. APPLICATION OF WIND ENERGY    The important application of wind energy system is to generate electricity. Generate heat from friction of moving parts which might be used in the industrial applications like production of chemicals, plastic materials and textile processing. Process agricultural products like in crop drying, milk processing, food processing, frost protection, water pumping and ventilation.
  4. 4. ELECTRICITY FROM WIND  Wind possesses energy due to its motion and wind energy devices, which slow down the wind motion by obstructing it and absorb some of this energy to convert into electricity. Wind  Wind turbine generator Inverter converter controlling unit AC/DC Load Wind machines harness the kinetic energy of the wind. K E = 0.5MV2 Where = 0.5ρAV3 M= mass of air = ρAV V=Wind velocity ρ = density of the material A= cross sectional area
  5. 5. WIND ENERGY SCENARIO IN INDIA   In India, the grid connected wind power has now gained a larger attention and acceptability as compared to other renewable tech available. Wind energy installed in the country is around 20000 MW and more than hundred billion units of electricity is fed to the state grids. The graph shows statewise installed capacity and it is seen that the largest installation is in TN mainly higher winds are available . Wind pow er installed capacity in India 2000 Capacity, MW  1500 1000 500 0 A.P. Guj Kar M.P. Maha. Raj. T.N. Others
  6. 6. WIND ENERGY GROWTH RATE IN INDIA The graph shows wind energy is clearly fastest growing in terms of its utilization from last five years compared to other renewable forms of energies. This is mainly due to ease of installation, reliable and high life time. Growth rate of energy forms 30 24.2 20 17.3 15 10 0.5 COAL 0.5 NUCLEAR 0.8 OIL 1.5 HYDRO GEO. SOLAR 0 1.9 NAT. GAS 4.3 5 WIND % growth 25
  7. 7. TYPES OF WINDMILL   Horizontal axis windmill: These wind machines rotate about a horizontal axis. The advantages include self starting, more efficiency. Vertical axis windmill: These wind machines rotate on a vertical axis. The advantages include do no have to be oriented into the wind, easier to maintain because generator is located at the base of the turbine.
  8. 8. LITERATURE REVIEW    M. A. Elhadidy and Shaahid, “Decentralized hybrid wind diesel power system to meet residential loads” , Energy conversion and management 46(2005), have collected hourly mean wind speed data of period 1986-1997 recorded at Dhahran in Saudi Arabia.They have analyzed to investigate potential of utilizing hybrid wind diesel energy conversion systems to meet the load requirements of a hundred typical two bed room residential buildings with annual electrical energy demand of 3512 MWh. S. S. Choi, R. Larkin, “ Performance of an autonomous diesel wind turbine power system”, Electrical power systems research, Studied the feasibility of installing a 2.5 MW wind farm within an isolated power system in western Australia. This network is present being supplied by several diesel generators. M. T. Iqbal, “Simulation of a small wind fuel cell hybrid energy system” Renewable energy 28 (2003), has presented the paper which describes simulation results of a small 500W wind fuel cell hybrid system. Dynamic modeling of various components of this small isolated system is presented. Simulink is used for the dynamic simulation of this hybrid system. Transient response of the system to a step change in the load current and wind speed in a number of possible situations are presented. Analysis of simulation results and limitations of a wind fuel cell hybrid energy system are discussed.
  9. 9. HYBRID WIND - DIESEL SOFTWARE MODULE A system which consists of wind turbine & diesel engine is called a hybrid wind-diesel power system. The main application & strategy of designed hybrid wind diesel system     The designed software it is possible to simulate operation of different system constituents like windmill, diesel engine, load, battery and various charts is used to predict the performance of the hybrid system. When the WECS generating excess energy ie above the hourly demand, the excess energy is stored in the battery until it gets fully charged. The purpose of introducing battery storage is to export energy depending upon the situation. Diesel engine is operated online at times when the WECS fails to satisfy the load & when the battery storage is depleted.
  10. 10. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS:  Relation between Vc , Vr , & Vf  Cut-in speed(Vc): It is minimum wind speed at which turbine starts generating power.  Rated speed(Vr): Speed at which turbine will generate designed power.  Furling speed(Vf): Corresponds to high wind speeds during which the turbine ceases to generate power and is shut down. The wind speed at which shut PeR Power Vc Vr Wind speed Wind turbine power v/s wind speed. Vf down occurs is called furling speed.
  11. 11.  Electrical power out put: The electrical power out put (Pe )is basically depends on the wind turbine characteristics like cut-in, rated and furling speed . Pe = 0 Pe = a + bv ( v < vc ) 2 ( vc ≤ v ≤ v R ) Where the coefficients a and b are 2 Pe = PeR (v R < v < v F ) P v a = 2eR c 2 vc −vR Pe = 0 (v > v F ) b = P eR 2 2 vR −vc And the rated electrical power output at rated wind speed is expressed as 1 3 PeR = C pη ρ A vR 2 Cp is power coefficient = Watt Power extracted by wind turbine Power available in wind turbine Where v = Wind velocity in m/s η =Overall conversion efficiency p =Density of air =1.2 kg/m3 A = Swept area in m2
  12. 12. * EXPERIMENTAL SETUP The experimental work is carried out at energy systems engineering department. BVB college of engineering, Hubli. Where a hybrid wind diesel power is installed. The experimentation is conducted using lamp load connected across the hybrid system. The line diagram of the experimental setup is shown below, Diesel genset Battery bank Load Experimental setup
  13. 13. ABOUT SOFTWARE Visual basic software is used for developing and designing the hybrid system.  It is a programming language for developing sophisticated professional applications for Microsoft windows.  It makes use of graphical user interface to create robust and powerful applications.  Coding in GUI environment is quite traditional, the number of options open to the user is much greater, allowing more freedom to the user and developer.  Other features such as user friendliness, faster application development and internet features make Visual basic an interesting tool to work with.
  14. 14. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION     Input parameters required for software The input parameters required to run the software are as follows, but while entering care to be taken that all input data are separated by comma, Wind speed in m/s Time in hrs Load in watt
  15. 15. Opening window of software
  16. 16.  Out put of the software:  Simulate operation of different system constituents.  Various charts           Load vs Time Wind speed vs Time Wind speed vs Power output Battery status vs Time Energy stored vs Time Current total power generated by wind mill in Watt. Battery status after every interval in Ahr. Diameter of the turbine in meter. Total run time of Hybrid wind diesel system. Finally produces brief report.
  17. 17. Display window indicating results of software
  18. 18. Various charts obtained from software: The various charts obtained from software after entering the input parameters are as follows, Power output vs wind speed Wind speed vs Time
  19. 19. Load vs Time Battery status vs Time
  20. 20.  Comparison of Software and Experimental results of wind turbine characteristics:   Software  Experimental  % Error Cut in speed (m/s) 3.3 3 9.8 Rated speed (m/s)  11.1 11 1.7 Furling speed (m/s) 24.4 25 2.4 We can conclude that there is good agreement between the software and experimental result of wind turbine characteristics. The comparison shows close value with in 10% error, which is thought to be quite acceptable.
  21. 21.  Comparison of Software and Experimental power output: Comparison of software & experimental results Power Output, W 600 Software result 500 Experimental result 400 300 200 100 0 4 4.6 4.7 5.3 5.3 5.4 6.3 6.7 8.1 Wind speed (m/s) The above graph shows the comparison of software results after entering the input data wind velocity in the software module and experimental results after calculation. It shows a good agreement with in 5% error, Which can be acceptable.
  22. 22. Comparison of analytical and software results of battery status: Battery status (Ahr) Com parison of analytical & s oftw are re s ults of e ne rgy s tore d in batte ry 40 Analytical results 35 sof tw are results 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 Time (hrs) We can conclude that there is good agreement between analytical and software results of battery status in terms of Ahr after every interval.
  23. 23. CONCLUSION       The software developed simulates operation of wind diesel hybrid system with respect to the constituents like wind mill, Diesel genset, load and battery. It can be efficiently used for the monitoring of existing system. The software aids in design and analysis of hybrid wind diesel system and indicates that thorough analysis of site and load characteristics are essential for deployment of these systems. The software module predicts wind turbine characteristics and other features like power generation, battery status, total run time of diesel engine, wind turbine power before actual installation of system on site. In future a significant portion of energy needs would be met through hybrid power without disturbing the ecosystem. It has proven to be viable option both with respect technology and economics.
  24. 24. FUTURE SCOPE     Design and analysis of hybrid system can be done using computational fluid dynamics software for precise results. Analysis of electrical parameters can be included in software. Flexibility in the format of input data. Interfacing with Microsoft office can be included.
  25. 25. REFERENCES • G.M. Joselin Herbert, “ A review of wind energy technologies”, Renewable and • • • • • sustainable reviews, 28(2006) pg 180-230. M. A. Elhadidy , S. M. Shaahid, “ Decentralized/Stand alone hybrid wind diesel power systems to meet residential loads of hot coastal regions”, Energy conversion and management 46(2005) pg 2501-2513. A. N. Celik, “ A simplified model for estimating yearly wind fraction in hybrid wind diesel energy system”, Renewable energy 31(2006) pg 105-118. Iqbal M. T. “ Simulation of a small wind fuel cell hybrid energy system” Renewable energy 28 (2003) pg 511-522. Gary L. Johnson, a text of “ Wind energy system”, edition-2000 G. D. Rai, “ Non-conventional energy systems” Khanna publishers, Fourth edition-2001.