308 punam

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308 punam

  1. 1. th IV ICAER 2013 Paper No. 308 Life cycle energy analysis (LCEA) of cooking fuel sources used in India households Punam Singh Prof. Haripriya G. 10th December, 2013
  2. 2. Background  cooking activity pivotal to the well-being of human society  dominant end user of primary energy carriers in India over 75% of rural HH use traditional biomass fuels  annual cooking energy expenditure is about 1250 billion rupees (NSSO 2012)  cooking fuel (kerosene +LPG) subsidies was 525 billion rupees for 2011-12 (MoPNG 2012)  fossil fuel resources are depleting rapidly (may last less than 150 years, Lior 2008)  fuel subsidies resulting in illegal diversions (e.g. kerosene to transport sector)
  3. 3. Aim & Objective To determine:  average daily cooking heat energy requirement of Indian HH  energy equivalent of manual labour involved in collecting and preparing biomass cooking fuels  life cycle energy efficiency of cooking fuels Cooking fuel analyzed: 10 biomass & fossil fuels (a) firewood (b) crop residues (c) dung cakes (d) charcoal (e) biogas (f) Kerosene (g) LPG (CO) – derived from crude oil (h) LPG (NG) – derived from natural gas (i) coal (j) electricity
  4. 4. Methodology # 1 Estimation of avg. daily cooking heat requirement :  Experimental setup using LPG, kerosene & electric cook stove  Stove efficiency & combustion rate determined by WBT  Food quantity based on average food intake given by NSSO  Dish type based on common daily preparations in urban & rural HH  Average cooking time of dishes used to determine heat energy requirement: = LHV*(avg stove eff.)*(avg comb. Rate/1000)*(avg. cooking time/60)  Avg. heat energy/ HH/ day = 2150 kcal
  5. 5. Methodology # 2 Estimation of energy use equivalent of manual labour:  Not accounted for fossil fuels due to high throughputs, high levels of mechanization & focus on man-machine interface  Based on method proposed by Zhang & Dornfeld (2007)  EPWH = TPES [1- (IFC/TFC)]/ (population* working hours per year)  India’s Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES), Industrial & Transport Final Consumption (IFC) & Total Final Consumption (TFC) data from IEA 2013  Worker population data from Economic survey of India 2013  India’s Energy use per worker hour = 900 kcal
  6. 6. Methodology # 3 Estimation of life cycle energy efficiency: LCEE = FEC/ (Ep + Et) FEC = final fuel energy content at output Ep = primary energy content of feedstock (crude oil, biomass etc) Ed = energy produced and used by the plant from own captive sources Em = embodied energy (e.e.) of material used for production of fuel Ef = e.e. Of fuel used for production and transportation of cooking fuels Ee = electricity purchased from local grid Eh = energy equivalent of manual labour  For fossil fuels: Et = Ed + Em + Ef + Ee  For biomass fuels: Et = Eh
  7. 7. Life Cycle Energy Inventory Cooking fuel/ Life cycle stages Ep Ed Em Ef Ee Eh Et (in kcal per kg fuel or per kWh electricity) LPG (Cr. Oil) Extraction Refinery Bottling Transport LPG (Nat. Gas) Extraction Fractioning Kerosene Refinery Transport Coal Extraction Transport Electricity Firewood Crop residues Dung cake Charcoal Biogas 9486 1092 50 x x 103 583 x x 84 688 x 186 17 1 22 x x x x x 1296 1322 22 186 11443 1104 717 103 55 84 x 16 31 x x 1307 803 9486 60 x 1324 x 882 81 1 x x x 2267 81 x x x x x x x x 81 x x x x x x x 9 38 23 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 306 127 117 985 332 90 38 23 306 127 117 985 332 2811 1802 3334 3069 1001 3334 3705
  8. 8. Life Cycle Energy Flow Schematic Biomass cooking fuels: Biogas Charcoal Firewood Crop Res. 4667 (1260) 21935 (6579) 16590 (4976) 20793 (6776) Et : 299 Physical Process 4574 (1235) Digester 3909 (900) Cook Stove Et : 1847 Physical Process 20838 (6250) Kiln 12286 (1875) Cook Stove Et : 1462 Et : 809 Dung Cake 27644 (27605) Et : 1040 Physical Process Physical Process Physical Process 15926 (4777) 19545 (6369) 25294 (8893) Cook Stove Cook Stove Cook Stove All values in kcal (in g). Cook stove output = 2150 kcal Phys. process includes activities requiring manual labor. Feedstock Processed fuel Energy eq. of manual labor inputs
  9. 9. Life Cycle Energy Flow Schematic Fossil cooking fuels: LPG (Nat. Gas) LPG (Cr. Oil) Kerosene Et : 613 Et : 693 Et : 443 Extraction Extraction 3871 (339) 4488 (473) Et : 291 Et : 480 Fractioning Refinery Extraction 5076 (535) Et : 1027 Refinery Electricity Coal 9184 (3268) Et : 449 Et : 75 Coal Power Plant Et: 65 Et : 8 Bottling 3791 (351) 4265 (4.96 kWh) Transmission 3772 (349) Cook Stove 3071 (3.57 kWh) Et : 36 Cook Stove Transport 14011 (4985) Et : 188 4644 (453) 3924 (363) Coal Mine Transport 13871 (4935) Cook Stove Transport All values in kcal (in g) Cook stove output = 2150 kcal 4574 (447) Cook Stove Feedstock Processed fuel Energy eq. of all inputs
  10. 10. 9.0% 7.5% 10.0% 11.9% 43.3% 23.2% 14.7% 31.5% 38.0% 45.0% LCEE (in percent) Results & Findings
  11. 11. Conclusion  Life cycle energy efficiency performance of commercial fossil fuels (i.e. LPG & kerosene) significantly better than traditional biomass fuels  Biogas can potentially be most suitable and sustainable cooking fuel option in Indian context  LCEE (43.3% ) comparable to those of LPG produced from NG  completely renewable, produced from variety of organic substrates including wastes (e.g. animal manure, food and agro waste, sewage etc)  high local availability of substrates in both rural and urban areas  India’s vast experience (> 30 years) in biogas technology
  12. 12. References (Partial) Dikshit, A.K. & Birthal, P.S. (2010) Environmental value of dung in mixed crop-livestock systems, Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 80 (7), pp. 679-82 Frischknecht, R., Jungbluth, N, Althaus, H.J. et al. (2007) Overview and Methodology, Ecoinvent report No. 1, Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories, Dübendorf, Switzerland Kandpal, J.B., Maheshwari, R.C. & Kandpal, T.C. (1995) Indoor air pollution from combustion of wood and dung cake and their processed fuels in domestic cookstoves, Energy Conversion and Management, 36(11), pp. 1073-79 Laxmi, V., Parikh, J., Karmakar, S. & Dabrase, P. (2003) Household energy, women’s hardship and health impacts in rural Rajasthan, India: need for sustainable energy solutions, Energy for Sustainable Development, 7(l) Lior, N. (2008) Energy resources and use the present situation and possible paths to the future, Energy, 33, pp. 842-857 Reddy, B.S. (2003) Overcoming the energy efficiency gap in India's residential sector, Energy Policy, Vol. 31(11) Venkataraman, C., Sagar, A.D., Habib, G. , Lam, N. & Smith, K.R. (2010) The Indian national initiative for advanced biomass cookstoves: The benefits of clean combustion. Energy for Sustainable Development, 14

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