Presentation Layout
Introduction
General Discussion about biodiesels
Previous works and properties of jatropha
Simulat...
Introduction
Need for Alternative Fuel
 Fast Depletion of Fossil Fuels
 Global Warming and Environmental Pollution
 Eve...
What is biodiesel?
Biodiesel is made from 100% renewable recourses and it is
considered as the fuel of future.
It is made ...
PETRO-DIESEL CO2 CYCLE
Almost 10 kg of fossil CO2 released 3.78 liter of fuel burned

Fossil CO2
Release to Atmosphere

Re...
BIODIESEL CO2 CYCLE
No fossil CO2 Released ; No global warming

Renewable CO2

Use in Cars and Trucks

Oil Crops

Biodiese...
Previous Works
Researcher

Method

Conclusion

Rao [1]

Experimental

Decrease in engine performance and
emissions
Increas...
Properties of Jatropha
Property

Fuel
Diesel

Jatropha

Cetane No.

48

53

Molecular Mass

190

282

Calorific Value (MJk...
Simulation Model
Conservation of mass*

dm

= ∑mj
dt
j


m j is the mass flow rate of the jth species

Conservation of s...
Simulation Model
Equivalence ratio

Brake power

Specific fuel consumption
NOx formation Modelling*

( A F)
λ=
( A F)S

=
...
Simulation Model
NOx formation Modelling*
−

38020
TZ

{

[ N 2 ] e .[ O] e . 1 − ( [ NO] [ NO ] e )
d [ NO ] p.2.333 ∗10 ...
Simulation Model
Calculation of Hartige smoke level

Particulate Matter Modelling*

Hartige = 100[1 − 0.9545 exp( − 2.4226...
Experimental Setup
Manufacturer

Kirloskar Engine Oil. ltd

Model

AV2

Type

4-stroke, water cooled

Ignition Type

Compr...
Experimental Setup
5

6

4

3

7

2
1
8

9

10

1. Engine, 2. Hydraulic dynamometer, 3. Exhaust Gas Analyser, 4. Loading U...
Results and Discussions
Validation of Experimental and Numerical Results
Results and Discussions
Results and Discussions
Results and Discussions
Results and Discussions
Conclusion
 Diesel-RK gives s realistic results and trend match well with
experimental results.
 The slight quantitative...
References
1. P. V. Rao, Experimental Investigations on the Influence of Properties of
Jatropha Biodiesel on Performance, ...
References
5. M. A. Hamdan, R. H. Khalil, Simulation of compression engine powered by
Biofuels, Energy Conversion and Mana...
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  1. 1. Presentation Layout Introduction General Discussion about biodiesels Previous works and properties of jatropha Simulation Model Experimental set-up Results and Discussions Conclusion References
  2. 2. Introduction Need for Alternative Fuel  Fast Depletion of Fossil Fuels  Global Warming and Environmental Pollution  Ever Increasing Energy Demand  Crisis of Energy throughout the World
  3. 3. What is biodiesel? Biodiesel is made from 100% renewable recourses and it is considered as the fuel of future. It is made from vegetable oil through a process called transesterification. CH2OOR | CHOOR | CH2OOR (Triglyceride) CH2OH | + 3 CH3OH → 3CH3OOCR + CHOH | CH2OH (Methanol) (Methyl Ester) (Glycerol) Transesterification Reaction
  4. 4. PETRO-DIESEL CO2 CYCLE Almost 10 kg of fossil CO2 released 3.78 liter of fuel burned Fossil CO2 Release to Atmosphere Refining Exploration Use in Cars and Trucks
  5. 5. BIODIESEL CO2 CYCLE No fossil CO2 Released ; No global warming Renewable CO2 Use in Cars and Trucks Oil Crops Biodiesel Production
  6. 6. Previous Works Researcher Method Conclusion Rao [1] Experimental Decrease in engine performance and emissions Increase in NOx Dwivedi et al. [2] Experimental BSFC increased Brake thermal efficiency was almost equal Prasad et al. [3] Experimental Higher BSFC Lower CO and HC emissions Higher NOx emission Amarnath et al. [4] Experimental Slight reduction in performance Lower HC emission Increase in NOx emission
  7. 7. Properties of Jatropha Property Fuel Diesel Jatropha Cetane No. 48 53 Molecular Mass 190 282 Calorific Value (MJkg-1) 42.5 38 Density (kgm-3) 830 872 C 0.87 0.766 H 0.126 0.120 O 0.004 0.114 Dynamic Viscosity coeffecient at 325 K(Pas) 0.003 0.0057 Composition (in mass fraction)
  8. 8. Simulation Model Conservation of mass* dm  = ∑mj dt j  m j is the mass flow rate of the jth species Conservation of species*   mj  Yj = ∑  j  m  j ΩW  Yi − Yi cyl + i mw  ρ  ( ) Yi j and Yi cyl are the stoichiometric coefficients on the product side and reactant side Ωi is a dimensionless integral dependent on ith species Wmw is the molecular weight of the species Conservation of energy* d ( mu ) = dt   Internal Energy dv −p   dt Displacement Work + dQht dt  Heat Transfer  + ∑j mjhj     Enthalpy Flux *as described by Hamdan and Khalil [5]
  9. 9. Simulation Model Equivalence ratio Brake power Specific fuel consumption NOx formation Modelling* ( A F) λ= ( A F)S = (m  (m a a mf  mf ) ) S Pb = T .ω SFC =  mf Pb O2 ↔ 2O N 2 +O ↔ NO+N Zeldovich mechanism N+O2 ↔ NO+O *as described by Heywood [6]
  10. 10. Simulation Model NOx formation Modelling* − 38020 TZ { [ N 2 ] e .[ O] e . 1 − ( [ NO] [ NO ] e ) d [ NO ] p.2.333 ∗10 .e = dθ  2365 3365 [ NO ]   R.TZ .1 + .e Tz .  Tz [O2 ] e    7 2 }⋅ 1 ω p is a cylinder pressure, Pa; Tz is a temperature in a burnt gas zone, K; R is a gas constant, J/(mole K); ω is an angular crank velocity, 1/sec;[ NO ] e [ ,N 2 ] e [,O ] e [,O2 ] e are equilibrium concentrations. *as described by Kuleshov [7] Soot Formation Modelling q dx  d [C ]  = 0.004 C   V dt  dt  K V is a current volume of cylinder, qc is a cycle fuel mass, dx/dt is a heat release rate K is a constant of evaporation.
  11. 11. Simulation Model Calculation of Hartige smoke level Particulate Matter Modelling* Hartige = 100[1 − 0.9545 exp( − 2.4226[ C ] ) ] [ PM ] = 565 ln 10    10 − Bosch   *as described by Alkidas [8] 1.206
  12. 12. Experimental Setup Manufacturer Kirloskar Engine Oil. ltd Model AV2 Type 4-stroke, water cooled Ignition Type Compression Ignition No. of cylinders 2 Rated Power 7.35 kW or 10 BHP Bore 80 mm Stroke 110 mm
  13. 13. Experimental Setup 5 6 4 3 7 2 1 8 9 10 1. Engine, 2. Hydraulic dynamometer, 3. Exhaust Gas Analyser, 4. Loading Unit, 5. Fuel Tank, 6. Measuring Burette, 7. Inlet water for dynamometer, 8. Inlet water for engine, 9. Water outlet from dynamometer, 10. Water outlet from engine Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the experimental setup
  14. 14. Results and Discussions Validation of Experimental and Numerical Results
  15. 15. Results and Discussions
  16. 16. Results and Discussions
  17. 17. Results and Discussions
  18. 18. Results and Discussions
  19. 19. Conclusion  Diesel-RK gives s realistic results and trend match well with experimental results.  The slight quantitative difference is due to the fact that Diesel-RK uses 1-D modeling and experimental results are 3-D in nature.  With increase in biodiesel share in the blends: • Brake thermal efficiency decreases and BSFC increases • NOx and CO2 emissions increase • Smoke and PM emissions decrease
  20. 20. References 1. P. V. Rao, Experimental Investigations on the Influence of Properties of Jatropha Biodiesel on Performance, Combustion, and Emission Characteristics of a DI-CI Engine, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2011, 51, 854-867. 2. G. Dwivedi, S. Jain, M. P. Sharma, Impact of Biodiesel and its Blends with Diesel and Methanol on Engine Performance, International Journal of Energy Science, 2011, 1(2), 105-109. 3. S. M. Palash, M. A. Kalam, H. H. Masjuki, B. M. Masum, A. Sanjid, Impacts of Jatropha biodiesel blends on engine performance and emission of a multi cylinder diesel engine, Intermational Conference on Future Trends in Structural, Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering – FTSCEM, 2013,ISBN: 978981-07-7021-1 doi:10.3850/ 978-981-07-7021-1_58. 4. H. K. Amarnath, P. Prabhakaran, S. A. Bhat and R. Paatil, A Comparative Experimental Study Between The Biodiesels of Karanja, Jatropha And Palm Oils Based On Their Performance And Emissions In A Four Stroke Diesel Engine, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, April 2012, 7(4), 1819-6608
  21. 21. References 5. M. A. Hamdan, R. H. Khalil, Simulation of compression engine powered by Biofuels, Energy Conversion and Management, 2010, vol. 51(8), pp. 1714–1718. 6. J. B. Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, 1988, McGrawHill Co., US. 7. A. S. Kuleshov, Use of Multi-Zone DI Diesel Spray Combustion Model for Simulation and Optimization of Performance and Emissions of Engines with Multiple Injection, 2006, SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-1385, doi:10.4271/2006-011385. 8. A. C. Alkidas, Relationship between smoke measurements and particular measurements, 1984, SAE Technical Paper 840412, doi:10.4271/840412.

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