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162 sunny soni

  1. 1. “Use of Portland Pozzolana Cement for the Production of Biodiesel ” Presented by Sunny Soni DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING MALAVIYA NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY JAIPUR -302017 1
  2. 2. Contents Introduction Experiments Result & discussion Conclusion References 2
  3. 3. Introduction Biodiesel Chemically, biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based diesel fuel consisting of short chain alkyl (methyl or ethyl) esters, made by transesterification of vegetable oil or animal fat (tallow), which can be used (alone, or blended with conventional petro diesel) in unmodified dieselengine vehicles. B100 or “neat” fuel: Biodiesel is pure or 100% BXX : Biodiesel blends XX indicates the amount of biodiesel in the blend (i.e., a B80 blend is 80% biodiesel and 20% petrodiesel) 3
  4. 4. Transesterification In the transesterification of vegetable oils, a triglyceride reacts with an alcohol in the presence of a strong acid or base, producing a mixture of fatty acids alkyl esters and glycerol. Triglyceride + ROH Diglyceride + RCOOR1 Diglyceride + ROH Monoglyceride + RCOOR2 Monoglyceride + ROH Glycerol + RCOOR3 Transesterification reaction can be either carried out via noncatalytic or catalytic processes. 4
  5. 5. Transesterification Acid-Catalyzed Processes Base-Catalyzed Processes 5
  6. 6. Catalysts for transesterification Catalyst used for the transesterification of triglycerides is classified as Alkali catalyst, acid catalyst, enzyme or heterogeneous catalysts 6
  7. 7. Why should we use Heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification ? Problems associated with the homogeneous catalysts The high consumption of energy, form unwanted soap by-product by reaction of the FFA, Expensive separation of the homogeneous catalyst from the reaction mixture , Generation large amount of wastewater during separation and cleaning of the catalyst and the products 7
  8. 8. Heterogeneous catalysts: Many heterogeneous catalysts, based on Metal hydroxides, metal complexes, metal oxides such as calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, zirconium oxide and supported catalysts have been investigated as solid catalysts. Heterogeneous catalysts can be more easily separated higher quality of ester products and glycerol by product obtain, without expensive refining operations catalysts are not consumed or dissolved in the reaction and therefore can be easily separated from the products catalysts can also be readily regenerated and reused more environmentally benign because there is no need for acid or water treatment in the separation step 8
  9. 9. Details Of Work Done Following work has been done Characterization of cement Characterizations of thumba oil & soybean oil Synthesis of catalyst Production of biodiesel Characterization of biodiesel 9
  10. 10. Experimental Materials Soybean oil and Thumba oil used for the preparation of biodiesel was purchased from Jaipur and Jodhpur. CH3OH, KOH & all the chemicals were purchased from companies Ranbaxy fine chemicals (Renkem) Laboratory, Hi-media Laboratory Limited & MERCK Limited. The Portland pozzolana cement was collected from J.K. Lakshmi Cement Ltd., Jaykaypuram-Sirohi (Rajasthan). Characterization of raw material Characterization of soybean oil and Thumba oil S.No. Parameter Soybean oil Thumba oil 1. Density(kg/L) 0.843 kg/L 0.924 2. Kinematic viscosity (mm2/sec. at 400C) 28.97 34.95 3. Iodine value (gI2/100gm) 141 101 4. Cloud point (0C) -2 -1 5. Pour point (0C) -3 -3 6. Flash point (0C) 265 263 7. Fire point (0C) 270 269 8. Acid value (mg KOH/g) 2.15 11.25 9. Free fatty acid 1.075 5.625 Table 1 Characterization of soybean oil and Thumba oil 10
  11. 11. Characterization of Portland pozzolana cement The characterization of Portland pozzolana cement has been done by XRF at JK Lakshmi Cement Ltd., which have shown in table 2. The Portland pozzolana cement has composition of 65% clinker, 29% fly ash and 6% gypsum. S.NO. 1 Content Na2O Composition of clinker (%) 0.37 Composition of fly ash (%) 1.12 2 3 MgO Al2O3 3.03 5.72 1.80 25.60 4 SiO2 20.99 51.50 5 SO3 1.29 1.7 6 7 ClƟ K2O 0.69 0.56 8 9 CaO TiO2 63.98 - 8.25 - 10 Fe2O3 3.71 5.4 11 12 13 A/F S/R LSF 1.54 2.23 94 14 15 F/CaO Tricalcium Silicate (Ca3SiO5), C3S 1.84 46.11 - 16 Dicalcium Silicate (Ca2SiO4), C2S 25.4 - 17 Tricalcium Aluminate (Ca3Al2O6), C3A 8.87 - 18 Tetracalcium Aluminoferrite (Ca2AlFeO5), C4AF 11.3 - 19 Table 2 Characterization of Portland pozzolana cement 28.1 Liquid - 11
  12. 12. Preparation of catalyst The solid base catalysts were prepared by chemical synthesis methods as follows. 1. Preparation of hydrated Portland pozzolana cement pellets. Portland pozzolana cement and deionised water solution were mixed in a 1000 ml beaker. The mixture was stirred vigorously at 90 oC for 3 h. After the mixture was cooled to room temperature, the paste of Portland pozzolana cement was collected and prepared pellets. 2. Generation of the solid pellets. The hydrated Portland pozzolana cement pellets were dried at 100 oC for 24h in an oven and then it immersed in water and kept at room temperature for 7 days to provide strength. Then it was extracted and dried. 3. Generation of the solid base catalyst. 15gm of solid pellets & 4 gm of aq. KOH solution solution were mixed in a beaker. The mixture was stirred vigorously at 20 rpm and 90 oC till it dried. It was dried in oven at 1000C for a night. Thereafter, the dried pellets were calcined at 8500C for 7 hrs. The catalyst, thus, obtained with KOH loading as 21.05 wt% KOH/ Portland pozzolana cement. 12
  13. 13. Reaction Procedure 13
  14. 14. Reaction Procedure 14
  15. 15. Result & Discussion 15
  16. 16. Optimization of reaction conditions In this study, the new prepared solid base catalyst was employed to catalyze the transesterification of soybean oil and thumba oil with methanol to produce biodiesel. The variables affecting the transesterification, such as methanol-to-oil molar ratio (3:1–9:1), catalyst amount (2.0–5.0 wt. % of oil), reaction temperature (55–70 oC), and reaction time (50–65 minutes), were investigated. Effect of mole ratio of methanol/oil Figure (a) Figure (b) (a) Effect of methanol/soybean oil molar ratio on the methyl ester content at 65 OC, with 4 wt.% catalyst and for 65 minutes (b) Effect of methanol/thumba oil molar ratio on the methyl ester content at 65 OC, with 4 wt.% catalyst and for 65 minutes 16
  17. 17. Effect of catalyst amount Figure (a) Figure (b) (a) Effect of the amount of catalyst on the soybean oil methyl ester content at 65 OC, with 6:1 M ratio and for 65 minutes (b) Effect of the amount of catalyst on the thumba oil methyl ester content at 65 OC, with 6:1 M ratio and for 65 minutes 17
  18. 18. Effect of reaction temperature Figure (a) Figure (b) (a) Effect of reaction temperature on the soybean oil methyl ester content with 6:1 M ratio, 4 wt.% catalyst and for 65 minutes. (b) Effect of reaction temperature on the thumba oil methyl ester content with 6:1 M ratio, 4 wt.% catalyst and for 65 minutes 18
  19. 19. Characterization of biodiesel S.No. Parameter soybean oil methyl ester thumba oil methyl ester 1. Density(kg/L) 0.801 0.805 2. Kinematic viscosity (mm2/sec. at 400C) 4.25 4.95 3. Iodine value (gI2/100gm) 136 104 4. Acid value (mg KOH/g) 0.15 0.24 5. Cloud point (0C) -6 -4 6. Pour point (0C) -10 -9 7. Flash point (0C) 170 174 8. Fire point (0C) 175 179 9. Yield (%) 94.52 90 Table 3 Characterization of soybean oil methyl ester and thumba oil methyl ester 19
  20. 20. Conclusions In this study, A novel solid base catalyst which contains KOH is prepared by simple steps and is inexpensive.  The experimental results show that 21 wt. % KOH/ Portland pozzolana cement as catalyst has excellent catalytic activity and outstanding stability in the transesterification of soybean oil and thumba oil with methanol to produce biodiesel. The optimal transesterification conditions are obtained as follows: methanol/oil molar ratio 6:1, the amount of catalyst 4 wt. %, reaction temperature 65oC. The results demonstrate that the Portland pozzolana cement catalyst shows high catalytic performance & it was found that the yield of biodiesel can reach as high as 94.52% with soybean oil & 90% with thumba oil under the optimal conditions. Moreover, the catalyst is used repeatedly for at least 3 cycles with sustained activity and with decreasing the methyl ester content, which sufficiently shows its good stability. 20
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