160 z. hussain


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  • Lower burning time for weo at adv timing resulting in lower hrr max value
  • Lower burning time for weo at adv timing resulting in lower hrr max value
  • Lower burning time for weo at adv timing resulting in lower hrr max value
  • 160 z. hussain

    1. 1. Paper ID 160 Ref No 1368 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF DUAL FUEL ENGINE USING LPG AND PROCESSED WASTE ENGINE OIL AS FUEL By A.ZAHIR HUSSAIN RAILWAYS Ph.D/NITT Guide Dr. R ANAND Assistant Professor Mechanical Engineering Department NIT Trichy Transaction ID 94020
    2. 2. OVERVIEW • • • • • • • • Introduction Literature review Objective Experimental methodology Experimental setup Results and conclusions Scope for future work Reference 1/40
    3. 3. INTRODUCTION • The limited availability of fossil fuels and their ever increasing cost have always encouraged researchers to give more significance for finding new sources of energy. • Many research works have addressed the utilisation of waste oils originated from crude oil [1] and biomass origin waste oil [2] for the case of diesel engine application as sources of energy. • Generation of waste oil is closely linked with the increase in the number of automobiles and industry. 2/40
    4. 4. • Lubricating oil or engine oil is used in engines to provide lubrication to the moving parts. • Once they are used for a particular period of time the lube loses many of its properties due to oxidation of base oil and the addition of many foreign particles[3]. • The engine oil has to be replaced once it loses its properties. This used engine oil is called waste engine oil (WEO). • If the WEO is not disposed properly, they pose serious threat to environment [3]. These oils contain degraded additives which along with other contaminants render them hazardous. INTRODUCTION CONTD....... 3/40
    5. 5. • Apart from the base oil and other additives which are there in pure engine oil, WEO contains soot, iron, chromium, ash etc.[6]. • WEO can be re-refined to obtain the base oil which can be again treated and used as lubricant. • If it is possible to find use for WEO in other areas, there will be a greater incentive to collect WEO which will reduce its effect on environment, as only 45% of waste oil was collected in 1995 [7]. • Purified WEO has already been used as a source of fuel for diesel engine [3,9]. INTRODUCTION CONTD....... 4/40
    6. 6. • Fuels like natural gas and LPG are cleaner fuels, and recent research works have studied the feasibility of using them as alternate fuels in diesel engines. • But such fuels can be used only in dual fuel mode operation due to their high auto ignition temperature. To enable dual fuel operation in diesel engine some modifications should be made to the engine. • During dual fuel operation the liquid pilot injected fuel burns first and the resulting increase in temperature causes the inducted gaseous fuel to burn. • Hydrogen, LPG, CNG, biogas etc. are the different types of inducted fuels normally used. INTRODUCTION CONTD....... 5/40
    7. 7. • In this project the characteristics of a dual fuel engine was studied. Processed WEO was used as the pilot injected fuel and LPG was used as the inducted fuel. 6/40
    8. 8. LITERATURE REVIEW Various methods used to purify waste engine oil Serial No Description 1 The paper uses analytic hierarchy process to select, analyze and compare the regenerative technologies. 2 Waste mineral insulating oil was re-refined using extraction with NMP. The extraction process parameters were investigated to obtain best results. Parameters Author & year Selection of regenerative process should be selected based on cost, environmental impact and technology threshold Amount of water as cosolvent, extraction temperature & solvent oil ratio. Result Yu Lung Hsu et al & 2010 Moderate extraction temperature, 1% water in NMP and low solvent oil ratio were determined ass the optimal value. Jelena Lukic et al & 2005 7/40
    9. 9. LITERATURE REVIEW Various methods used to purify waste engine oil Seria l No Description 3 The use of micro emulsion modified diatomite and activated carbon as solid extractants for removing inorganic and organic pollutants from waste lubricating oil was studied. 4 The use of liquid and supercritical ethane as a solvent for recycling used lubricating oil was studied. The operating parameters were varied to obtain the optimum operating point. Parameters Result Author & year The raw and Mohammad A modified adsorbents Al-Ghouti were effective et al & 2011 towards all pollutants especially for the inorganic pollutants with high removal percentages. Temperature and pressure Extraction yield increased with temperature. For supercritical ethane with increasing pressure extraction yield decreased. Jesusa Rincon et-al & 2007 8/40
    10. 10. LITERATURE REVIEW Processed WEO as a source of fuel in diesel engine Serial Description No 1 Filtered WEO was made to undergo pyrolytic distillation to obtain diesel like fuel (DLF). Effects of diesel-like fuel on engine performance and exhaust emission were investigated experimentally. 2 WEO was processed using clay treatment and the processed oil was blended with diesel and the properties of the blend was studied. Parameters Result Author & year It was observed that the Orhan produced DLF can be Arpa et al used in diesel engines & 2009 without any problem in terms of engine performance. An improvement in the performance characteristics was observed WEO from different sources and the amount of blending needed. Pre-treated WEO from ships with 35% blending with diesel gave properties similar to diesel. R.A Beg et-al & 2010 9/40
    11. 11. LITERATURE REVIEW Dual fuel mode operation Serial Description No Parameters Result Author & year Load and the type of gaseous fuel used as the inducted fuel. NOx and PM emissions decreased in dual fuel mode operation. UHC and CO emissions increased in dual fuel mode operation. Nirendra N Mustafi et al & 2013 Diesel and biodiesel gave similar combustion characteristics in single fuel mode operation. In dual fuel mode operation there was significant reduction in NOx and soot emissions. There was a decrease in ignition delay in dual fuel mode operation. Seung Hyun Yoon et al & 2011 1 The paper studies the combustion and emission characteristics of a dual fuel engine operated on alternate gaseous fuels (natural gas and biogas) 2 This paper studies the . combustion and emission characteristics of biogasbiodiesel dual fuel operation in a CI engine. 10/40
    12. 12. LITERATURE REVIEW Dual fuel mode operation Serial Description No Parameters Result 3 The paper investigates the effect of variation in LPG composition on emission and performance characterisation in a dual fuel engine run on diesel and LPG. The composition of propane and butane in LPG was varied. Higher butane content led to H.E. lower NOx and higher Saleh & propane content led to lower 2008 CO emissions. LPG fuel with 70% propane and 30% butane with mass fraction 40% substitution was the best LPG composition. 4 Experimental work was Diesel fuel done to examine the effects supplementary of total air fuel ratio on the ratio. performance of a high speed CI engine, where liquid diesel fuel is partially substituted by natural gas in various proportions. With decrease in diesel fuel supplementary ratio thermal efficiency decreases, NO and particulate emission decreases, but CO and HC emission increases. Author & year R.G. Papagian nakis et al & 2009 11/40
    13. 13. OBJECTIVE • Study the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine operated on duel fuel mode with LPG as inducted fuel and processed waste engine oil as pilot injected fuel. • Compare the characteristics obtained in dual fuel mode with that obtained using diesel. 12/40
    14. 14. EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGY • Experiments conducted can be classified into two categories, fuel characterisation experiments and engine side experimentation. • Fuel characterisation tests were done to understand the suitability of using the fuel obtained from WEO as pilot injected fuel. • Engine side experimentation was done to study the characteristics of the dual fuel engine. 13/40
    15. 15. Engine Side Experimentation • In total 5 sets of experiments were conducted for both diesel and WEO fuel. • In each set, the load on the engine was varied as 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% and 110% of the engine output. • For each set the following parameters were measured or calculated; CO, CO2, NO, UHC, smoke opacity, BSFC, BSEC, BTE, cylinder pressure, heat release rate and exhaust gas temperature. 14/40
    16. 16. Engine Side Experimentation • With diesel fuel one set of reading was taken to get the base line readings. • With processed WEO fuel one set of reading was taken. • Three different sets of readings were taken in the dual fuel mode operation. For each set the amount of input energy supplied by LPG was varied. Table 1. Variation of input energy source for different duel fuel mode operation Set 1 Set 2 Set 3 LPG 20 % 30 % 40 % Processed WEO 80 % 70 % 60 % Energy source 15/40
    17. 17. Fuel Characterisation Tests The tests were done to find out the suitability of using the fuel obtained from WEO. The following properties of the fuels were determined 1. Flash point and fire point 2. Cloud point and pour point 3. Corrosion resistance 4. Calorific value 5. Carbon residue 6. Kinematic viscosity 7. Density 16/40
    18. 18. Fuel Characterisation Test Results Table 2. Fuel characterisation test results S No. Property WEO Fuel Diesel ASTM Standards 1 Density (kg/m3)at 35° C 870 838 ASTM 1298 2 Kinematic viscosity (cSt) at 38° C 14.3 2.45 ASTM D445 3 Flash point (°C) 133 58 ASTM D93 4 Fire point (°C) 145 70 ASTM D93 5 Carbon residue (g) 0.06 0 ASTM D524 6 Copper strip corrosion 1b 1b ASTM D130 7 Calorific value (kJ/kg) 38790 42150 ASTM D240 8 Pour point (°C) -18 -27 ASTM D97 9 Cloud point (°C) -9 -6 ASTM D2500 17/40
    19. 19. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the experimental setup 18/40
    20. 20. Diesel Engine A single cylinder four stroke water cooled DI diesel engine was used. Engine has a peak power of 3.7 kW and runs at constant speed of 1500 rpm. The injection timing and pressure set by the manufacturer are 23° bTDC and 200 bar respectively. Eddy Current Dynamometer The engine is directly coupled to an eddy current dynamometer for loading the engine. A strain gauge attached to the dynamometer is used for measuring the load acting on the engine. Smoke Meter Smoke was measured in terms of percentage smoke opacity using an AVL 437 smoke meter. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP CONTD..... 19/40
    21. 21. Fuel Flow Measurement A standard burette, which was duly calibrated. Two grooved type photoelectric sensors are used to sense when the burette is full and when it is empty. System timer is used to measure the time. Exhaust Gas Analyser AVL digas 444 five gas analyser was used to measure the concentration of CO, CO2, NO, O2 and UHC present in the exhaust gas. Data Acquisition System This system was used to measure crank angle, ignition delay and cylinder pressure. The system consists of pressure sensor, TDC encoder etc. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP CONTD..... 20/40
    22. 22. LPG Kit LPG kit is used to control the flow of LPG into the engine. It consists of a pressure regulator, flow sensor and solenoid valve. 21/40
    23. 23. Fig.2 Photographic view of experimental setup 22/40
    24. 24. RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS The results of the experiments on the engine can be classified into three categories •Performance characteristics •Emission characteristics •Combustion characteristics 23/40
    25. 25. Performance Characteristics - BSFC Fig. 3 Variation of BSFC with BMEP 24/40
    26. 26. Performance Characteristics - BSEC Fig. 4 Variation of BSEC with BMEP 25/40
    27. 27. Performance Characteristics - BTE Fig. 5 Variation of BTE with BMEP 26/40
    28. 28. Emission Characteristics - CO Fig. 6 Variation of CO with BMEP 27/40
    29. 29. Emission Characteristics - CO2 Fig. 7 Variation of CO2 with BMEP 28/40
    30. 30. Emission Characteristics - NO Fig. 8 Variation of NO with BMEP 29/40
    31. 31. Emission Characteristics - UHC Fig. 9 Variation of UHC with BMEP 30/40
    32. 32. Emission Characteristics – Smoke Opacity Fig. 10 Variation of Smoke opacity with BMEP 31/40
    33. 33. Combustion Characteristics – Cylinder Pressure Fig. 11 Variation of Cylinder pressure with crank angle at rated load point 32/40
    34. 34. Combustion Characteristics – Peak Pressure Fig. 12 Variation of peak pressure with BMEP 33/40
    35. 35. Combustion Characteristics – Heat Release Rate Fig. 13 Variation of heat release rate with crank angle at rated load point 34/40
    36. 36. Combustion Characteristics – Exhaust Gas Temperature Fig. 14 Variation of exhaust gas temperature with BMEP 35/40
    37. 37. CONCLUSIONS • The performance characteristics of the engine with WEO fuel is comparable to that with diesel fuel. • NO emissions decreased with WEO fuel, while CO and UHC emissions increased. Smoke readings were also higher for WEO fuel. • For dual fuel operation there was a slight decrease in efficiency. CO and UHC emission increased. NO and smoke opacity decreased. There was a reduction in peak pressure and maximum heat release rate. • The huge increase in UHC emissions and the decrease in efficiency can be corrected by retuning the LPG kit. 36/40
    38. 38. SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK • Further work is needed to identify better processes to yield fuel from WEO, which will be similar to diesel in its properties. • Work can be done to understand the dual fuel characteristic of the engine with processed WEO and other gaseous fuels like natural gas, hydrogen and biogas. 37/40
    39. 39. REFERENCE [1] Salah B, Al-Omari, “Used engine lubrication oil as a renewable supplementary fuel for furnaces”, Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008), 3648-3653 [2] Rakopoulos CD, Antonopoulos KA, Rakopoulos DC, “Multi-zone modelling of diesel engine fuel spray development with vegetable oil, bio-diesel or diesel fuel”, Energy Conversion and Management 47 (2006), 1550-1573 [3] Orhan Arpa, Recep Yumurutas, Ayhan Demirbas, “Production of diesel like fuel from waste engine oil by pyrolitic distillation”, Applied Energy 87 (2010), 122-127 [4] Basel Convention, “Technical guidelines on used oil re-refining of other re-uses of previously used oil”, 2001, series/SBC No. 02/05, ISBN: 92-1-158605-4 [5] Denton Joan E (December 2004), “Used oil in bunker fuel: A review of potential human health implications” [6] Jelena Lukic et al, “Re-refining of waste mineral oil by extraction with N-methyl2-pyrrolidone”, Separation and Purification Technology 51 (2006), 150-156 [7] M El-Fadel, R Khoury, “Strategies for vehicle waste-oil management: a case study”, Conservation & Recycling 33 (2001), 75-91 38/40
    40. 40. REFERENCE [8] Yu-Lung Hsu, Chun-Chu Liu, “Evaluation and selection of regeneration of waste lubricating oil technology”, Environmental Monitoring & Assessment 176 (2011), 197-212 [9] R A Beg, M R I Sarker, Md Riaz Pervez, “Production of diesel fuel from used engine oil”, IJMME-IJENS Vol: 10 No:2 [10] Nirendra N Mustafi, Robert R Raine, Sebastian Verhelst (2013) Combustion and emission characteristics of a dual fuel engine operated on alternative gaseous fuels. Fuel [11] Seung Hyun Yoon, Chang Sik Lee (2011) Experimental investigation on the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of biogas–biodiesel dual-fuel combustion in a CI engine. Fuel Processing Technology, 92, 992–1000 [12] Mohamed Y E Selima, M S Radwanb, H E Saleh (2008) Improving the performance of dual fuel engines running on natural gas/LPG by using pilot fuel derived from jojoba seeds. Renewable Energy, 33, 1173–1185 [13] R G Papagiannakis, C D Rakopoulos, D T Hountalas, D C Rakopoulos (2010) Emission characteristics of high speed, dual fuel, compression ignition engine operating in a wide range of natural gas/diesel fuel proportions, Fuel, 89, 1397– 1406 39/40
    41. 41. THANK YOU 40/40