Successfully reported this slideshow.
AN APPRAISAL OF RURAL/URBAN ELECTRICITY
CONSUMPTION IN A SOUTH INDIAN CITY:
VINDICATION OF GREENER ENERGY POTENTIAL
THROUG...
INTRODUCTION
☼ Electricity – Sustainable human development.
☼

Issue – Scarcity of resources, increase in energy price and...
OBJECTIVE

☼

Solar PV system– Madurai.

☼

Suitable solution – Shun power crisis.

☼

Technical and economic viability – ...
TAMIL NADU ENERGY SCENARIO
☼ 1986 – Fully electrified.
☼

55% Electric power – Fossil Fuel .

☼

45% of Electric power – R...
GENERATION VS DEMAND
☼ 26% –11,000 MW .
☼

16 hours – Load shedding .

☼

4000 MW – Power shortage

☼

Huge scarcity of el...
STUDY AREA
☼
☼

Latitude 9.58 N and Longitude 78.10 E.
3696 sq. km – Area.

☼

3.57 % of total population in Tamil Nadu.

...
STUDY AREA

Cont….

☼

300 sunny days – 2300 to 3200 hours per year.

☼

Annual solar radiation – 1600KWhm-2 to 2200 KWhm-...
RESIDENTS UNDER SURVEY

10.12.2013

Paper ID-15, ICAER2013

8
INSTITUTIONAL BUILDING
24 KW Standalone PV system

10.12.2013

Measured output power from Jan’12 to Dec ‘12

Paper ID-15, ...
METHODOLOGY
☼

Weekdays and Weekend – Daily energy consumption .

☼

150 Urban and 150 Rural residents – August 2012 to De...
SOLAR PV SYSTEM DESIGN
☼

☼
☼
☼
☼

334KWh – Average electric power
consumption.
PV array – Rs. 150-200/Wp.
Charge controll...
HOMER
☼

HOMER – Simulation and optimization software tool.

☼

National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

☼

Evaluates suitab...
LOAD PROFILE

10.12.2013

Paper ID-15, ICAER2013

13
DISCUSSION
Energy consumption

10.12.2013

Electric Appliance

Paper ID-15, ICAER2013

14
ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION BASED ON INCOME
☼

☼

☼

Residents < 2 lakhs
 27% of residence.
 Average electricity consumption...
ECONOMIC ASSESMENT OF SOLAR PV SYSTEM

10.12.2013

Paper ID-15, ICAER2013

16
PAYBACKPERIOD
Stand-alone PV system = 44 years

10.12.2013

Grid Connected PV System=34 years

Paper ID-15, ICAER2013

17
ANNUAL ELECTRICITY PRICE AND COST OF
STAND-ALONE PV SYSTEM
☼

☼

☼

Class – 1
 Income < 2 lakhs.
 Average energy consump...
HOMER RESULTS

Stand-alone PV system

10.12.2013

Grid Connected PV System

Paper ID-15, ICAER2013

19
CONCLUDING REMARKS
☼

Power shortage – Intolerable.

☼

Solar PV system – Minimum payback period.

☼

HOMER – Grid connect...
References
[1] Tully S. The human right to access electricity. The Electricity Journal 2006;
19(3):30–39.
[2] Ghoshray A, ...
References
[9] Zhou W, Lou C, Li Z, Lu L, Yang H. Current status of research on optimum sizing of standalone hybrid solar-...
References
[17] Mani A. Handbook of solar radiation. New Delhi: Allied Publishers; 1981.
[18] Annual Report (2011-12) on t...
Let us Harness Maximum solar Energy
Reduce CO2 Emission

Thank you

10.12.2013

Paper ID-15, ICAER2013

24
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

15 palpandian

989 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

15 palpandian

  1. 1. AN APPRAISAL OF RURAL/URBAN ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION IN A SOUTH INDIAN CITY: VINDICATION OF GREENER ENERGY POTENTIAL THROUGH SOLAR PV SYSTEM By M.PALPANDIAN, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Sethu Institute of Technology, Kariapatti, Virudhunagar District-626115, Tamil Nadu, India. Email: palpandianm@gmail.com 10.12.2013 Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 1
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION ☼ Electricity – Sustainable human development. ☼ Issue – Scarcity of resources, increase in energy price and identified environmental problems. ☼ Effective consumption – Global energy and environmental problems. ☼ Renewable energy – Safer. ☼ People attention – Solar energy. 10.12.2013 Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 2
  3. 3. OBJECTIVE ☼ Solar PV system– Madurai. ☼ Suitable solution – Shun power crisis. ☼ Technical and economic viability – Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER). 10.12.2013 Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 3
  4. 4. TAMIL NADU ENERGY SCENARIO ☼ 1986 – Fully electrified. ☼ 55% Electric power – Fossil Fuel . ☼ 45% of Electric power – Renewable Energy. ☼ 15 MW of Electric power – Solar Energy. ☼18% ☼ – Transmission line losses. 492000 ha – Un-cultivable land. 10.12.2013 Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 4
  5. 5. GENERATION VS DEMAND ☼ 26% –11,000 MW . ☼ 16 hours – Load shedding . ☼ 4000 MW – Power shortage ☼ Huge scarcity of electricity – increase in consumer. ☼ 2006 – 2012 – Same installed capacity . ☼ Renewable sources – Wind and solar. 10.12.2013 Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 5
  6. 6. STUDY AREA ☼ ☼ Latitude 9.58 N and Longitude 78.10 E. 3696 sq. km – Area. ☼ 3.57 % of total population in Tamil Nadu. ☼ 14.4 lakhs – Urban population . ☼ 11.3 lakhs – Rural population . ☼ 25.8 lakhs – Total population . ☼ 6.13 lakhs – Total number of households. ☼ 68.1% – Permanent households . ☼ 19.7% – Semi permanent households . ☼ 12.2% – Temporary households. ☼ 4 Persons – Average size of a household. 10.12.2013 Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 6
  7. 7. STUDY AREA Cont…. ☼ 300 sunny days – 2300 to 3200 hours per year. ☼ Annual solar radiation – 1600KWhm-2 to 2200 KWhm-2 . ☼ Average sunshine duration – 9 hours (~35ºC) summer and 6 hours (~33ºC) winter. 10.12.2013 Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 7
  8. 8. RESIDENTS UNDER SURVEY 10.12.2013 Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 8
  9. 9. INSTITUTIONAL BUILDING 24 KW Standalone PV system 10.12.2013 Measured output power from Jan’12 to Dec ‘12 Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 9
  10. 10. METHODOLOGY ☼ Weekdays and Weekend – Daily energy consumption . ☼ 150 Urban and 150 Rural residents – August 2012 to December 2012. ☼ Questionnaire – Residence area, residence type , family size, family type, annual income and time of occupation. 10.12.2013 Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 10
  11. 11. SOLAR PV SYSTEM DESIGN ☼ ☼ ☼ ☼ ☼ 334KWh – Average electric power consumption. PV array – Rs. 150-200/Wp. Charge controller – Rs. 2000/KWh. Battery – Rs. 4000/KWh. Inverter – Rs. 4000/KW. 10.12.2013 Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 11
  12. 12. HOMER ☼ HOMER – Simulation and optimization software tool. ☼ National Renewable Energy Laboratory. ☼ Evaluates suitable technologies options. ☼ Generation of the hourly household electrical load. ☼ Determination of power output. ☼ Calculation – Net present value, Internal rate of return and discounted payback period. 10.12.2013 Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 12
  13. 13. LOAD PROFILE 10.12.2013 Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 13
  14. 14. DISCUSSION Energy consumption 10.12.2013 Electric Appliance Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 14
  15. 15. ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION BASED ON INCOME ☼ ☼ ☼ Residents < 2 lakhs  27% of residence.  Average electricity consumption per month – 500 KWh.  Lighting load and television.  10% – Electricity expenditure. Residents with income between 2 to 5 lakhs  65% of residence.  Average monthly consumption – 500 KWh to 1000 KWh.  Air conditioners, televisions, computers and kitchen appliances.  10 – 15% – Electricity expenditure. Residents with income > 5 lakhs  08% of residence.  Average electricity consumption per month – 1000 to 2000 KWh.  Air conditioners, kitchen appliances, television, lighting, computers and internet usage.  15 – 20% – Electricity expenditure.  Solar PV System – Economical. 10.12.2013 Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 15
  16. 16. ECONOMIC ASSESMENT OF SOLAR PV SYSTEM 10.12.2013 Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 16
  17. 17. PAYBACKPERIOD Stand-alone PV system = 44 years 10.12.2013 Grid Connected PV System=34 years Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 17
  18. 18. ANNUAL ELECTRICITY PRICE AND COST OF STAND-ALONE PV SYSTEM ☼ ☼ ☼ Class – 1  Income < 2 lakhs.  Average energy consumption – 111 KWh per year . Class – II  Income 2 to 5 lakhs.  Average energy consumption – 335 KWh per year . Class – III  Income >5 lakhs.  Average energy consumption – 1361 KWh per year . 10.12.2013 Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 18
  19. 19. HOMER RESULTS Stand-alone PV system 10.12.2013 Grid Connected PV System Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 19
  20. 20. CONCLUDING REMARKS ☼ Power shortage – Intolerable. ☼ Solar PV system – Minimum payback period. ☼ HOMER – Grid connected PV system. 10.12.2013 Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 20
  21. 21. References [1] Tully S. The human right to access electricity. The Electricity Journal 2006; 19(3):30–39. [2] Ghoshray A, Johnson B. Trends in world energy prices. Energy Economics 2010; 32 (5): 1147–1156. [3] Uri, N.D. A reconsideration of effect of energy scarcity on economic growth. Energy 1995;20 (1): 1–12. [4] Michaels S. Matching knowledge brokering strategies to environmental policy problems and settings. Environmental Science & Policy 2009; 12 (7): 994–1011. [5] Johansson-Stenman O. Global environmental problems, efficiency and limited altruism. Economics Letters 2005; 86 (1):101–106. [6] Shafiee S, Topal E. When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished? Energy Policy 2009; 37 (1): 181–189. [7] Sebitosi AB. Energy efficiency, security of supply and the environment in South Africa: moving beyond the strategy documents. Energy 2008; 33(11):1591 – 1596. [8] Luo Xuelian. Solar energy cells and its application. Wuhan Sci College Acad J 2005; 18(10):36–37. 10.12.2013 Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 21
  22. 22. References [9] Zhou W, Lou C, Li Z, Lu L, Yang H. Current status of research on optimum sizing of standalone hybrid solar-wind power generation systems. Appl Energy 2010; 87(2):380–389. [10] Delhi International Renewable Energy Conference, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India http://www.direc2010.gov.in/solar.html. [11] MNRE,2009./http://mnre.gov.in/adm-approvals/rve-adm.pdfS Official website of the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy, Government of India. [12] http://mnre.gov.in/file-manager/annual-report/2012-2013/EN/overview.html [13] Gong X, Kulkarni M. Design optimization of a large scale rooftop photovoltaic system. Solar Energy 2005; 78(3):362 – 74. [14] United States (US) National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL) HOMER Software. See also, https://analysis.nrel.gov/homer. [15] Kelleher J, Ringwood JV. A computational tool for evaluating the economics of solar and wind microgeneration of electricity. Energy 2009; 34(4):401 – 9. [16] Kirubi C, Jacobson A, Kammen DM, Mills A. Community-based electric micro-grids can contribute to rural development: evidence from Kenya. World Dev 2009; 37:1204–1221. 10.12.2013 Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 22
  23. 23. References [17] Mani A. Handbook of solar radiation. New Delhi: Allied Publishers; 1981. [18] Annual Report (2011-12) on the Working of State Power Utilities & Electricity Departments (Power & Energy Division) Planning Commission Government of India October, 2011. [19] Land use statistics, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of India, http://dacnet.nic.in/eands/Land Use Statistics-2000/4.1.pdf. [20] Census of India 2001, Basic data sheet, Madurai (24), Tamil Nadu (33). [21] Al-Ismaily HA, Probert D. Photovoltaic electricity prospects in Oman. Appl Energy 1998; 59(2–3):97–124. [22] Van Dyk EE, Meyer EL, Vorster FJ, Leitch AWR. Long-term monitoring of photovoltaic devices. Renew Energy 2002; 25(2):183–197. [23] Meyer EL, Van Dyk EE. Monitoring I, V and performance parameters of photovoltaic modules. In: Proceeding of the 17th European photovoltaic solar energy conference; 2001. p. 524–527. [24] Bernal-Agustín JL, Dufo-López R. Simulation and optimization of stand-alone hybrid renewable energy systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2009; 13(8):2111– 2118. 10.12.2013 Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 23
  24. 24. Let us Harness Maximum solar Energy Reduce CO2 Emission Thank you 10.12.2013 Paper ID-15, ICAER2013 24

×