RED CROSS & RED CRESCENT
ACTIVITIES IN THE INTERNATIONAL
SECURITY

PRESENTED BY

IBRAHIM ZUBAIRU ABUBAKAR
OUTLINES
 HISTORY OF RED CROSS & RED CRESCENT

 BATTLE OF SOLFERINO 24, JUNE 1859
 MEMORY OF SOLFERINO 1862
 COMMITTEE...
RED CROSS & RED CRESCENT
International organization whose mission is to protect
 The lives and dignity of victims of war
...
BATTLE OF SOLFERINO
HENRY DUNANT
MEMORY OF SOLFERINO
 HENRY DUNANT was shocked by the terrible outcomes of the battle considering the

number of
 Wounded...
MEMORY OF SOLFERINO
 The Memory of Solferino

inspired the creation of

 International Committee of

the Red Cross (ICRC...
THE FIVE (5) FOUNDERS OF THE INTERNATIONAL
COMMITTEE OF RED CROSS


.
GENEVA CONVENTIONS 1949
The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establishes th...
ICRC HQ
HISTORY OF RED CROSS EMBLEMS
 Prior to the 19th century, the symbols used to
 Identify armed forces
 Medical services v...
HISTORY OF EMBLEMS
The flag of Switzerland, from which the
original Red Cross is said to have been
derived

The Red Cross ...
CONT.
The Third Protocol Emblem is the Red
Crystal was adopted by an amendment of
the Geneva Conventions known as Protocol...
CONT.
RED CROSS MOVEMENT
 The

movement consists of several distinct
organizations that are legally independent from
each other...
ORGANIZATIONS UNDER THE MOVEMENT
 International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)

1863

 International Federation of Re...
ICRC MISSIONS
Protect human life and health
Ensure respect for all human beings
Prevent and alleviate human suffering
...
ICRC
ICRC & INTERNATIONAL SECURITY
 The ICRC works on a neutral and impartial basis to protect and assist people






...
ICRC ACTIVITIES DURING WAR
ICRC ACTIVITIES DURING WAR
IFCR
Coordinates the activities between national Red Cross and
Red Crescent societies throughout the world
 Supports the ...
IFRC IN ACTIONS
IFRC IN ACTIONS
Henry Davison, Founding father of the League of
Red Cross societies.
NSRC
 Humanitarian aid in armed conflicts
 Humanitarian aid in emergency crises such as

natural disasters.
 Blood dona...
NSRC IN ACTIONS
IHL & ICRC
 International humanitarian law is part of international law, which is the body of rules






governing r...
ICRC & IHL
 Persons outside of combat and those not taking part in hostilities, shall be protected and









...
ICRC & IHL
ICRC & IHL
ICRC & IHL
ICRC & IHL
ICRC & IHL
ICRC & IHL
CONCLUSION
 ICRC as the promoter and guardian of international

humanitarian laws must encourage the respect of laws
 It...
Red cross and Red Crescent
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Red cross and Red Crescent

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Red cross and Red Crescent ICRC, IFRC and National societies

Red cross and Red Crescent

  1. 1. RED CROSS & RED CRESCENT ACTIVITIES IN THE INTERNATIONAL SECURITY PRESENTED BY IBRAHIM ZUBAIRU ABUBAKAR
  2. 2. OUTLINES  HISTORY OF RED CROSS & RED CRESCENT  BATTLE OF SOLFERINO 24, JUNE 1859  MEMORY OF SOLFERINO 1862  COMMITTEE OF FIVE (5) 1862  GENEVA CONVENTIONS 1864  HISTORY OF EMBLEMS  RED CROSS MOVEMENT  ICRC  IFRC  NSRC, AND THEIR MISSIONS  IHL& ICRC IN INTERNATIONAL SECURITY.
  3. 3. RED CROSS & RED CRESCENT International organization whose mission is to protect  The lives and dignity of victims of war  To provide them with assistance. The name Red Cross generally refers to the humanitarian movement which composed of  International Committee of the Red Cross and Red Crescent  International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent  Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies E.G  American Red Cross  British Red Cross
  4. 4. BATTLE OF SOLFERINO
  5. 5. HENRY DUNANT
  6. 6. MEMORY OF SOLFERINO  HENRY DUNANT was shocked by the terrible outcomes of the battle considering the number of  Wounded soldiers Sufferings  And the number of those that passing away ,  Due to lack of medical attention and basic care  Back to his country Geneva, he decided to write a book A MEMORY OF SOLFERINO published 1862. The book describes his  Experiences in the battle  Its costs  Chaotic circumstances Explicitly advocated the formation  National voluntary relief organizations  International treaties to guarantee the neutrality protection He sent copies of the book to leading political and military figures throughout Europe.
  7. 7. MEMORY OF SOLFERINO  The Memory of Solferino inspired the creation of  International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in 1863.  Four 4 Geneva Conventions & three 3 others additional protocols  Adoption of emblem (Signs of protection)
  8. 8. THE FIVE (5) FOUNDERS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF RED CROSS  .
  9. 9. GENEVA CONVENTIONS 1949 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establishes the standards of international law for the humane treatment of war. 1ST 1949 Geneva Convention dealing with wounded and sick in armed forces in the field. 2ND 1906 Geneva Convention dealing with wounded sick and shipwrecked members of armed forces at sea. Additional protocol (l) 1977 protection of victims of international armed conflict Additional protocol (ll) 1977 non international armed conflict Additional protocol (lll) 2005 adoption of red crystal 3RD 1929 Geneva Convention dealing with treatment of prisoners of war. 4TH Geneva Convention dealing with the protection of civilian persons in time of war.
  10. 10. ICRC HQ
  11. 11. HISTORY OF RED CROSS EMBLEMS  Prior to the 19th century, the symbols used to  Identify armed forces  Medical services vary according to their countries  The symbols were not generally well known  Not entitled to any form of legal protection and respect  It was in 1863, when a five-member committee, proposed the      need to adopt a symbol to be Simple Identifiable from a distance Known to everyone Identical for friend and foe. The emblem had to be the same for everyone and universally recognizable  This brought the adoption of the red cross on a white background as the uniform distinctive emblem.
  12. 12. HISTORY OF EMBLEMS The flag of Switzerland, from which the original Red Cross is said to have been derived The Red Cross emblem was officially approved in Geneva in 1863 The Red Crescent emblem was first used by ICRC volunteers during the armed conflict between the Ottoman Empire and Russia (1877–1878). The symbol was officially adopted in 1929
  13. 13. CONT. The Third Protocol Emblem is the Red Crystal was adopted by an amendment of the Geneva Conventions known as Protocol III 2005. The Red Lion and Sun Society of Iran was established in 1922 and admitted to the Red Cross and Red Crescent movement in 1923. Red Star of David, the national first-aid society of Israel, but it is not recognized by the Geneva Conventions as a protected symbol
  14. 14. CONT.
  15. 15. RED CROSS MOVEMENT  The movement consists of several distinct organizations that are legally independent from each other, but are united within the movement through common basic  Principles  Objectives  Symbols as follows:---
  16. 16. ORGANIZATIONS UNDER THE MOVEMENT  International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) 1863  International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) - 1919  National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.
  17. 17. ICRC MISSIONS Protect human life and health Ensure respect for all human beings Prevent and alleviate human suffering Protected dignity of victims of international and internal armed conflicts.
  18. 18. ICRC
  19. 19. ICRC & INTERNATIONAL SECURITY  The ICRC works on a neutral and impartial basis to protect and assist people           affected by conflict Monitor compliance of warring parties with the Geneva Conventions Organize nursing and care for those who are wounded on the battlefield Visiting prisoners of war Visiting security detainees Searching for missing persons (tracing service) Transmitting messages between separated family members Reuniting dispersed families Providing safe water, food and medical assistance to those in need Disseminating International Humanitarian Law (IHL) Promote the respect of (IHL) Monitors compliance by governments and all weapon bearers.
  20. 20. ICRC ACTIVITIES DURING WAR
  21. 21. ICRC ACTIVITIES DURING WAR
  22. 22. IFCR Coordinates the activities between national Red Cross and Red Crescent societies throughout the world  Supports the foundation of new national societies in countries where no official society exists.  On the international stage  The IFRC organizes and leads relief assistance missions after emergencies such as  Natural disasters  Man-made disasters  Epidemics  Mass refugee flights, and other emergencies.  And support local health care projects
  23. 23. IFRC IN ACTIONS
  24. 24. IFRC IN ACTIONS
  25. 25. Henry Davison, Founding father of the League of Red Cross societies.
  26. 26. NSRC  Humanitarian aid in armed conflicts  Humanitarian aid in emergency crises such as natural disasters.  Blood donation services  Acting as a civilian Emergency Medical Service (EMS) providers.
  27. 27. NSRC IN ACTIONS
  28. 28. IHL & ICRC  International humanitarian law is part of international law, which is the body of rules     governing relations between States; it includes several treaties or conventions that outlaw specific weapons These conventions were created largely because these weapons cause deaths and injuries Unexploded land mines have caused up to 7,000 deaths every year Unexploded bombs, particularly from cluster bombs that scatter many small bomb lets have killed many An estimated 98% of the victims were civilian; farmers and children who find these explosives IHL mediates to limit the effects of armed conflict  It protects persons who are not or are no longer participating in the hostilities  Restricts the means and methods of warfare  International humanitarian law applies to armed conflicts.
  29. 29. ICRC & IHL  Persons outside of combat and those not taking part in hostilities, shall be protected and          treated humanely It is forbidden to kill or injure an enemy who surrenders The wounded and the sick shall be cared for and protected by the party to the conflict which has them in its power. The emblem of the "Red Cross," or of the "Red Crescent," shall be required to be respected as the sign of protection. Captured combatants and civilians must be protected against acts of violence and reprisals. They shall have the right to correspond with their families and to receive relief No-one shall be subjected to torture, corporal punishment, or cruel or degrading treatment Parties to a conflict shall at all times distinguish between the civilian population and combatants. Attacks shall be directed solely against military objectives Well-known examples of such rules include the prohibition on attacking doctors or ambulances displaying a red cross It is also prohibited to fire at a person or vehicle bearing a white flag  Serious violations of international humanitarian laws have called war crimes
  30. 30. ICRC & IHL
  31. 31. ICRC & IHL
  32. 32. ICRC & IHL
  33. 33. ICRC & IHL
  34. 34. ICRC & IHL
  35. 35. ICRC & IHL
  36. 36. CONCLUSION  ICRC as the promoter and guardian of international humanitarian laws must encourage the respect of laws  It does so by spreading the knowledge of humanitarian rules  Reminding parties in the conflicts of their obligations  And ensure that humanitarian rules are respected.

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