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MET 211 gas-turbine

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MET 211 gas-turbine

  1. 1. 11/20/2011 Chapter 4 A gas turbine is a type of internal combustion engine. Used in application such as: • Locomotives • Power generation • Aircraft propulsionDr.Khaled S. Al-Zahrani 1
  2. 2. 11/20/2011 Gas turbine consist of: 1- Compressor: A mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. 1. 1 The reciprocating air compressor • Two stroke engine • No camshaft • Pressure differential operated valves • Very high compression pressure • Intermittent flow of air (-ve)Dr.Khaled S. Al-Zahrani 1.2 Rotary air compressors • Centrifugal • The axial-flow • The positive displacement • Continues flow • Deals with large quantity of air • Moderate to high pressure range (10:1) • High speed up to 30000rpmDr.Khaled S. Al-Zahrani 2
  3. 3. 11/20/2011 2- Combustion Chamber:A chamber where the air and fuel been mixed and burned • Tubular • Annular • Tubo-annularDr.Khaled S. Al-Zahrani 3- Turbine: Turbine is a rotary engine that extract energy from a fluid and converts it into useful work. There are two type of Turbine: • Reaction (UK, Sir Parson) • Impulse (Swedish, Gustaf)Dr.Khaled S. Al-Zahrani 3
  4. 4. 11/20/2011 4 – Auxiliary systems: 1. Fuel system 2. Starting system • Air motors • Diesel engines • Electric motors 3. Lube oil system 4. Cooling system 5. SilencerDr.Khaled S. Al-Zahrani Gas turbine mimic the working principal of the Windmill But the moving air or gas is controlled and directed against the blades of the turbine wheelDr.Khaled S. Al-Zahrani 4
  5. 5. 11/20/2011Also mimic the working principal of Internal Combustion engine:Dr.Khaled S. Al-Zahrani Open ClosedDr.Khaled S. Al-Zahrani 5
  6. 6. 11/20/2011 Single Shaft Multi-Shaft Multi-shaft turbine can be: 1. Parallel Part load Two C.C Control T3 2. Series: Independent shaft speedDr.Khaled S. Al-Zahrani Brayton CycleDr.Khaled S. Al-Zahrani 6
  7. 7. 11/20/2011Compressor work: 𝑊 𝐶 = 𝐶 𝑃 𝑚 𝑎 (𝑇2 − 𝑇1 )Turbine Work: 𝑊 𝑇 = 𝐶 𝑃 𝑚 𝑔 (𝑇3 − 𝑇4 )Network output: 𝑊 𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝑊 𝑇 − 𝑊 𝐶 If 𝑚 𝑎 = 𝑚 𝑔 = 𝑇3 − 𝑇4 − 𝑇2 − 𝑇1Heat Supplied: 𝑄 𝑖𝑛 = 𝑚 𝑓 × 𝐶. 𝑉 = 𝐶 𝑃 𝑚 𝑓 (𝑇3 − 𝑇2 ) 𝑚𝑓Fuel Consumption: 𝑆𝑓𝑐 = 𝑊 𝑛𝑒𝑡Dr.Khaled S. Al-ZahraniThermal efficiency: 𝑊 𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝜂 𝑡ℎ = 𝑄 𝑖𝑛 𝑊 𝑇 − 𝑊𝑐 = 𝑚 𝑓 × 𝐶. 𝑉 𝑇3 − 𝑇4 − (𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ) = 𝑇3 − 𝑇2Dr.Khaled S. Al-Zahrani 7
  8. 8. 11/20/2011 rp rpAppling Gas Laws 𝑃2 𝑃3 𝑟𝑃 = = 𝑃1 𝑃4 𝑇2 1 1 1− 1− = 𝑟𝑃 𝛾 → 𝑇2 = 𝑇1 × 𝑟 𝑃 𝛾 𝑇1 −1− 1 → 𝑇1 = 𝑇2 × 𝑟 𝑃 𝛾 − 1− 1 1 1 𝜂 𝑡ℎ = 1 − (𝑟 𝑝) 𝛾 𝑇3 1− −1− = 𝑟𝑃 𝛾 → 𝑇4 = 𝑇3 × 𝑟 𝑃 𝛾 𝑇4 1− 1 → 𝑇3 = 𝑇4 × 𝑟 𝑃 𝛾Dr.Khaled S. Al-ZahraniDr.Khaled S. Al-Zahrani 8
  9. 9. 11/20/2011 Answer all 17 questions.Dr.Khaled S. Al-Zahrani 9

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