1.theWeak forms: ð∂ (before consonants)shut the door /ʃ˄t ð∂ dↄ:/. ðI (before vowels)Wait for the end /weIt f∂ ði end/.
2.a, anWeak forms : ∂ (before consonants). Read a book /ri:d ∂ buk/ ∂n (before vowels). Eat an apple /i:t ∂n æpḷ/.
3. andWeak form: ∂n (sometimes ṇ after t, d, s, z,ʃ/ come and see /k˄m ∂n si:/ Fish and chips /fI ʃ ṇ ʧIps/.
4. butWeak form: b∂t Its good but expensive /Its gud b∂t Ikspensiv/.
5. that( This word only has a weak form when used in a relative clause; when used with a demonstrative sense it is usually pronounced in its strong form.) Weak form: ð∂t The price is the thing that annoys me / ð∂ prais Iz ð∂ ƟIη ð∂t ∂nↄIz mi/ .
7. hisWeak form: Iz , (hIz at the beginning of a sentence)Take his name /teik Iz neim /(Another sense of his , as in it was his has always the strong form).
8. her(When used with possessive sense, proceeding a noun; as an object pronoun, this can also occur at the end of a sentence ).Weak forms : ∂ (before consonants).Take her home /teIk ∂ h∂um/. ∂r (before vowels) Take her out / teIk ∂r aut/ .
9. yourWeak forms: j∂ (before consonants) Take your time /teIk j∂ taIm/ j∂r (before vowels) On your own /ↄn j∂r ∂Ʊn
10. She, He, We, You: she ʃi why did she read it? /wai dId ʃi ri:d It/. Who is she? /hu: Iz ʃI/ he I (the weak form is usually pronounced without h except at the beginning of a sentence). Which did he choose? / wIʧ dId I ʧu:z/ He was late, wasnt he? /hi w∂z leIt wↄzṇt i/ we wI How can we get there? / haƱ k∂n we get ðΣ∂/ we need that, dont we? / wi ni:d ðæt d∂Ʊnt wi/ you ju What do you think? /wↄt d∂ ju ƟIηk/ You like it, do you? /ju laik It du: ju/
11. himWeak form: Im Leave him alone /li:v Im ∂l∂un/ Ive seen him /aIv si:n Im/
12. herWeak form : ∂ (h∂ when sentence –initial) Ask her to come /a:sk ∂ t∂ k˄m/ I have met her /aIv mΣt ∂/
13. themWeak form : ð∂m leave them here /li:v ð∂m hI∂/ eat them /i:t ð∂m/
14. usWeak form: ∂sWrite us a letter /raIt ∂s ∂ let∂/ They invited all of us / ðeI InvaItId ↄ:l ∂v ∂s/.
The next group of words (some prepositions and other function words) occurs in their strong form when they are final in a sentence. This also depends on the intention of the speaker, the situation, the pitch level of the word; examples of this are given.
15. atWeak form: ∂t Ill see you at lunch /aIl si: ju ∂t l˄nʃ/ In the final position: æt Whats he shooting at? / wↄts I ʃu:tIη æt/
16. forWeak form : f∂ (before consonants) Tea for two / ti: f∂ tu:/ f∂r (before vowels). Thanks for asking /Ɵæηks f∂r a:skIη/ In the final position: fↄ: whats that for? /wↄts ðæt fↄ:/
17. fromWeak form: fr∂m Im home from work /aim h∂um fr∂m wЗ:k/ In the final position: frↄm Heres where it came from /hI∂z we∂r It keIm frↄm
18. of Weak form : ∂v Most of all /m∂ust ∂v Ɔ:l/ In the final position: Ɔv Someone Ive heard of /s˄mw˄n aIv h З:d Ɔv/
19. toWeak form : t∂ (before consonsnts) Try to stop / traI t∂ stƆp/ Tu (before vowels) Time to eat /taIm tu i:t/ In the final position: tu (It is not usual to use the strong form tu:, and the pre-consonantal weak form t∂ is never used). I dont want to /aI d∂unt wƆnt tu/.
20. asWeak form: ∂z As much as possible /∂z m˄ʧ /∂z pƆsIbḷ/ In final position : æz Thats what it was sold as /ðæts wƆt It w∂z s∂Ʊld æz/
21. someThis word is used in two different ways:In one sense (typically, when it occurs before a countable noun, meaning "an unknown individual") it has strong form:/s˄m/ I think some animal broke it /ai ƟIηk s˄m ænImḷ br∂Ʊk It/If it comes before uncountable nouns (meaning "an unspecified amount of"), in such uses it has the weak form: s∂m. Have some more tea / hæv s∂m mƆ: ti:/ In final position: s˄m Ive got some /aIv gƆt s˄m/
22. thereThis word has a demonstrative function; it always occurs in its strong form : ðe∂ (ðe∂r before example), e.g.There it is / ðe∂r It Iz / Put it here /pƱt It ðe∂/Weak forms: ð∂ (before consonants)There should be a rule /ð∂ ʃƱd bi ∂ ru:l/ ð∂r (before vowels) There is / ð∂r Iz/In the final position the pronunciation may be ð∂ or ðe∂. There isnt any, is there? / ð∂r Izṇt eni Iz ð∂/ or / ð∂r Izṇt eni Iz ðe∂/.
23. can, couldWeak forms: k∂n, k∂dThey can wait / ðeI K∂n weIt/He could do it /hi: k∂d du: It/ In final position: kæn, kƱd I think we can /aI ƟIηk wi kæn/ Most of them could /m∂Ʊst ∂v ðem kƱd/
24. have, has, hadWeak forms: ∂v, ∂z, c (with initial h in initial position) Which have you seen? /wIʧ ∂v ju si:n/ which has been best? / wIʧ ∂z bi:n best/ Most had gone home /m∂Ʊst ∂Ʊ gƆn h∂Ʊm/ In final position: hæv, hæz, hæd Yes, we have /jes we hæv/ I think she has /aI ƟIηk ʃi hæz/ I thought we had / aI Ɵↄ:t wI hæd/
25. shall shouldWeak forms : ʃ∂l or ʃḷ ; ʃ∂dwe shall need to hurry /wi ʃḷ ni:d t∂ h˄ri/ I should forget it / aI ʃ∂d f∂get It/ In final position: ʃæl , ʃƱd I think we shall /aI ƟIηk wI ʃæl / So you should /s∂Ʊ ju ʃƱd/
26. mustThis word is sometimes used with the sense of forming a conclusion or deduction, e.g she left at 8 oclock, so she must have arrived by now; when must is used in this way, it is rather less likely to occur in its weak form than when it is being used in its more familiar sense of obligationWeak form: m∂s (before consonantsYou must try harder /ju m∂strai ha:d∂/ m∂st (before vowels) He must eat more /hi m∂st i:t mↄ: In final position: m˄st she certainly must /ʃi sЗ:tṇli m˄st/
27. do, doesWeak forms:Do d∂ (before consonants)Why do they like it? /waI d∂ ðeI laIk It/ Du (before vowels) why do all the cars stop? /waI du ↄ:l ð∂ ka:z st ↄp/Does d∂z When does it arrive? /wen d∂z It ∂raIv/ In final position: du: , d˄z we dont smoke, but some people do /wi: d∂Ʊnt sm∂Ʊk b∂t s˄m pi:pḷ du:/ I think John does /aI ƟIηk ʤ ↄn d˄z/
28. am, are, was, wereWeak forms: ∂mWhy am I here? /waI ∂m aI hi∂∂ ( before consonants) Here are the plates /hI∂r ∂ ð∂ pleIts/ ∂r (before vowels) The coats are in here / ð∂ k∂Ʊts ∂r In ðe∂/ w∂zHe was there a minute ago /hI w∂z hI∂r ∂ mInit ∂g∂u/ w∂ (before consonants) The papers were late / ð∂ peIp∂z w∂ leIt/ w∂r (before vowels)The questions were easy / ð∂ kwesʧ∂nz w∂r i:zi/ In final positions: æm, a:, wↄz, wЗ: Shes not as old as I am / ʃiz nↄt ∂z aI æm/ I know the smiths are /aI n∂Ʊ ð∂ smIƟss a: The last record was / ð∂ la:st rekↄd wↄz/ They werent as cold as we are / ðeI wЗ:nt ∂z k∂Ʊld ∂z wi: wЗ:/.