Requirements management and IBM Rational Jazz solutions

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After you complete this module, you should be able to
explain these concepts:
- How requirements fit in the development process
- Key principles of requirements definition and management
- How you can manage requirements by using IBM Rational
requirements management tools

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

Requirements management and IBM Rational Jazz solutions

  1. 1. Essentials of IBM Rational DOORS Next Generation V4.01Requirements management and IBM Rational Jazz solutions 1© Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Requirements management and IBM Rational Jazz solutionsContentsModule overview 1-2Requirements drive today’scomplex projects 1-3Complexities in software deliverycompounded by market pressures 1-4What contributes to project success? 1-5The requirements paradigm is changing 1-6Levels of requirements 1-7Requirements support the project lifecycle 1-8Requirements definition and managementpractices 1-9Key requirements for an RM system (and projectlifecycle) 1-10The Rational solution for Collaborative LifecycleManagement 1-11IBM® Rational®DOORS Next Generation 1-12Requirements Management andthe IBM Rational Jazz solution 1-13Further information 1-14Module summary 1-15
  2. 2. Essentials of IBM Rational DOORS Next Generation V4.01Requirements management and IBM Rational Jazz solutions 2© Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.2 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Module overviewAfter you complete this module, you should be able toexplain these concepts: How requirements fit in the development process Key principles of requirements definition and management How you can manage requirements by using IBM Rationalrequirements management tools
  3. 3. Essentials of IBM Rational DOORS Next Generation V4.01Requirements management and IBM Rational Jazz solutions 3© Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.3 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Requirements drive today’s complex projectsBanking, finance,Banking, finance,InsuranceInsuranceAutomotiveAutomotiveUrban planning..Urban planning..EnergyEnergy Aerospace, defenseAerospace, defenseHealth care,Health care,medical devicesmedical devicesTelecommunications,Telecommunications,consumer electronics..consumer electronics..The complexity of projects iscompounded by market needs:•Complex multiplatform systems andapplications•Increased mandates•Globally distributed product andsupply chain
  4. 4. Essentials of IBM Rational DOORS Next Generation V4.01Requirements management and IBM Rational Jazz solutions 4© Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.4 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Source: Numerous sources, see speaker notes for detailsComplexities in delivery compounded by market pressures42010 Spending in U.S. on governance,risk and compliance was $29.8 billionIncreasingMandates62% of projects fail to meetintended scheduleUnpredictabilityin Software Delivery50% of outsourced projectsare expected to under performGlobally Distributed Softwareand Product Supply ChainsComplex, Multi -platformSystems and Applications62% of companies have agile projectsrequiring integration with legacy systems30% of project costs are due to reworkand poor execution of requirementsChanging Requirementsand Time to MarketCostReduction70% budget locked in maintenance and37% of projects go over budget2010 Spending in U.S. on governance,risk and compliance was $29.8 billionIncreasingMandates62% of projects fail to meetintended scheduleUnpredictabilityin Software Delivery50% of outsourced projectsare expected to under performGlobally Distributed Softwareand Product Supply Chains-platformSystems and Applications62% of companies have agile projectsrequiring integration with legacy systems30% of project costs are due to reworkand poor execution of requirementsChanging Requirementsand Time to MarketCostReduction70% budget locked in maintenance and37% of projects go over budgetFinding new ways to innovate through software and systems isnot an easy task. Systems and applications are more powerfuland impactful than ever, but they are also more complex, andharder to build, verify, and manage. This complexity, alongwith the need for faster delivery that is driven by today’scompetitive markets, makes software-driven innovationchallenging.Approximately 60% of software projects fail to meet theintended schedule (see Sources section). Failure in software andsystems delivery has serious, sometimes catastrophic,consequences . Some failures result in significant human harm.Others , such as security breaches that undermine businesses,violate regulations, or lead to product recalls, can havecatastrophic brand and business implications.In addition, consequences exist when expectations and marketwindows are missed .All of these points lead to one question:how do we achieve more predictable business outcomes forsoftware and systems delivery projects?Sources:•“62% of companies have agile projects requiringintegration with legacy systems” - DDJ State of theIT Union Survey November 2009, Scott W. Amble,Ambysoft - www.ambysoft.com/scottAmbler.html•“50% of outsourced projects are expected to underperform” - BusinessWeek Commentary: “ShiftingWork Offshore? Outsourcer Beware”:http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/04_02/b3865028.htm•“49% of budgets suffer overruns and 62% fail tomeet their schedule” - Two reasons Why ITProjects Continue To Fail (March 20, 2008) -http://advice.cio.com/remi/two_reasons_why_it_projects_continue_to_fail - Referencing: "TCS have awhite paper available on their WEB site calledEvolving IT from ‘Running the Business’ to‘Changing the Business’"•“62% of software projects fail to meet intendedschedules” - IBM CEO Study, 2008, The Enterpriseof the Future•2010 Spending in U.S. on governance, risk andcompliance was $29.8 billion -Source http://searchcompliance.techtarget.com/news/article/0,289142,sid195_gci1375707,00.html•“30% of project costs are due to rework and poorexecution of requirements” -Managing SoftwareRequirements By Dean Leffingwell, Don Widrig“And since rework typically consumes 30%-50%of a typical project ... it follows that requirementserrors can easily consume 25%— 40% of the totalprojecthttp://www.stickyminds.com/sitewide.asp?Function=FEATUREDCOLUMN&ObjectType=ARTCOL&ObjectId=12529&btntopic=artcol
  5. 5. Essentials of IBM Rational DOORS Next Generation V4.01Requirements management and IBM Rational Jazz solutions 5© Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.5 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2013What contributes to project success?Problem analysis Understand the problem Create a clear statement of business objectives Gain stakeholder agreementRequirements elicitation Identify who will use the system Elicit the value that the system will provide and how the system will be usedRequirements analysis, specification, and validation Organize requirements Specify requirements clearly and completely Review and validate requirements with stakeholders to achieve a shared visionand concurrenceRequirements management Manage expectations, changes, and errors Control scope creep Enlist all team members Identify and capture metrics that help manage the project and mitigate riskTo help projects succeed, pay attention to thepoints that major institutes and standardbodies, such as INCOSE, SEI, and Standishreport, are making:•Involve users and stakeholders early andthroughout the development cycle.•Obtain a clear statement of the objectives.•Record and confirm requirements.Do not waste time solving the wrongproblem. Make sure that you understand all ofthe users’ needs. Use cases are a way toorganize requirements from a user’sperspective. One use case contains all of therequirements that a user needs to accomplisha particular task. The use-case model is thecollection of all of the individual use cases.Because use cases are specified from theuser’s perspective, the use-case model is idealfor communicating the functionality andbehavior of the proposed system to thecustomer or user. How do you know thatyou are developing the right system? Ask theusers and the customer if the use-case modelrepresents what they want to do with thesystem. The use-case model is also key todeveloping the right system. By using a use-case model, you can answer these questions:• What do your designers design? Theydesign a system that helps users do thetasks that are specified in the use-casemodel.• What do your testers test? They test thesystem to ensure that it performs all ofthe use cases.• What does the user documentationcontain? It documents how to do all ofthe tasks in the use cases.In your current requirements managementprocess, do you need help in these areas ?
  6. 6. Essentials of IBM Rational DOORS Next Generation V4.01Requirements management and IBM Rational Jazz solutions 6© Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.6 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2013The requirements paradigm is changingNeeds-driven: functionalgroups provide inputFromNeeds strategic: collaborativedialogue on differentiationToStakeholders are not directlyinvolved: analysts and delegatesengageDirect involvement in solutiondiscussions and reviewMultiple quality control stages toinspect and fix errorsVisualization and scenariosreduce downstream issuesSeek parity, satisfy allstakeholders equallyActive negotiation and trade-offsare driven by business caseScope: Stakeholder needs arecollected, consolidated, andprioritizedScope: Ongoing negotiation ofrequirements and priorities ascustomer and project team learnmore and business prioritieschangeIn the new paradigm, all stakeholdersare directly involved with thedefinition, elaboration, andprioritization of requirements.More visualization and scenarios helpstakeholders quickly understand andraise relevant issues.Prioritization is key. Prioritizationinvolves making difficult choices andtrade-offs that are supported by astrong business case.Project methodologies that recognizeand embrace the inevitability andvalue of ongoing negotiation andadaptation to change are more likelyto deliver customer value onschedule. Thus, the new paradigmincreases the emphasis on iterativeand agile approaches.
  7. 7. Essentials of IBM Rational DOORS Next Generation V4.01Requirements management and IBM Rational Jazz solutions 7© Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.7 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Levels of requirementsUse-casemodelVisionSupplementarySpecifications• Features• Functional requirements• Non-functional requirements, includingconstraints.• Use cases or user-story elaborationsUserperspectiveSystemperspective • User interface specification• User interface• Storyboard• Software specification• System or subsystem specificationUI SketchHigh-level businessrequirements,• Business goals and objectives• Business processes (as-is versus to-be)• Stakeholder needs• Glossary• Business rulesGlossaryBusinessperspectiveStakeholderneedsBusinessprocessesProblemspaceStoryboardSystemspecificationSystem requirementsSoftwarespecificationSolutionspaceDifferent levels of abstraction require differentcontext elaboration that together support thesolution. Here are some examples:Business level:• The focus is on the business functions andprocesses that are required to meet strategic andbusiness goals.Solution level• The focus is on a technology-enabled solution thatsupports business processes.• Creating the solution involves the collaboration oftwo or more systems necessary to address the fullset of stakeholder requests and needs for a project.System and design level• The focus is on one system in the context of theoverall solution• The scope is limited to one system as it should bedefined by the Architecture Reference ModelThe terms on this slide can be used in various ways. Theemphasis on these terms can vary within the domains.• A good example is the comparison betweenfeatures and functional requirements. Features arestated in terms of value to a stakeholder. Featuresare the answer to this question: “What problem isbeing solved?” Line items focal point is how thesolution will be implemented.The features that are defined in the Vision Statement areinput to defining software requirements:• Supplementary requirements• Use casesThe features and Vision Statement are defined in theinception phase of the project. After the feature set isdefined and agreement has been reached withstakeholders, more detailed software requirements aredefined. Software requirements include use cases andsupplementary requirements.Use cases are a sequence of actions that a systemperforms that yields a result of value. The primarypurpose of the use case is to capture the required systembehavior from the perspective of the end-user to achieveone or more goals. Use case flows are invaluable in thefollowing areas:• Customers might define or approve thedescription of the system’s behavior.• Software or system architects identifyarchitecturally significant functions.• Testers might identify test cases.• Analysts, designers, and the implementationteam work according to the required systembehavior and allow for the refinement of thatbehavior.
  8. 8. Essentials of IBM Rational DOORS Next Generation V4.01Requirements management and IBM Rational Jazz solutions 8© Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.8 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Requirements support the project lifecycleChange andconfigurationQualityRequirementsDesignCollaboration and visibility between teams is essential to project success.Architect Engineer Analyst Developer Quality professional Deployment engineerRequirements managementManage all system requirements withfull traceability across the lifecycleQuality managementAchieve “quality by design” with anintegrated, automated testing processArchitecture& designUse modeling to validaterequirements, architecture, and designthroughout the development processCollaboration, planning, &changemanagementCollaborate across diverseengineering disciplines anddevelopment teams
  9. 9. Essentials of IBM Rational DOORS Next Generation V4.01Requirements management and IBM Rational Jazz solutions 9© Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.9 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Requirements definition and management practicesSource: Karl WiegersValidationSpecificationAnalysisElicitationRewriteReevaluateClarify Correct and close gapsRequirements management Traceability Change management Tracking and reportingRequirements aremanaged andcontrolledRequirements definition Elicitation Analysis Specification ValidationRequirementsare captured andanalyzedRequirements definition:• Get requirements right• Define the problem and conceptualizesolutions• Maintain the context of business needsRequirements management:• Trace requirements to objectives, tests, anddesigns• Understand the impact of change• Track and report on requirements
  10. 10. Essentials of IBM Rational DOORS Next Generation V4.01Requirements management and IBM Rational Jazz solutions 10© Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.10 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Key requirements for an RM system and project lifecycleGranularityHierarchyTraceabilityAttributesCollaborationReportingSecurityHistoryEight key features are needed for arequirements management tool:1. Granularity of information: Manageeach requirement on its own. Examples:Is it clear? Is it complete? Has it beentested? Has it been implemented?2. Hierarchy of data: Organizeinformation in a logical and hierarchicalmanner.3. Traceability between elements: Link tospecific requirements, not the documentas a whole4. Attributes: Use attributes to expanddifferent aspects of the data. Forexample, you can use attributes toanswer these questions: “Has therequirement been approved?” “What isits priority?”5. Collaboration between stakeholders:Involve stakeholders , who might includecustomers, the product manager, thebusiness, engineers, and the test team.6. Reporting: Use reporting to keepstakeholders informed, manage scopecreep and dropped requirements, depictcompliance.7. History: Track history to know whatchanges were made, when, and bywhom.8. Security: Control access to information.
  11. 11. Essentials of IBM Rational DOORS Next Generation V4.01Requirements management and IBM Rational Jazz solutions 11© Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.11 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2013The Rational solution for lifecycle managementIBM® solutionfor Collaborative Lifecycle Management (CLM)Open Lifecycle Integration PlatformArchitectEngineerAnalystDeveloperQuality professionalDeployment engineerSeamlessintegration ofapplicationlifecycle toolsPowered by theJazz™technologyplatformChange andConfigurationQualityRequirementsDesignTransparencyand opencollaborationamong teamsacross thelifecycleThe Rational solution for CollaborativeLifecycle Management (CLM) seamlesslycombines application lifecycle tools tosupport software delivery teams. TheRational solution for Applicationlifecycle management and projectdevelopment combines applicationlifecycle tools to address System andSoftware Engineering (SSE) needs.The solutions are based on Jazz technology,which provides an open platform forcollaborative software delivery.Built on web technology and Open Servicesfor Lifecycle Collaboration (OSLC)standards, the Jazz platform provides anextensible architecture that is designed tomake project delivery more collaborative,productive, and transparent.
  12. 12. Essentials of IBM Rational DOORS Next Generation V4.01Requirements management and IBM Rational Jazz solutions 12© Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.12 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2013IBM Rational DOORS Next GenerationOSLCOSLCRM ServicesRM ServicesTeam ServerTeam ServerCOTS databaseCOTS database Requirements visibility and traceability across the lifecycle Open integration architecture built on Jazz Team Server Integrations through Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration (OSLC)PublishPublishPublishChangeManagementServicesQualityManagementServicesArchitectureManagementServicesRequirementsManagementServicesPublishingServicesAdditionalServicesConsumeConsumeConsumeConsumeConsumeRationalRationalDOORS NextDOORS NextGenerationGeneration(Web client)(Web client)RationalRationalDOORS NextDOORS NextGenerationGeneration(Rich client)(Rich client)The Jazz technology platform is a scalable, extensibleteam collaboration platform for seamlessly integratingtasks across the software lifecycle.The Jazz technology platform is based on a client-serverarchitecture.• Jazz Team Server, which normally runs on asecured server-class machine, hosts a set of servicesand a repository.• Remote clients communicate with Jazz TeamServer over the network by using HTTP.IBM® Rational® DOORS Next Generation has serverand web client.Note: Throughout this course, Rational DOORS NextGeneration is referred to as the RequirementsManagement (RM) application.Rational DOORS Next Generation supports theseactivities :Address the whole requirements lifecycle: Userselicit, define, elaborate, organize, and analyzerequirements throughout the requirements lifecycle.Work for the whole team: Users access a commonrepository with a web client and collaborateglobally, keeping information transparent.Function across the whole project lifecycle: In thecontext of the Rational solution for CollaborativeLifecycle Management (CLM) and the Jazzplatform, teams coordinate software developmentactivities from business needs to system delivery.Rational DOORS Next Generation is highly flexible andadaptable, and supports a range of project methodologies.It comes with defined project templates to support theseapproaches:• Traditional development• Use-case development• Agile or scrum developmentYou can customize Rational DOORS Next Generation ona project-by-project basis.
  13. 13. Essentials of IBM Rational DOORS Next Generation V4.01Requirements management and IBM Rational Jazz solutions 13© Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.The RM application offerscapabilities on Jazz Team Server forinformation technology and systemsand software engineering.The application providesrequirements definition, management,collaboration, planning, taskmanagement, reporting, and lifecycletraceability.The collaborative platform supportsthese activities:(1) Early requirementsdefinition by using text andvisual notations(2) Development andmanagement of specificationsby using modulesSingle-server Jazz solution forrequirements, design, development,quality management. This serveruses a COTS database. This solutionprovides a common Jazz UI acrosstools13 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Requirements Management and the IBM Rational Jazz solutionDefinitionRich-text documentsDiagrams: Process, Use CaseStoryboards, UI sketching & flowProject glossariesTemplatesCollaborationReview &ApprovalDiscussionsEmail NotificationVisibilityCustomizable dashboardsAnalysis viewsCollectionsMilestone tracking & statusManagement Structure, Attributes/Types Traceability, Filtering, Tags Baselines, Change History Reuse (reqs & types) Reporting Metrics & Doc.PlanningIntegrated planningEffort estimationTask ManagementLifecycle Central requirements, test, &development repository Common administration androle-based user licensing Warehouse reporting
  14. 14. Essentials of IBM Rational DOORS Next Generation V4.01Requirements management and IBM Rational Jazz solutions 14© Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.14 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Further informationJazz community website www.jazz.net A community and developer-support website that includeswikis, developer blogs, discussion forums, productdownloads, and more.IBM developerWorks® Rational area www.ibm.com/developerworks/rational A technical resource and professional network that includesproduct documentation, technical articles, online discussions,user groups, and more.
  15. 15. Essentials of IBM Rational DOORS Next Generation V4.01Requirements management and IBM Rational Jazz solutions 15© Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.15 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2013Module summaryIn this module, you learned these concepts: The key principles of requirements definition andmanagement How the IBM Rational requirements management tools thatare based on Jazz technology support requirementsmanagement across the lifecycle

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