Lessons learned video in the online classroom 04_10_14_final

694 views

Published on

As more and more universities implement online courses, instructors continually try to find ways to improve student perceptions, engagement, and learning in the online format while limiting challenges. Instructors often turn to different types of media such as video streaming, pdf files, and YouTube videos to enhance the learning environment. Students indicate a likeness for the convenience of online learning, but clear methods have not been established to improve learning in the online format compared to the traditional face-to-face format. We will present the benefits of adding video, the challenges of using video in the online classroom, and future research that we are considering.

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
694
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Here is out abstract:
    Trends in online growth
    Trends to improve student perceptions, engagement and learning in the online format
    Multi Media is used -- streaming, PDF files, You Tube – all enhances the learning enviroment.
    Students indicate a likeness for convenience of online learning.
    We will present the benefits of adding video, the challenges of using video and the future research we are considering.
  • As online education becomes more prevalent through universities, many instructors have experienced different ways to improve instructional design and to increase student engagement. The student rate of taking online courses has grown steadily in the past decade. For the past ten years, the Babson Survey Research Group has been conducting research on online education. Since 2006, the Babson Survey Research Group and the College Board have partnered together surveying the use and opinions of online education. In the most recent survey conducted, 6.7 million students were noted to have taken an online course from the Fall of 2011 to the Fall of 2012 (The Babson Survey Research Group, 2013). This is a 9.3% increase. The Babson Survey Research Group (2013) also revealed 32% of college students enroll in at least one online course.
    Furthermore, it has been determined individuals in academia believe learning outcomes offered by online courses are equivalent if not superior to traditional courses being taught in onground classrooms. Of the academic administrators surveyed, 69.1% believe online courses are essential to the future of their universities. This number has increased consistently over the years. When the study was conducted in 2002, less than half of university’s administrators felt online education was important to the success of their institution (The Babson Survey Research Group, 2013).
    In the most recent survey conducted by the Babson Survey Research Group (2013), only 13.5% of universities and colleges offered no online courses. In addition, more and more universities are offering fully online programs. Only 34.5% of colleges offered fully online programs in 2002. In 2012, 62.4% of universities had programs offered fully online (The Babson Survey Research Group, 2013). Yet, barriers often exist to the implementation of online courses. Technology or the use of technology can be a barrier for many. Deciding on the best type of technology to use can be a conundrum.
    Instructors often try to design blended programs prior to offering fully online courses. While many university administrators feel online education is important to the success of the college’s future, only 45% of the institutions surveyed felt they had the ability to develop innovative classes in an online format (The Babson Survey Research Group, 2013). Many instructors have experimented with different technological methods to enhance learning and student engagement in online classroom. It was discovered that oftentimes, students’ perceptions and engagement was improved after implementing additional resources in the online learning format, yet actual learning was not affected. However, many benefits as well as challenges exist when incorporating multimedia within the online classroom.
  • In the most recent survey conducted by the Babson Survey Research Group (2013), only 13.5% of universities and colleges offered no online courses. In addition, more and more universities are offering fully online programs. Only 34.5% of colleges offered fully online programs in 2002. In 2012, 62.4% of universities had programs offered fully online (The Babson Survey Research Group, 2013). Yet, barriers often exist to the implementation of online courses. Technology or the use of technology can be a barrier for many. Deciding on the best type of technology to use can be a conundrum.
    Instructors often try to design blended programs prior to offering fully online courses. While many university administrators feel online education is important to the success of the college’s future, only 45% of the institutions surveyed felt they had the ability to develop innovative classes in an online format (The Babson Survey Research Group, 2013). Many instructors have experimented with different technological methods to enhance learning and student engagement in online classroom. It was discovered that oftentimes, students’ perceptions and engagement was improved after implementing additional resources in the online learning format, yet actual learning was not affected. However, many benefits as well as challenges exist when incorporating multimedia within the online classroom.
  • Additional research:
    Young and Norgard (2006) assessed 233 students in an online course and it was determined students prefer consistency in course design in the online format. Students preferred the enhanced collaboration and interactions in the online classroom compared to the traditional face- to- face classroom. While students indicated they felt like they did not learn as much, they declared the materials were sufficient in the online classroom in allowing them to complete their assignments (Young & Norgard).
    Not all studies indicate a difference in satisfaction of learning in the online environment compared to other modalities. Skylar, Higgins, Boone, and Jones (2005) studied students who enrolled in three different learning methods. The three methods included a traditional face-to-face course, online course utilizing the learning management system (LMS) of WebCT, and a cours-in-a-box style using CD-Roms.
    Students were asked to indicate their satisfaction with the course delivery method and course material presented in the class. The instructional resources used within all three of the classrooms were equal which included the textbook, lectures, PowerPoint, and digital videos. The surveys indicated no difference in student satisfaction of delivery of content between the three different learning environments (Skylar et al.). In the next section, benefits of using multimedia in the online classroom will be discussed.
  • As online courses continue to grow, a review of literature has shown instructors have tested various media types and methods in the online and blended classrooms. Some instructional designs and delivery methods have resulted in positive learning outcomes among the students enrolled in these courses. In one study conducted by Haga (2004), one instructor suggested to try to close the gap between the video lecture and the discussion. In many online classrooms, the lecture and discussion are independent of one another. Videomark, a type of electronic marking within a lecture, can allow students to read discussion comments while viewing online lectures. The main advantage to Videomark is it can be embedded directly into the video lecture to promote further discussion among students. In addition, Videomark helps comprehension of the material that exists in the lecture and online discussion boards. With a more thorough understanding of the lecture material, students are more engaged in the discussion. As a result, Haga (2004) claimed the use of videomark creates “a more effective distance-education environment” (p. 128).
  • Al-Jarf (2011) conducted a study that reviewed the use of online videos for medical students. Al-Jarf discussed the advantages to integrating technology for the medical student and provided many examples. It was important to note that the videos should not be watched passively. Faculty members were encouraged to establish goals for each video. Along with goals, specific skills can be developed by viewing videos,
    (a) Listening for main ideas and supporting details; (b) listening for organizational clues (descriptions, classifications, definitions, processes, whole-part and cause-effects relationships); (c) deriving meanings of difficult medical terms from the spoken context; (d) note-taking skills while listening to class lectures; (e) connecting information; and (f) outlining the content of the lecture.” (p. 106)
  • Hartsell and Yuen (2006) evaluated the benefits of using of video streaming in the online learning environment. Adding video content to an online course can create a more exciting and interactive learning environment while stimulating the auditory and visual senses of the learner. Furthermore, video images can help recreate complicated material in motion that may be difficult for some learners to grasp simply by reading the information from a textbook. One prominent advantage to video streaming is that it allows segments of a video to be downloaded and viewed by the student at his or her own pace.
    Video streaming also allows students to choose when and where to view the chosen material. Students also have the option of viewing the material multiple times which can enhance comprehension of difficult concepts. Hartsell and Yuen noted the importance of providing material to the students such as study guides used to take additional notes along with the video.
  • Rynearson and Kerr (2005) tested different types of technology for an online graduate level statistics course. They redesigned a –face-to-face course to a more-convenient online course for working adults. The first redesign of this course included two-way interactive video in two different classrooms 90 miles apart. The instructor was on campus and available for questions. Yet, this option had its limitations including equipment failure and student absenteeism.
    The second course redesign tested interactive whiteboard videos produced by the instructor; however, this method too failed due to the large file size of the videos and lack of transferability to the online classroom. In the third redesign of the course, the instructor recorded PowerPoint presentations in real-time using audio equipment. However, this method was also deemed a failure as the video quality was poor. In the fourth and final method, digital tape was used to record lectures and transferred to the online classroom and delivered through WebCT. THartsell and Yuen discussed the need to create flexible learning environments that meet the needs of the learner. Email, chat, and whiteboard are also used to answer student questions. One benefit of the current system being used is to allow students the opportunity to peruse the material on their own time and at their own pace. As a final conclusion, incorporating both audiovisual elements into the classroom along with supporting materials proved to be the best distance learning delivery method (Rynearson & Kerr, 2005).
  • Multimedia used in the classroom can enhance the learning experience and provide additional instruction to students. Online instructional methods can be more beneficial and engaging than the traditional classroom format. In one study, 82 dental students viewed 27 virtual lectures on surgical techniques and procedures. The students were then tested on the material. The results demonstrated 75% of the students indicated the online format was not only adequate but superior to the traditional method. Ninety percent of the students stated the multimedia and instant feedback used in the course was an advantage over the classroom technique. In comparison to the classroom instruction, 97% of the students passed the online examinations after watching the video lectures compared to 85% of the students passing the examination after attending the classroom lectures. The difference in the pass rates shows the importance of incorporating virtual lectures into the classroom (Schultze-Mosgau, Zielinski, & Lochner, 2004).
    The studies of Bassili and Joordens (2008) identified the positive learning effects provided students by the play/pause and replay capabilities of pre-recorded lecture series. This functionality has potential to yield pedagogical value that are not available in face to face lectures (Bassili & Joordens, 2008). Two studies were performed. The first study showed that many students use and value the pause/replay features of media players when watching online introductory psychology lectures. The second study showed that use of the features was correlated with superior exam performance, a learning outcome that was at least partially mediated by increased satisfaction with the learning approach (Bassili & Joordens, 2008). Instructors can provide audio recordings of lectures, feedback, and specific subject highlights where students can replay and re-listen to the instructor’s message to enhance student learning objectives.
    The study of Cascaval, Fogler, Abrams, and Durham (2008) examined the impact of a novel online video lecture archiving system on in-class students enrolled in traditional math courses at a mid-sized, primarily undergraduate, university in the West. The results of the Focus Group study indicated that the presence of the archived video lectures and lecture notes adds significant value to the learning process with notable improvements in the perceived student performance and overall experience in the class.
  • While there are many benefits to incorporating multimedia into the online classroom, it has its challenges. Al-Jarf (2011) noted one challenge is choosing the appropriate type of multimedia that allows students to fully engage them in the learning process. Students should be required to actively participate while using multimedia in the classroom by taking notes, being a participant, or responding to questions. Students who passively watch videos are not given the opportunity to learn as effectively as they could.
    One study noted a challenge using multimedia in the online classroom is technical problems. In one study, 76 students participated in a survey about their online learning experience. Prior to taking the survey, all of the participants took at least one online course. Of the 76 participants in the study, 58% recognized technical issues as a challenge in the online learning environment (Song et al., 2004). Technical problems often lead to frustration and increased time to complete work.
    Song et al. (2004), pointed out that it is important to inform students that technical problems will likely occur at some point, and it is essential to have a back-up plan and assistance during these times. Another area of concern to the online adult learners was the lack of community between the classmates. Fifty percent of the participants noted lack of community as a significant challenge in the classroom due to the distance and varying time elements.
    Beck (2010) reflected on a hybrid international law course in which a variety of videos were inserted. The results were inconclusive as there were very few participants, however, the instructor continued to receive high end-of-course feedback scores. Beck pointed out…
    When considering matters of technology-supported pedagogy, finally, instructors are rightly concerned about the maintenance of high standards—in terms both of student achievement and teaching quality. Technology must not be employed as an expedient, permitted to ‘‘dumb down’’ a course or to diminish the quality of its instruction. (p. 285)
    Online courses oftentimes due not enforce collaboration between the students within the classroom. It is not uncommon for online learners to feel isolated. Survey takers felt they did not feel like a class as a whole compared to the traditional, face-to-face classroom. Some students commented that multimedia such as simply including photos of each student within the classroom can help close the community gap. One final challenge documented in the survey by 60% of the respondents in the study by Song et al. (2004) was students experiencing problems understanding instructional goals and objectives within the online course. In traditional face-to-face courses, the instructor often reviews learning objectives on the first day and is able to answer questions and explain them in more detail. Oftentimes, learning objectives are simply listed or stated in the online classroom. It would be beneficial for instructors to elaborate on the learning objectives within an announcement or a personal video message to the class within the first week of the course.
    Technical problems may also deal with low bandwidth or poor internet connections. One of the limitations that exist when using video streaming is bandwidth variance. Students may not always have the acceptable bandwidth to download videos. For some students with low bandwidths, it may take hours to download and view one video. This is a problem as time constraints are often already an issue with adult learners. In addition, adult learners also note comfort level is a limitation when using technology in the classroom. Learning how to use multimedia within the class requires time for the instructor as well as the student. However, instructors as well as students should attend workshops or webinars on how to use multimedia within the classroom to decrease the frustration level and increase the comfort level with its use (Hartsell & Yuen).
    Burnett (2008) discussed how creating a YouTube video as part of a marketing assignment created a sense of ownership. Students “experienced improve learning and performance outcomes,” however, no statistical data was provided.
    Other Related Literature Reviews
    Burnett (2008) discussed how creating a YouTube video as part of a marketing assignment created a sense of ownership. Students “experienced improve learning and performance outcomes,” however, no statistical data was provided.
    Future Research and Recommendations
    Based on the data and findings of the study, there is no clear statistical data that reflects how adding video into a classroom will improve learning outcomes nor student performance. Further research may be conducted in the following areas:
    Conduct quantitative and/or qualitative research on the impact of video in the online classroom to increase learning outcomes.
    Conduct quantitative and/or qualitative research on the impact of video in the online classroom to improve e-connectivity (“E-mmediacy or e-connectivity is the feelings or believing of social connectedness that students and faculty get through the technologically enhanced online learning environment (Slagter van Tyson, 2007; Slagter van Tyson & Bishop, 2006)” (Swanson, Hutkin, Babb, & Howell, 2010, p. 17).
  • While there are many benefits to incorporating multimedia into the online classroom, it has its challenges. Al-Jarf (2011) noted one challenge is choosing the appropriate type of multimedia that allows students to fully engage them in the learning process. Students should be required to actively participate while using multimedia in the classroom by taking notes, being a participant, or responding to questions. Students who passively watch videos are not given the opportunity to learn as effectively as they could.
    One study noted a challenge using multimedia in the online classroom is technical problems. In one study, 76 students participated in a survey about their online learning experience. Prior to taking the survey, all of the participants took at least one online course. Of the 76 participants in the study, 58% recognized technical issues as a challenge in the online learning environment (Song et al., 2004). Technical problems often lead to frustration and increased time to complete work.
    Song et al. (2004), pointed out that it is important to inform students that technical problems will likely occur at some point, and it is essential to have a back-up plan and assistance during these times. Another area of concern to the online adult learners was the lack of community between the classmates. Fifty percent of the participants noted lack of community as a significant challenge in the classroom due to the distance and varying time elements.
    Beck (2010) reflected on a hybrid international law course in which a variety of videos were inserted. The results were inconclusive as there were very few participants, however, the instructor continued to receive high end-of-course feedback scores. Beck pointed out…
    When considering matters of technology-supported pedagogy, finally, instructors are rightly concerned about the maintenance of high standards—in terms both of student achievement and teaching quality. Technology must not be employed as an expedient, permitted to ‘‘dumb down’’ a course or to diminish the quality of its instruction. (p. 285)
    Online courses oftentimes due not enforce collaboration between the students within the classroom. It is not uncommon for online learners to feel isolated. Survey takers felt they did not feel like a class as a whole compared to the traditional, face-to-face classroom. Some students commented that multimedia such as simply including photos of each student within the classroom can help close the community gap. One final challenge documented in the survey by 60% of the respondents in the study by Song et al. (2004) was students experiencing problems understanding instructional goals and objectives within the online course. In traditional face-to-face courses, the instructor often reviews learning objectives on the first day and is able to answer questions and explain them in more detail. Oftentimes, learning objectives are simply listed or stated in the online classroom. It would be beneficial for instructors to elaborate on the learning objectives within an announcement or a personal video message to the class within the first week of the course.
    Technical problems may also deal with low bandwidth or poor internet connections. One of the limitations that exist when using video streaming is bandwidth variance. Students may not always have the acceptable bandwidth to download videos. For some students with low bandwidths, it may take hours to download and view one video. This is a problem as time constraints are often already an issue with adult learners. In addition, adult learners also note comfort level is a limitation when using technology in the classroom. Learning how to use multimedia within the class requires time for the instructor as well as the student. However, instructors as well as students should attend workshops or webinars on how to use multimedia within the classroom to decrease the frustration level and increase the comfort level with its use (Hartsell & Yuen).
    Burnett (2008) discussed how creating a YouTube video as part of a marketing assignment created a sense of ownership. Students “experienced improve learning and performance outcomes,” however, no statistical data was provided.
    Other Related Literature Reviews
    Burnett (2008) discussed how creating a YouTube video as part of a marketing assignment created a sense of ownership. Students “experienced improve learning and performance outcomes,” however, no statistical data was provided.
    Future Research and Recommendations
    Based on the data and findings of the study, there is no clear statistical data that reflects how adding video into a classroom will improve learning outcomes nor student performance. Further research may be conducted in the following areas:
    Conduct quantitative and/or qualitative research on the impact of video in the online classroom to increase learning outcomes.
    Conduct quantitative and/or qualitative research on the impact of video in the online classroom to improve e-connectivity (“E-mmediacy or e-connectivity is the feelings or believing of social connectedness that students and faculty get through the technologically enhanced online learning environment (Slagter van Tyson, 2007; Slagter van Tyson & Bishop, 2006)” (Swanson, Hutkin, Babb, & Howell, 2010, p. 17).
  • Lessons learned video in the online classroom 04_10_14_final

    1. 1. Lessons Learned: Video in the Online Classroom Image Copyright Getty Images, 2013, Used under license from IStockphoto.com Andree Swanson, Bill Davis, Christine McMahon, Karen Ivy, and Matt Laubacher Forbes School of Business at Ashford University VII International Guide Conference April 10, 2014
    2. 2. Lessons Learned: Video in the Online Classroom Contents: •Abstract •Research – Lessons Learned in the Online Classroom •Students’ Perceptions of Learning in the Online Enviroment •Benefits of Using Mutimedia in the Online Classroom •Challenges of Media Use in the Online Classroom •Future Research Recommendations •Conclusions •References Image Copyright Getty Images, 2013, Used under license from IStockphoto.com
    3. 3. Abstract As more and more universities implement online courses, instructors continually try to find ways to improve student perceptions, engagement, and learning in the online format while limiting challenges. Instructors often turn to different types of media such as video streaming, pdf files, and YouTube videos to enhance the learning environment. Students indicate a likeness for the convenience of online learning, but clear methods have not been established to improve learning in the online format compared to the traditional face-to-face format. We will present the benefits of adding video, the challenges of using video in the online classroom, and future research that we are considering. Keywords: Video, online Lessons Learned: Video in the Online Classroom
    4. 4. Lessons Learned: Video in the Online Classroom Babson Survey Research Group (2013) and College Board Partnership • Surveyed the use and opinions of online education • 6.7 million students were noted to have taken a online course (Fall of 2011 to Fall 2012) • 32% of college students have taken at least one online course • Strong belief in academia believe that learning outcomes offered online are equivalent if not superior • Academic administrators surveyed felt online education is important to the success of their institution
    5. 5. Babson Survey Research Group (2013) and College Board Partnership • Only 13.5% of Universities offered no online courses • 34.5% of colleges offered full online programs (2012) • 62.4 % had programs offered full online programs (2013) • Barriers exist to the implementation of online programs • Blended programs • 45% of the Universities surveyed felt that they had the capabilities to develop innovative classes in an online format • Discovery – Student’s perceptions and engagement was improved after implementing additional resources in the online format - learning was not affected Lessons Learned: Video in the Online Classroom
    6. 6. Students’ Perceptions of Learning in the Online Environment •Schultze-Mosgau, Zielinski and Lochner (2004) surveyed 82 Dental Students enrolled in an online course • Access to virtual lectures, pdf files, abstracts • Results: 75% felt online learning was equal if not better than tradtional formats.
    7. 7. Students’ Perceptions of Learning in the Online Environment • Song, Singleton, Hill and Koh (2004) conducted a study on items they perceived helpful in an online classroom. • Course layout ranked at the top by 82% of respondents • Students want goals and objectives clearly outlined • If goals and objectives were not clear they wanted to ask the instructor • Students wanted a clear path to the instructor to ask questions • Students wanted to be comfortable with technology • Managing time was a prioirty
    8. 8. Students’ Perceptions of Learning in the Online Environment • West (2008) discussed how role playing was important • Students were placed in a virtual enviroment • Students were asked to design specific situations to involve specific materials within each topic for a course • Eick and King (2012) tested You Tube video and wanted to ascertain the students’ perceptions of video, interest in the course, and student engagement, interest, and understanding • Specific data was not analyzed, students indicated a positive response to the use of video and noted it increased student engagement, interest and understanding • Students preferred a shorter, high-quality video dense with relevant information compared to lengthy ones • It is interesting to note, students often feel they learn less in an online course compared to a traditional course; although, many like the convenience of the online format better.
    9. 9. Benefits of Using Multimedia in the Online Classroom •Instructional Design Methods • Haga (2004) study • The use of Videomark • Haga (2004) claimed the use of videomark creates “a more effective distance-education environment” (p. 128).
    10. 10. Benefits of Using Multimedia in the Online Classroom • Online Videos for Medical Students • Al-Jarf (2011) study • It was important to note that the videos should not be watched passively. Faculty members were encouraged to establish goals for each video. Along with goals, specific skills can be developed by viewing videos,
    11. 11. Benefits of Using Multimedia in the Online Classroom •Benefits of Using Video Streaming • Hartsell and Yuen (2006) study • Creates a more exciting and interactive learning enviroment • Appeals to the auditory and visual senses of the learner • Video images can help recreate complicated material in motion that may be difficult for some learners to grasp simply by reading the information from a textbook • Prominent advantage to video streaming is that it allows segments of a video to be downloaded and viewed by the student at his or her own pace
    12. 12. Learning and Developing Multimedia in the Online Classroom Rynearson and Kerr (2005) Redesign Test and Outcomes • First redesign of course included two-way interactive video • Second redesign tested interactive whiteboard • Third redesign included recorded PowerPoint presentations
    13. 13. Benefits of Using Mutimedia in the Online Classroom •Multimedia used in the classroom can enhance the learning experience and provide additional instruction to students. •Online instructional methods can be more beneficial and engaging than the traditional classroom format. •The studies of Bassili and Joordens (2008) identified the positive learning effects provided students by the play/pause and replay capabilities of pre- recorded lecture series. • This functionality has potential to yield pedagogical value that are not available in face to face lectures (Bassili & Joordens, 2008).
    14. 14. Challenges of Media Use in the Online Classroom •While there are many benefits to incorporating multimedia into the online classroom, it has its challenges. •Al-Jarf (2011) noted one challenge is choosing the appropriate type of multimedia that allows students to fully engage them in the learning process. •Students should be required to actively participate while using multimedia in the classroom by taking notes, being a participant, or responding to questions. •Students who passively watch videos are not given the opportunity to learn as effectively as they could. •Discuss research findings and other related literature reviews
    15. 15. Other Related Literature Reviews •Burnett (2008) discussed how creating a YouTube video as part of a marketing assignment created a sense of ownership. •Students “experienced improve learning and performance outcomes,” however, no statistical data was provided.
    16. 16. Future Research and Recommendations •Based on the data and findings of the study, there is no clear statistical data that reflects how adding video into a classroom will improve learning outcomes nor student performance. •Further research may be conducted in the following areas: • Conduct quantitative and/or qualitative research on the impact of video in the online classroom to increase learning outcomes. • Conduct quantitative and/or qualitative research on the impact of video in the online classroom to improve e-connectivity (“E-mmediacy or e- connectivity is the feelings or believing of social connectedness that students and faculty get through the technologically enhanced online learning environment (Slagter van Tyson, 2007; Slagter van Tyson & Bishop, 2006)” (Swanson, Hutkin, Babb, & Howell, 2010, p. 17).
    17. 17. Conclusion •As the amount of students taking online courses continues to grown, instructors must continue to find ways to creatively incorporate course material and engage the students in the learning process. •While using multimedia within the classroom does not come without challenges, it can create the opportunity for the instructor to bring course material alive and stimulate the learner’s various senses. •It can produce a more effective way to deliver course material as students can see processes in action which promotes a more-thorough understanding of course material. •Video can create an emotional response. Students also tend to note a more positive learning experience about the course as well as the instructor when multimedia is used within the online classroom. •Finally, instructors can develop a stronger sense of community by including multimedia such as a personal YouTube video in the classroom and encouraging students to post personal photos as well.
    18. 18. Thank you! Questions, Concerns or Comments?
    19. 19. References Al-Jarf, R. (2011). Helping medical students with online videos. International Journal of Language Studies, 5(3), 99-110. Bassili, J. N., & Joordens, S. (2008). Media player tool use, satisfaction with online lectures and examination performance. Journal Of Distance Education, 22(2), 93-107. Beck, R. J. (2010). Teaching international law as a partially online course: The hybrid/blended approach to pedagogy. International Studies Perspectives, 11(3), 273-290. doi:10.1111/j.1528-3585.2010.00408.x Burnett, M. (2008). Integrating interactive media into the classroom: Integrating interactive media into the classroom: Youtube raises the bar on student performance. Allied Academies International Conference.Academy of Marketing Studies Proceedings, 13(2), 2-3. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/192409999?accountid=32521 Cascaval, R. C., Fogler, K. A., Abrams, G. D., & Durham, R. L. (2008). Evaluating the benefits of providing archived online lectures to in-class math students. Journal Of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 12(3-4), 61-70. Eick, C., & King Jr., D. T. (2012). Nonscience majors’ perceptions on the use of YouTube video to support learning in an integrated science lecture. Journal of College Science Teaching, 42(10), 26. Haga, H. (2004). Concept of video bookmark (videomark) and its application to the collaborative indexing of lecture video in video-based distance education. International Journal on E-Learning, 3(3), 32-37. Hartsell, T., & Yuen, S. (2006). Video streaming in online learning. AACE Journal, 14 (1), 31-43. Rynearson, K., & Kerr, M. S. (2005). Teaching statistics online in a blended learning environment. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 17(1), 71-94. Schultze-Mosgau, S., Zielinski, T., & Lochner, J. (2004). Interactive, web-based e-lectures with a multimedia online examination. Medical Education, 38(11), 1184. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2929.2004.01988.x Skylar, A., Higgins, K., Boone, R., & Jones, P. (2005). Distance education: An exploration of alternative methods and types of instructional media in teacher education. Journal of Special Education Technology, 20(3), 25-33. Song, L., Singleton, E. S., Hill, J. R., & Koh, M. H. (2004). Improving online learning: Student perceptions of useful and challenging characteristics. Internet and Higher Education, 7, 59-70. Swanson, A., Hutkin, R., Babb, D., & Howell, S. (2010, Sep). Establishing the best practices for social interaction and e-connectivity in online higher education classes. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Arizona. Publication Number: 3525517. Retrieved from http://gradworks.umi.com/3525517.pdf The Babson Survey Research Group. (2013). Changing course: Ten years of tracking online education in the United States. Retrieved from http://sloanconsortium.org/publications/survey/changing_course_2012 West, J. (2008). Authentic voices: Utilising audio and video within an online virtual community. Social Work Education, 27(6), 665-670. Young, A., & Norgard, C. (2006). Assessing the quality of online courses from the students’ perspective. Internet and higher education, 9, 107-115.
    20. 20. Hartsell, T., & Yuen, S. (2006). Video streaming in online learning. AACE Journal, 14 (1), 31-43. Rynearson, K., & Kerr, M. S. (2005). Teaching statistics online in a blended learning environment. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 17(1), 71-94. Schultze-Mosgau, S., Zielinski, T., & Lochner, J. (2004). Interactive, web-based e-lectures with a multimedia online examination. Medical Education, 38(11), 1184. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2929.2004.01988.x Skylar, A., Higgins, K., Boone, R., & Jones, P. (2005). Distance education: An exploration of alternative methods and types of instructional media in teacher education. Journal of Special Education Technology, 20(3), 25-33. Song, L., Singleton, E. S., Hill, J. R., & Koh, M. H. (2004). Improving online learning: Student perceptions of useful and challenging characteristics. Internet and Higher Education, 7, 59-70. Swanson, A., Hutkin, R., Babb, D., & Howell, S. (2010, Sep). Establishing the best practices for social interaction and e-connectivity in online higher education classes. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Arizona. Publication Number: 3525517. Retrieved from http://gradworks.umi.com/3525517.pdf The Babson Survey Research Group. (2013). Changing course: Ten years of tracking online education in the United States. Retrieved from http://sloanconsortium.org/publications/survey/changing_course_2012 West, J. (2008). Authentic voices: Utilising audio and video within an online virtual community. Social Work Education, 27(6), 665-670. Young, A., & Norgard, C. (2006). Assessing the quality of online courses from the students’ perspective. Internet and higher education, 9, 107-115. References
    21. 21. Biographies Andree Swanson, EdD Forbes School of Business Dr. Andree Swanson is a full-time Assistant Professor in the Forbes School of Business at Ashford University. She earned a Bachelor’s degree in Business Administration and Management from the University of Maryland European Division, a Masters of Human Relations from the University of Oklahoma, a Masters of Arts in Organizational Management from the University of Phoenix, and a Doctorate in Educational Leadership from the University of Phoenix. She has specialized in distance learning, and values teaching students with diverse backgrounds and schedules. “Having earned my degrees from both traditional classrooms and online learning systems, I value the interactive and responsive instructor.” In addition to acting as an educator, Dr. Swanson has worked as a corporate trainer, at one point becoming the national training manager for a rental company. Andree and her husband, Craig, enjoy their family, genealogical research, Facebook, and travel. They also own three Irish Setters and have recently started showing their dogs Wilson and Stewie. Bill Davis, MA, CM Forbes School of Business Bill Davis is an Instructor in the Forbes School of Business at Ashford University. He holds a Master’s degree in Organizational Leadership from St. Ambrose University, a Bachelor of Arts in Business Administration from Lewis University, and a Certified Manager Certification from The Institute for Professional Managers. Davis completed sales, human relations, and leadership courses at Dale Carnegie Training. He has over three decades experience working in the beverage industry, specifically for PepsiCo. He has also worked as a consultant for many organizations, advising in subjects like strategic planning, leadership, professional selling, and organizational change. Davis’ teaching career began in 2004 and aside from Ashford he has instructed at Blackhawk College and St. Ambrose. He has taught over 100 undergraduate courses, both online and in brick and mortar environments, in subjects such as management, leadership, sales, and marketing. In 2008, he was one of three national recipients for the distinguished CAP Award from the Commission for Accelerated Programs and was inducted into the Alpha Sigma Lambda Adult Learning Honor Society. Ashford has presented him with Leadership and Excellence in Teaching awards as well. Davis has a strong background in volunteer work. He has served as a past president of the Rock Island Optimist Club, a lieutenant governor for Region 4 of Illinois Optimists, on the steering committee of the local United Way board, as a junior advisor with Junior Achievement of the Quad-Cities, and as a volunteer for Adopt-a-School.
    22. 22. Christine McMahon, DHEd, CHES College of Health, Human Service, and Science Dr. Christine McMahon is an Assistant Professor in Ashford University’s College of Health, Human Services, and Science. She received a Doctorate in Health Education from AT Still University in Kirksville, MO, and a Master’s Degree in Exercise Science as well as a Bachelor’s Degree in Kinesiology and Sports Studies from Eastern Illinois University in Charleston, IL. Prior to joining Ashford, she spent 15 years working as the Coordinator of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation at Salem Township Hospital in Salem, IL. She enjoys teaching her students about health and wellness because it is a subject that applies to everyone. “I love teaching for Ashford University because everyone is so supportive,” she says. “I also love the interaction with the students and helping them to achieve their dreams of an advanced education.” Dr. McMahon especially appreciates the online learning format because it provided her with an opportunity to continue her dreams of attaining a doctorate degree while being a mother, wife, and full-time employee. “I understand the challenges that online learners encounter. I want to provide them with the same opportunity that I had.” Dr. McMahon, who recently became a Certified Health Education Specialist, is happily married to her high school sweetheart, Toby, and they have four beautiful daughters together: Callie, Megan, Carmen, and Taylor. Karen Lynne-Daniels Ivy, PhD College of Business and Professional Studies Dr. Karen Ivy’s professional career spans over 25 years of making contributions in business, technical, and leadership aspects of the aerospace, manufacturing, commercial consumer and office, health care, and information technology industries. An accomplished senior leader in the information technology services industry, she has principal expertise in strategic development and oversight, service delivery, program management, and technology transformation. Dr. Ivy holds a PhD in Organizational Management with a specialization in E-Business, an MBA with a focus in Management/Marketing, and a BA in Mathematics with a Computer Science focus. Her university instructor experience encompasses both traditional and online educational environments. Currently, her focus is in Ashford University online degree programs in Business Administration, Business Information Systems, International Business, and Organizational Management. A resident of Parker, CO, she enjoys being involved and giving back to the community along with being a catalyst for change in our society, and she enjoys singing, golf, and travel. Her personal goal is to inspire others to achieve their ultimate goals in the educational arena and to explore their passions to the fullest.
    23. 23. Matthew Laubacher, PhD College of Liberal Arts Dr. Matthew Laubacher teaches courses throughout the History program as well as within the Liberal Arts and Social Science majors, and serves as the Chair of Ashford University’s History program. He graduated from the University of California, San Diego with Bachelor’s in History and Biology, holds a Master’s in Education from National University, and recently earned his doctorate in History from Arizona State University. Prior to becoming a full-time faculty member, he worked as a faculty associate at Ashford for three years, taught for two years at Arizona State as a Graduate Teaching Associate and four years as an Adjunct Faculty member at Rio Salado College, and taught high school both online and on-ground. Dr. Laubacher’s main research interests involve the dynamic relationship between science (especially biology) and culture. He enjoys training students to critically examine historical documents as well as our cultural understanding of history. When teaching, Dr. Laubacher focuses heavily on the development and application of student critical thinking skills throughout the course. The number one tip he gives to online students is to develop active reading skills and to make connections with other aspects of course content while reading. Dr. Laubacher lives in San Diego with his wife, Dr. Jacqueline Ryan-Rojas, who is also an Ashford faculty member, and their three children.

    ×