Crsm 4 2009 Peter Anker Rspg Towards An Eu Policy For Cognitive Radio

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Crsm 4 2009 Peter Anker Rspg Towards An Eu Policy For Cognitive Radio

  1. 1. Towards an EU policy for Cognitive Radio? Peter Anker
  2. 2. What is the RSPG and what is it doing on CR? Radio Spectrum Policy Group Advisory body to the European Commission on Radio Spectrum Policy Issues Representatives of the Member States and of the Commission Workprogramme 2009 7 - Cognitive Technologies Expected result: Introduction of the issue to the European agenda 2 Joint Workshop on Cognitive Radio Brussels, 11 May 2009
  3. 3. Objective of the work Strategic RSPG report Is there a need for regulatory action to enable spectrum access for cognitive radio? What is Cognitive radio; Overview of various components of cognitive technologies (sensing the environment, information gathering, databases, cognitive pilot channel, learning capabilities etc.); A brief overview of the experiences and lessons in Europe and elsewhere with (pre) cognitive technologies; how cognitive technologies could operate in the various models for spectrum management; brief summary of the US framework for ‘whitespaces’ and the differences in the US and EU, including possible actions to ensure timely regulatory responses in EU; identifies the challenging issues which require further attention. 3 Joint Workshop on Cognitive Radio Brussels, 11 May 2009
  4. 4. Spectrum management: What is the problem? Unused “white” spots Deliberately left unused for Radio Astronomy 4 Joint Workshop on Cognitive Radio Brussels, 11 May 2009
  5. 5. Three inefficiencies 1. Not all frequencies are used 2. New applications have to go to higher frequencies “old” applications have a large part of the most attractive pieces of spectrum 3. Slow response to changes in market and technology Build-in resistance to change Need for more dynamic access to spectrum 5 Joint Workshop on Cognitive Radio Brussels, 11 May 2009
  6. 6. How to use these white spots?
  7. 7. Problems with Dynamic Spectrum Access • Sensing the opportunity: • How to detect when channels are free? • Quality of Service for opportunistic user: • How long channels are going to be free? • Interference to incumbent user: • How to avoid potential interference? • Medium Access Control: • How to coordinate multi-channel communication? • Policies in channel access: • How to regulate spectrum access? 7 Joint Workshop on Cognitive Radio Brussels, 11 May 2009
  8. 8. Mastering the hidden node problem Need for cooperation Sharing of spectrum sensing information among CRs + Improves probability of detection Channel needed to exchange sensing information Overhead to exchange sensing information Use of beacon transmitters Need for a Cognitive supporting Pilot Channel · Dedicated (worldwide harmonized) channel? · Existing access technology Database with local spectrum usage Need for access to a database Awareness of location 8 Joint Workshop on Cognitive Radio Brussels, 11 May 2009
  9. 9. Regulatory framework License exempt white spot access Smart radios are used with a build in techniques and rules (etiquettes) to reduce interference Everybody can use the spectrum as long as the etiquettes are followed. Market based access Well defined exclusive rights Maximum right of flexibility as to the type of services that can be provided A market type mechanism such as an auction for an initial allocation of spectrum rights Secondary market in which these rights can be sold or leased 9 Joint Workshop on Cognitive Radio Brussels, 11 May 2009
  10. 10. Access models License exempt white spot access Market based access Sp ot m A ar OS licensee licensee ke t Cognitive radio Cognitive radio CR CR licensee CR 10 Joint Workshop on Cognitive Radio Brussels, 11 May 2009
  11. 11. What are the spectrum policy implications?
  12. 12. What regulatory problems are DSA systems facing? Exclusive rights in most bands Rights restricted to a single service or technology New technologies have to adapt to the history but do not fit in the current regime However … There is no regulation that prevents the introduction of DSA systems 12 Joint Workshop on Cognitive Radio Brussels, 11 May 2009
  13. 13. What needs to be done? More flexibility in the use of frequencies More flexibility in the assignment of frequencies and trading thereof Conditions for opportunistic spectrum access Spectrum sensing limit Transmitter parameters Additional means for information gathering on spectrum usage Pilot channel Database 13 Joint Workshop on Cognitive Radio Brussels, 11 May 2009
  14. 14. International regulations - Agenda WRC 2011 1.19 to consider regulatory measures and their relevance, in order to enable the introduction of software-defined radio and cognitive radio systems, based on the results of ITU-R studies, in accordance with Resolution 956 (WRC-07); 1.2 taking into account the ITU-R studies carried out in accordance with Resolution 951 (Rev.WRC-07), to take appropriate action with a view to enhancing the international regulatory framework; 14 Joint Workshop on Cognitive Radio Brussels, 11 May 2009
  15. 15. Regulatory activities on European level
  16. 16. European activities More flexibility in the use of spectrum RSPG Opinion on WAPECS RSPG05-102 Increasing use of market mechanism RSPG Opinion on Secondary Trading RSPG04-54 Preliminary CEPT Study on the Use of Cognitive Radio in the TV bands Based on spectrum sensing (OSA) Amount of white space is limited Tight broadcast planning TV band also used for Program Making and special Event Services Harmonised subband for fixed/mobile use 16 Joint Workshop on Cognitive Radio Brussels, 11 May 2009
  17. 17. Opportunistic access Strict rules needed to keep the interference to the primary users at an acceptable level Such rules should promote fair sharing of spectrum resources among OSA devices Possibly a database with information on primary use No guarantee to spectrum access Likelihood of interference Limited Cooperation needed between regulators and standardization bodies to keep the rules up to date Need for a harmonized band to start the ball roling 17 Joint Workshop on Cognitive Radio Brussels, 11 May 2009
  18. 18. Market based access Active coordination between users Possibility to earn money with unused spectrum Possibility for a spot market and long term contracts Possibility for distribution of access based on actual use Can even be used to ease cross border coordination Sharing based on acceptable interference QoS part of the negotiations Well defined exclusive licenses granted to primary users or brokers As few usage restrictions as possible No barriers to instant trading Electronic information about ownership and actual usage should be available 18 Joint Workshop on Cognitive Radio Brussels, 11 May 2009
  19. 19. Concluding remarks Today's radios are still based on the principles out of the time of the crystal radio Huge potentials for an increased efficiency Fair distribution of access based on actual usage More flexibility needed in both technology and regulations Do not focus only on uncoordinated Opportunistic Spectrum Access Need for cooperation 19 Joint Workshop on Cognitive Radio Brussels, 11 May 2009

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