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Heterogeneous Wireless Future:
         Business & Policy Implications

                         William Lehr             ...
Outline
       Wireless future is heterogeneous (no single platform will dominate)


       Spectrum must be shared much m...
From: Lehr & Chapin (2009), "Rethinking wireless broadband platforms"



     Wireless Platform Vision: Same as Wired (?)
...
Wireless evolves to heterogeneous networks…
                        Wired             Wireless                    Implicat...
Wireless Data Trends

    Terabytes
        4,000


            3,000                                             3G


   ...
Predicted spectrum needs by 2020
  Spectrum requirements (MHz) for cellular voice and data
  Allocations must be below 5 G...
Future is shared spectrum
                          decoupling of spectrum frequencies
                          from appl...
SDR & Cognitive Radio: essential for DSA
   Software Defined Radio and CR are independent
         CR behavior most likely...
Handset economics
       Forces favoring harmonization (eg. LTE everywhere)
             Mobile handset cost economics dic...
End-user control
   Wireless heterogeneity => greater role for end-user
         Selecting device, network, service
      ...
Implications for policy and business
 Policy
 •  SDR/CR are critical technologies: policy should promote (or
    at least ...
Key takeaway points
       Wireless future is heterogeneous (scarcity is key driver)

       Spectrum must be shared much ...
Outline
       Wireless future is heterogeneous (no single platform will dominate)
             LTE is part of future, but...
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Crsm 2 2009 Bill Lehr Mit Policy And Business Issues Of Heterogeneous Wireless Networks And Dsa

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Crsm 2 2009 Bill Lehr Mit Policy And Business Issues Of Heterogeneous Wireless Networks And Dsa

  1. 1. Heterogeneous Wireless Future: Business & Policy Implications William Lehr John Chapin wlehr@mit.edu jchapin@mit.edu Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Research Laboratory of Electronics Massachusetts Institute of Technology First IBBT-MIT Joint Workshop on Cognitive Radio Standardization & Markets Brussels, Belgium May 11, 2009 © Lehr & Chapin, 2009
  2. 2. Outline Wireless future is heterogeneous (no single platform will dominate) Spectrum must be shared much more intensively (aka DSA) Software defined & cognitive radio are key enabling technologies © Lehr & Chapin, 2009 2
  3. 3. From: Lehr & Chapin (2009), "Rethinking wireless broadband platforms" Wireless Platform Vision: Same as Wired (?) Mobile Voice Mobile TV Mobile Data L3 Net Switched Voice 1way Broadcast IP L1/2 Link GSM or equiv MediaFLO or DVB HSPA or 1xEVDO Media 2G Spectrum Dedicated spectrum 3G Spectrum Triple play bundle, separate networks → LTE or other 4G integrated network Application Voice Internet Video Data L3 Net IP L1/2 Link LTE, WiMax, or equivalent Media Operator’s licensed spectrum (across all bands) © Lehr & Chapin, 2009 3
  4. 4. Wireless evolves to heterogeneous networks… Wired Wireless Implication for wireless Capacity Abundant Scarce RF strictly limited. Topology Point-to-point Broadcast Few v. many. Lower entry costs. Low/Hi power architectures. Reliability Reliable Unreliable Propagation variability favors specialized wireless networks. Mobility Fixed Mobile End-user can select network, have multiple providers. Layering Effective Inefficient Cross-layer design important. Bus Model Carrier-centric Mixed Wireless supports end-user provided, ad hoc, or mesh also Scarcity of RF spectrum is key difference…. © Lehr & Chapin, 2009 4 From: Lehr & Chapin (2009), "Rethinking wireless broadband platforms"
  5. 5. Wireless Data Trends Terabytes 4,000 3,000 3G 2,000 2G 1,000 0 Source: Dick Lynch, CTO Verizon, February 2009 2004 2008 © Lehr & Chapin, 2009 5
  6. 6. Predicted spectrum needs by 2020 Spectrum requirements (MHz) for cellular voice and data Allocations must be below 5 GHz Europe, Middle 2020 East, and Africa Americas Asia-Pacific, Iran Demand Predicted 2006 Increase 2006 Increase 2006 Increase model Total Low 1280 693 587 723 557 749 531 High 1720 693 1027 723 997 749 971 Analysis included • Traffic projections and requirements Source: ITU-R Working Party 8F • Service and application requirements Report M.2078 [IMT.ESTIMATE] • Spectrum efficiency • Radio transmission characteristics May, 2006 • Harmonized use of spectrum • Technical solutions to facilitate global roaming • Sharing and compatibility analysis © Lehr & Chapin, 2009 6
  7. 7. Future is shared spectrum decoupling of spectrum frequencies from applications (& infrastructure) Domain Trend is towards Drivers and Enablers Technology Frequency agility Smart radio systems (capabilities) Improved capability for OFDM and spread spectrum spectrum sharing Growth of fast data networks Revenue 24/7 availability Heterogeneous networks (customer experience) Simplicity of use 3G+WiFi, wireless+wired global roaming Seamless mobility Costs Lower costs per byte Bursty traffic, Multimedia (provisioning) Intermodal competition services, Fat-tailed usage profiles, Mergers & Acquisitions Policy Reduction of artificial Technology neutrality (spectrum reform) scarcity Market-based licensing Unlicensed spectrum mgmt © Lehr & Chapin, 2009 7
  8. 8. SDR & Cognitive Radio: essential for DSA Software Defined Radio and CR are independent CR behavior most likely implemented using SDR techniques, but need not be. Software radio => implementation techniques to add flexibility to a radio Less expensive than hardware for design, deploy, reconfigure, upgrade Allows reuse of generic modular components for different radio designs/standards Cognitive radio => control techniques for exploiting radio flexibility CR system makes radio operation “context” dependent (location, use, congestion) Expands sharing options Both SDR and CR are key enablers of DSA future Many more options for spectrum sharing Facilitates infrastructure and handset unbundling  componentization Enables “future-proofing” (adaptability, interoperability) © Lehr & Chapin, 2009 8
  9. 9. Handset economics Forces favoring harmonization (eg. LTE everywhere) Mobile handset cost economics dictate global scale Service bundling/convergence: single device/”one-stop” shopping Forces opposing harmonization Application heterogeneity Internet of things (iPOD, Kindle, sensors, smart cards) Smart phones (v. globalization) Technology evolution Multiple radios-on-a-chip = less need for a single air interface Likely future Realize scale/scope economies at component level Re-use/re-configure generic components into new radios SDR/CR enable specialized networks with common hardware and hide diversity of networks from users © Lehr & Chapin, 2009 9
  10. 10. End-user control Wireless heterogeneity => greater role for end-user Selecting device, network, service Consistent with trends elsewhere: self-service retail/gas/customer- service, “Market of one” customization, end-user content SDR and CR increase end-user role Enable (more) decentralization of spectrum management Unbundle services from infrastructure from spectrum Interoperability through “gateways” instead of standards Can imagine “infrastructure-less” wireless networking Ad hoc/mesh, community (Muni-), end-user deployed Flexible, self-install, self-configure Networks not dumb, but edges are definitely smarter © Lehr & Chapin, 2009 10
  11. 11. Implications for policy and business Policy •  SDR/CR are critical technologies: policy should promote (or at least not hinder) earlier commercialization. •  Don’t need to wait to harmonize. •  Let a hundred flowers blossom: too early to know what the right model for SDR/CR is. •  Careful with definitions… •  e.g., CPC good option, but bad idea to mandate •  Minimize certification hurdles (consider wider range of enforcement options – e.g., Chapin & Lehr (2007) “Time Limited Leases”) Business •  New business models, new markets, new competition •  Be spectrum agile… © Lehr & Chapin, 2009 11
  12. 12. Key takeaway points Wireless future is heterogeneous (scarcity is key driver) Spectrum must be shared much more intensively across services, networks, infrastructure across regulatory models (dedicated+shared) SDR & CR are both critical path technologies Thanks for your attention! William Lehr John Chapin ifaq.wap.org wlehr@mit.edu jchapin@mit.edu © Lehr & Chapin, 2009 12
  13. 13. Outline Wireless future is heterogeneous (no single platform will dominate) LTE is part of future, but not the future Many types of specialized wireless access networks Why? Physics, fundamental scarcity, history (see, Lehr & Chapin (2009), “Rethinking Wireless Broadband Platforms”) Spectrum must be shared much more intensively (aka DSA) Among applications, users, networks, and operators Single networks: use dedicated + shared Shared can be non-cooperative (TVWS) or cooperative (see Chapin & Lehr (2007), “Path to market success for Dynamic Spectrum Access Technology”) Software defined & cognitive radio are key enabling technologies Necessary but independent concepts Implications for: Handset economics End-user choice/control Interconnection/interoperability © Lehr & Chapin, 2009 13

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