Lorraine Ryan Notes


Published on

Lecturer: Lorraine Ryan

Published in: Education, Business
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • It takes time, energy and experience for members to come together and learn how to operate as a functional and effective team.
  • The first stage is forming or orientation. When the team first assembles, members feel uncertain and unclear about roles and responsibilities. The behaviors expressed by team members in this first stage are usually polite and cursory. The team members will try to assess the interest, needs and skills of the other members relative to their own interest, needs and skills. This first stage reflects a strong need and reliance on formal leadership. As team members experience confusion and anxiety, they look to whatever leadership already exists within the team. This stage may be smooth and agreeable or intense and wearisome. Team leaders can facilitate team members through the first stage by following these guidelines: Provide structure to the team by assigning and clarifying tasks/roes Encourage participation by all members Share all relevant information to the team members Encourage open and honest communication among team members
  • This next stage is very critical to the team because this is where the members produce as a cohesive unit. Functional relationships are explored and established by the members in spite of their differences. The team is working collaboratively to gain and share insight into the factors that contribute to or hinder their success. To best facilitate this stage, some guidelines are: Talk openly and honestly about team issues and the members’ concerns Encourage feedback Assign tasks for consensus decision making
  • This stage is the payoff for working through the first three stages. The members have learned to work together in a fully functioning team. Members now have the skills to define tasks, work out relationships, manage conflict, and work towards producing results. This should be the most productive stage of the team’s life. The members are committed the team and its goals. Guidelines for this stage are: Jointly set goals that are challenging and accepted to all members Continue to look for ways to promote the team’s chances to excel Keep an ongoing assessment of the team Acknowledge each member’s contribution Develop members to their fullest potential
  • Lorraine Ryan Notes

    1. 1. ACCA - F1 Accountant in Business Lorraine Ryan
    2. 2. ACCA - F1 - Accountant in Business <ul><li>Aim of the F1 Syllabus: </li></ul><ul><li>“ To introduce knowledge and understanding of the business and its environment and the influence this has on how organisations are structured and on the role of the accounting and other key business functions in contributing to the efficient, effective and ethical management and development of an organisation and its people and systems.” </li></ul><ul><li>ACCA </li></ul>
    3. 3. Format of the Computer-based exam <ul><li>Section A: 40 compulsory multiple- choice questions (2 marks each). </li></ul><ul><li>Section B; 10 compulsory short-form questions (1 mark each). </li></ul><ul><li>Total time allowed: 2 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Marks </li></ul><ul><li>80 </li></ul><ul><li>10 </li></ul><ul><li>Total 90 </li></ul>
    4. 4. Approach <ul><li>There are 29 chapters in the Kaplan textbook to accompany this subject. </li></ul><ul><li>ACCA has organised the syllabus in six sections. </li></ul><ul><li>Approach to teaching is that students are expected to read the relevant chapters of the study text before coming to class, detailed notes are posted each week - which are a rolled up version of the textbook chapter -to accompany the lecture. </li></ul><ul><li>After completing teaching the full course is revised following the syllabus classifications. </li></ul><ul><li>After revising each of the individual syllabus sections students take a bank of practice questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Once the course revision is complete students take an unseen mock exam. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Approach <ul><li>There is a lot of material in this subject, but no area of the course can be ignored as the objective of the exam is to test students knowledge of the entire syllabus using the multiple-choice question format. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the time students invest in preparing for their F1 examination will be repaid when students come to the F8 paper - Audit and Assurance; which is a highly specialised paper but the groundwork has been prepared in F1’s syllabus Section’s A, C and D. F1 also lays the foundation for paper P3 - Business Analysis. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Introduction to Tuckman’s Theory of Team Development Teamwork <ul><li>In today’s workplace the successful functioning of teams provides a source of competitive advantage for the firm - successful teams achieve synergy (simply put synergy means 2+2 = 5 the output (results) are greater than the inputs) </li></ul><ul><li>Tuckman has put forward the following theory in relation to the stages of team development. </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Role of Teamwork Within the Organisation <ul><li>Outperform individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Higher degree of flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Democratise an organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Develop trust </li></ul><ul><li>Informal atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Aid conflict resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Better use of talent </li></ul><ul><li>Increase motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Clear unity of purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Develop consistent goals </li></ul><ul><li>Better communication </li></ul><ul><li>Provide strategic vision </li></ul>
    8. 8. Tuckman’s Stages of Team Development
    9. 9. Stages of Team Development - Tuckman <ul><li>Stage 1 : Forming - finding out about group members and the task. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 : Storming - conflict about leadership and the task. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3 : Norming - developing norms and cohesion. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 4 : Performing - getting the job done. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 5 : Dorming (Adjourning) - reposing/ leaving the group. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Team Stages: Forming <ul><li>Determining task ahead; </li></ul><ul><li>Team members getting acquainted; </li></ul><ul><li>Excitement, pride in participation, anxiety about unknowns; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>determine acceptable behaviours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>determine how to deal with problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identify roles of team members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>develop trust and communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>develop norms </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Team Stages: Storming <ul><li>Chaotic, not functioning as team yet Resistance to trying new approaches, concern over workload </li></ul><ul><ul><li>arguing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blaming instructors for unrealistic expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>competition within team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realise that the task is more difficult than they imagined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have fluctuations in attitude about chances of success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be resistant to the task </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Team Stages: Norming <ul><li>Team comes together and accept ground rules, conflict reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling of team cohesion and pride </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling that work will get done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased collaboration and sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructive, positive use of feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Members accept: </li></ul><ul><li>Their team </li></ul><ul><li>Team rules and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Their roles in the team </li></ul><ul><li>The individuality of fellow members </li></ul><ul><li>Team members start helping each other </li></ul>
    13. 13. Team Stages: Performing <ul><li>Team members have: </li></ul><ul><li>Gained insight into personal and team processes </li></ul><ul><li>A better understanding of each other’s strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Gained the ability to prevent or work through group conflicts and resolve differences </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a close attachment to the team </li></ul><ul><li>Performing thr stage where the team is at it’s most productive : </li></ul><ul><li>Team recognises strengths, overcomes weaknesses to complete project; </li></ul><ul><li>Better insight into group processes; </li></ul><ul><li>Stronger relationships with team members: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members learn to self-correct. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team learns to prevent or solve team problems. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Team Stages: Dorming/Adjourning/Completing <ul><li>Dorming/ Adjourning: </li></ul><ul><li>Team prepares for end of project; </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of satisfaction; </li></ul><ul><li>Sadness due to ending group interaction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of team strengths/weaknesses; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review of project history, ways to improve. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Sample Exam Question 1 <ul><li>At which stage of team development, according to Tuckman, will the effectiveness of work be at the lowest point? </li></ul><ul><li>A Forming </li></ul><ul><li>B Storming </li></ul><ul><li>C Norming </li></ul><ul><li>D Performing </li></ul>
    16. 16. Sample Exam Question 2 <ul><li>The fifth stage which has been added to Tuckman’s four stages of team development is: </li></ul><ul><li>A Warming </li></ul><ul><li>B Reforming </li></ul><ul><li>C Dorming </li></ul><ul><li>D Leading </li></ul>
    17. 17. Solution to Sample Exam Question 1 <ul><li>Answer = B - Storming </li></ul><ul><li>This is a conflict stage when people start to withdraw their co-operation and therefore jobs are not completed to the expected standard. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Solution to Sample Exam Question 2 <ul><li>Answer = C - Dorming </li></ul><ul><li>Dorming refers refers to the danger that the team will be operating on automatic pilot. Tuckman’s first four stages are Forming; Storming; Norming and Performing. </li></ul>