Successfully reported this slideshow.
Your SlideShare is downloading. ×

Invasion Ecology Seminar

Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad

Check these out next

1 of 69 Ad
Advertisement

More Related Content

Similar to Invasion Ecology Seminar (20)

Advertisement

Recently uploaded (20)

Advertisement

Invasion Ecology Seminar

  1. 1. Ignasi Bartomeus nacho.bartomeus@gmail.com Biological Invasions. Where and Who
  2. 2. *Survive *Increase in numbers *Expand its range What should a successful invader do? *Introduced
  3. 3. Why can exotic species, whose initial populations are small, succeed to establish themselves in environments to which they have no opportunity to adapt and even become more abundant? “Invasion paradox” Sax & Brown 2000
  4. 4. Where?
  5. 5. Understanding  the  Na.ve-­‐Exo.c  Plant   Richness  rela.onships Elton  1958 niche Exotic plant sp1 sp4 sp2 sp3
  6. 6. Understanding  the  Na.ve-­‐Exo.c  Plant   Richness  rela.onships Elton  1958 niche sp1 sp2 niche Exotic plant sp2 sp1 sp4 sp3 Exotic plant
  7. 7. Native richness Exoticrichness Biotic resistance hypothesis Stachowitz et al 1999, 2002, Naeem et al. 2000, Fargione & Tilman 2005, Case 1990, Knops et al. 1999, Levine 2000, Kennedy et al. 2002
  8. 8. Stohlgren et al. 2003, 2006 U.S. counties
  9. 9. Shea & Chesson 2002
  10. 10. Shea & Chesson 2002
  11. 11. Shea & Chesson 2002 Environmental factors that increase diversity of native species might also increase diversity of exotics
  12. 12. UTM  de  10  km  *  10  Km Data: ExoticNative BDBC,  h2p://biodiver.bio.ub.es/biocat   Bartomeus et al. (GEB, 2011)
  13. 13. 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 020406080100120140 Native richness Exoticrichness
  14. 14. 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 020406080100120140 Native richness Exoticrichness
  15. 15. Land  use  Shannon  diversity  index Geologic  Shannon  diversity  index %  Forest %  Scrub %  Agriculture %  Urban  land  use %  Bare  soil No.  habitats Altitudinal  range Distance  to  main  roads Distance  to  main  cities Distance  to  main  rivers Population  density Fire  frequency Distance  to  the  sea Solar  Radiation Mean  January  temperature Mean  July  temperature Mean  annual  temperature January  precipitation July  precipitation Annual  precipitation Mean  altitude Heterogeneity Anthropogenic Climatic
  16. 16. !
  17. 17. Naeem et al. 2000
  18. 18. 0.46 -0.68 0.28 -0.09 -0.04 -0.22 -0.09 0.18 0.22 -0.08 0.130.14 0.38 0.13 0.11 NativesAliens PC1:Climate -Elevation 0.22 0.74 PC2: Human pressure PC5:Climate -Landscape PC7:Geo diversity PC8:Roads PC9:Rivers PC10: Habitat Heterogeneity
  19. 19. Heterogeneity Climate Anthropic Native Exotic + + +
  20. 20. Heterogeneity Climate Anthropic Native Exotic + + - + +
  21. 21. Heterogeneity Climate Anthropic Native Exotic + + - ++ + + + 17 %
  22. 22. ok, some common factors, but the relation stills being positive!
  23. 23. Heterogeneity Climate Anthropic Native Exotic + + - ++ + + + 17 %
  24. 24. 200 400 600 800 1000 020406080100120140 NativesNR EXOTIQUES r2= 0.1 Exotic Native Non Ruderal 0 50 100 150 200 020406080100120140 RUDERALS EXOTIQUES r2= 0.56 Exotic Native Ruderal
  25. 25. Heterogeneity Climate Anthropic Ruderals Exotic + + - ++ - ++ + 58%
  26. 26. +exotic plants +ruderal native plants +propagule pressure +disturbance Heterogeneity Anthropogenic activities Mechanisms
  27. 27. Only in plants?
  28. 28. Urban Natural NativeExotic 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 humanfood Natural 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 p < 0.001 Habitat p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Habitat p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Food p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Food p < 0.001 Deliverate, Accidental Deliverate, Accidental Suburbs, Wildland Suburbs Suburbs Evidence from birds: Urban Natural NativeExotic 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 humanfood Natural 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 p < 0.001 Habitat p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Habitat p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Food p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Food p < 0.001 Deliverate, Accidental Deliverate, Accidental Suburbs, Wildland Suburbs Suburbs Sol, Bartomeus & Griffin (Submitted) Based in 24Transects from Wildland to Urban areas in Australia.
  29. 29. Urban Natural NativeExotic 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 humanfood Natural 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 p < 0.001 Habitat p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Habitat p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Food p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Food p < 0.001 Deliverate, Accidental Deliverate, Accidental Suburbs, Wildland Suburbs Suburbs Evidence from birds: Urban Natural NativeExotic 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 humanfood Natural 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 p < 0.001 Habitat p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Habitat p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Food p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Food p < 0.001 Deliverate, Accidental Deliverate, Accidental Suburbs, Wildland Suburbs Suburbs Sol, Bartomeus & Griffin (Submitted) Based in 24Transects from Wildland to Urban areas in Australia. Urban Natural NativeExotic 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 humanfood Natural 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 p < 0.001 Habitat p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Habitat p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Food p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Food p < 0.001 Deliverate, Accidental Deliverate, Accidental Suburbs, Wildland Suburbs Suburbs Urban Natural 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 humanfood Natural 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 p < 0.001 Habitat p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Habitat p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Food p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Food p < 0.001 Deliverate, Accidental Deliverate, Accidental Suburbs, Wildland Suburbs Suburbs
  30. 30. Urban Natural NativeExotic 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 humanfood Natural 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 p < 0.001 Habitat p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Habitat p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Food p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Food p < 0.001 Deliverate, Accidental Deliverate, Accidental Suburbs, Wildland Suburbs Suburbs Evidence from birds: Urban Natural NativeExotic 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 humanfood Natural 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 p < 0.001 Habitat p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Habitat p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Food p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Food p < 0.001 Deliverate, Accidental Deliverate, Accidental Suburbs, Wildland Suburbs Suburbs Sol, Bartomeus & Griffin (Submitted) Based in 24Transects from Wildland to Urban areas in Australia.Urban Natural NativeExotic 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 humanfood Natural 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 p < 0.001 Habitat p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Habitat p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Food p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Food p < 0.001 Deliverate, Accidental Deliverate, Accidental Suburbs, Wildland Suburbs Suburbs
  31. 31. Urban Natural NativeExotic 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 humanfood Natural 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 p < 0.001 Habitat p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Habitat p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Food p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Food p < 0.001 Deliverate, Accidental Deliverate, Accidental Suburbs, Wildland Suburbs Suburbs Evidence from birds: Urban Natural NativeExotic 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 humanfood Natural 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 p < 0.001 Habitat p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Habitat p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Food p < 0.001 p < 0.001 Food p < 0.001 Deliverate, Accidental Deliverate, Accidental Suburbs, Wildland Suburbs Suburbs Sol, Bartomeus & Griffin (Oecologia) Based in 24Transects from Wildland to Urban areas in Australia.
  32. 32. Who?
  33. 33. Sol et al PNAS 2005
  34. 34. Sol et al PNAS 2005
  35. 35. Life History Traits Time Populationsize demographic or environmental stochasticity Fast population growth
  36. 36. Life History Traits Time Populationsize Fast population growth Propagule pressure demographic or environmental stochasticity
  37. 37. Life History Traits Time Populationsize Fast population growth Propagule pressure demographic or environmental stochasticity
  38. 38. 2,760 introduction, comprising 428 species from 49 families, 1,292 of which were successful
  39. 39. Rmax: Fecundity, Age at first breeding & lifespan Cole 1954 Which Life history traits confers a fast population growth? Clutch*broods
  40. 40. Rmax: Fecundity, Age at first breeding & lifespan Cole 1954 5 10 15 123456 d$Clutch d$RmaxRmax Clutch Which Life history traits confers a fast population growth?
  41. 41. InvasionpotentialInvasionpotentialofspecies Fig. 1 a b d e 5 10 15 -3-2-10123 Clutch size -2 -1 -3-2-10123 Fast-Sl 23 23 Even, when including Propagule pressure in the models Clutch size Sol et al. (Science)
  42. 42. However, Rmax do not predict invasion success... b c e f 10 15 ch size -2 -1 0 1 -3-2-10123 Fast-Slow 2 4 6 -3-2-10123 Body m 3 3 Invasionpotential Rmax 1 2 3 4
  43. 43. So, no relation with other Life History Traits?
  44. 44. Time Populationsize Trade off: Reproduction Survival
  45. 45. which risk are you willing to take for your brood? BroodValue = Total offspring Clutch size
  46. 46. BroodValue = 2 eggs*4broods*2years 2 eggs = 0.125 BroodValue = 2 eggs*1broods*8years 2 eggs = 0.125 BroodValue = Clutch*broods*lifespan Clutch size
  47. 47. Invasionpotentia d e 5 10 15 Clutch size -2 -1 Fast -2.2 -1.8 -1.4 -1.0 -3-2-10123 Brood value -2 -1 0 -3-2-10123 Residual Invasionpotential
  48. 48. LHT important, but in a different way Invasionpotential propagule pressure +
  49. 49. Invasionpotentialofspecies a b c d e f 5 10 15 -3-2-10123 Clutch size -2 -1 0 1 -3-2-10123 Fast-Slow 2 4 6 8 10 -3-2-10123 Body mass -2.2 -1.8 -1.4 -1.0 -3-2-10123 Brood value -2 -1 0 1 2 3 -3-2-10123 Residual brain size 1 2 3 4 5 -3-2-10123 Habitat generalism LHT important, but in a different way Invasionpotential propagule pressure +
  50. 50. Invasionpotentialofspecies a b c d e f 5 10 15 -3-2-10123 Clutch size -2 -1 0 1 -3-2-10123 Fast-Slow 2 4 6 8 10 -3-2-10123 Body mass -2.2 -1.8 -1.4 -1.0 -3-2-10123 Brood value -2 -1 0 1 2 3 -3-2-10123 Residual brain size 1 2 3 4 5 -3-2-10123 Habitat generalism LHT important, but in a different way Invasionpotential propagule pressure +
  51. 51. Invasionpotentialofspecies a b c d e f 5 10 15 -3-2-10123 Clutch size -2 -1 0 1 -3-2-10123 Fast-Slow 2 4 6 8 10 -3-2-10123 Body mass -2.2 -1.8 -1.4 -1.0 -3-2-10123 Brood value -2 -1 0 1 2 3 -3-2-10123 Residual brain size 1 2 3 4 5 -3-2-10123 Habitat generalism LHT important, but in a different way Invasionpotential propagule pressure +
  52. 52. Explain success of pigeons
  53. 53. Competitiveness Niche overlap + - + based in Mc Dougall et al. 2009
  54. 54. Competitiveness Niche overlap + - + based in Mc Dougall et al. 2009
  55. 55. Competitiveness Niche overlap + - + based in Mc Dougall et al. 2009
  56. 56. What am I doing in a bee lab?
  57. 57. Osmia cornifrons Osmia lignaria Invasive native
  58. 58. Osmia cornifrons Osmia lignaria * Same habitats * Same phenologies (?) * Same nesting preferences (?) * Same diet (?) Invasive native We suspect:
  59. 59. Competitiveness Niche overlap + - + based in Mc Dougall et al. 2009
  60. 60. Competitiveness Niche overlap + - + based in Mc Dougall et al. 2009 Is there competition going on?
  61. 61. Not all communities are equally resistant Most invaders use empty or disturbed habitats Not all species are good invaders Most invaders have behavioral or phenotypic plasticity “paradox” Where? Who?
  62. 62. Thank you - nacho.bartomeus@gmail.com Thanks to Co-Authors: Daniel Sol,Andrea Griffin, Joan Pino, Xavier Font, PalomaVicente, Joan Maspons, Josep Piñol, MiquelVall-llosera. People at CREAF, Oriol Lapiedra, Cesar Lagos,...
  63. 63. 0 1 2 slow continuum -2.2 -2.0 -1.8 -1.6 -1.4 -1.2 -1.0 -0.8 -2-10123 Brood value ResidualBrain Text

×