Ignasi Bartomeusnacho.bartomeus@gmail.comBiological Invasions.Where and Who
*Survive*Increase in numbers*Expand its rangeWhat should a successfulinvader do?*Introduced
Why can exotic species,whose initial populationsare small, succeed toestablish themselves inenvironments to whichthey have...
Where?
Understanding	  the	  Na.ve-­‐Exo.c	  Plant	  Richness	  rela.onshipsElton	  1958nicheExotic plantsp1sp4sp2sp3
Understanding	  the	  Na.ve-­‐Exo.c	  Plant	  Richness	  rela.onshipsElton	  1958nichesp1 sp2nicheExotic plantsp2sp1sp4 sp...
Native richnessExoticrichnessBiotic resistance hypothesisStachowitz et al 1999, 2002, Naeem et al. 2000, Fargione & Tilman...
Stohlgren et al. 2003, 2006U.S. counties
Shea & Chesson 2002
Shea & Chesson 2002
Shea & Chesson 2002Environmental factors that increasediversity of native species might alsoincrease diversity of exotics
UTM	  de	  10	  km	  *	  10	  KmData:ExoticNativeBDBC,	  h2p://biodiver.bio.ub.es/biocat	  Bartomeus et al. (GEB, 2011)
200 400 600 800 1000 1200020406080100120140Native richnessExoticrichness
200 400 600 800 1000 1200020406080100120140Native richnessExoticrichness
Land	  use	  Shannon	  diversity	  indexGeologic	  Shannon	  diversity	  index%	  Forest%	  Scrub%	  Agriculture%	  Urban	...
!
Naeem et al. 2000
0.46-0.680.28-0.09-0.04-0.22-0.090.180.22-0.080.130.140.380.130.11NativesAliensPC1:Climate-Elevation0.22 0.74PC2: Humanpre...
HeterogeneityClimateAnthropicNativeExotic+++
HeterogeneityClimateAnthropicNativeExotic++-++
HeterogeneityClimateAnthropicNativeExotic++-+++++17 %
ok, some common factors,but the relation stills being positive!
HeterogeneityClimateAnthropicNativeExotic++-+++++17 %
200 400 600 800 1000020406080100120140NativesNREXOTIQUESr2= 0.1ExoticNative Non Ruderal0 50 100 150 200020406080100120140R...
HeterogeneityClimateAnthropicRuderalsExotic++-++-+++58%
+exotic plants+ruderal native plants+propagule pressure+disturbanceHeterogeneityAnthropogenic activitiesMechanisms
Only in plants?
UrbanNaturalNativeExotic00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81humanfood Natural00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81p < 0.001Ha...
UrbanNaturalNativeExotic00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81humanfood Natural00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81p < 0.001Ha...
UrbanNaturalNativeExotic00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81humanfood Natural00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81p < 0.001Ha...
UrbanNaturalNativeExotic00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81humanfood Natural00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81p < 0.001Ha...
Who?
Sol et al PNAS 2005
Sol et al PNAS 2005
Life History TraitsTimePopulationsizedemographic orenvironmentalstochasticityFast population growth
Life History TraitsTimePopulationsizeFast population growthPropagule pressuredemographic orenvironmentalstochasticity
Life History TraitsTimePopulationsizeFast population growthPropagule pressuredemographic orenvironmentalstochasticity
2,760 introduction, comprising 428 species from49 families, 1,292 of which were successful
Rmax: Fecundity, Age at first breeding & lifespanCole 1954Which Life history traits confers a fastpopulation growth?Clutch*...
Rmax: Fecundity, Age at first breeding & lifespanCole 19545 10 15123456d$Clutchd$RmaxRmaxClutchWhich Life history traits co...
InvasionpotentialInvasionpotentialofspeciesFig. 1a bd e5 10 15-3-2-10123Clutch size-2 -1-3-2-10123Fast-Sl2323Even, when in...
However, Rmax do notpredict invasion success...b ce f10 15ch size-2 -1 0 1-3-2-10123Fast-Slow2 4 6-3-2-10123Body m33Invasi...
So, no relation with other Life History Traits?
TimePopulationsizeTrade off:ReproductionSurvival
which risk are you willing to take for your brood?BroodValue =Total offspringClutch size
BroodValue =2 eggs*4broods*2years2 eggs= 0.125BroodValue =2 eggs*1broods*8years2 eggs= 0.125BroodValue =Clutch*broods*life...
Invasionpotentiad e5 10 15Clutch size-2 -1Fast-2.2 -1.8 -1.4 -1.0-3-2-10123Brood value-2 -1 0-3-2-10123ResidualInvasionpot...
LHT important, but in a different wayInvasionpotentialpropagule pressure +
Invasionpotentialofspecies a b cd e f5 10 15-3-2-10123Clutch size-2 -1 0 1-3-2-10123Fast-Slow2 4 6 8 10-3-2-10123Body mass...
Invasionpotentialofspecies a b cd e f5 10 15-3-2-10123Clutch size-2 -1 0 1-3-2-10123Fast-Slow2 4 6 8 10-3-2-10123Body mass...
Invasionpotentialofspecies a b cd e f5 10 15-3-2-10123Clutch size-2 -1 0 1-3-2-10123Fast-Slow2 4 6 8 10-3-2-10123Body mass...
Explain success of pigeons
CompetitivenessNiche overlap+-+based in Mc Dougall et al. 2009
CompetitivenessNiche overlap+-+based in Mc Dougall et al. 2009
CompetitivenessNiche overlap+-+based in Mc Dougall et al. 2009
What am I doing in a bee lab?
Osmia cornifrons Osmia lignariaInvasive native
Osmia cornifrons Osmia lignaria* Same habitats* Same phenologies (?)* Same nesting preferences (?)* Same diet (?)Invasive ...
CompetitivenessNiche overlap+-+based in Mc Dougall et al. 2009
CompetitivenessNiche overlap+-+based in Mc Dougall et al. 2009Is there competition going on?
Not all communities areequally resistantMost invaders use empty ordisturbed habitatsNot all species are goodinvadersMost i...
Thank you- nacho.bartomeus@gmail.comThanks to Co-Authors: Daniel Sol,Andrea Griffin,Joan Pino, Xavier Font, PalomaVicente, ...
0 1 2slow continuum-2.2 -2.0 -1.8 -1.6 -1.4 -1.2 -1.0 -0.8-2-10123Brood valueResidualBrainText
Invasion Ecology Seminar
Invasion Ecology Seminar
Invasion Ecology Seminar
Invasion Ecology Seminar
Invasion Ecology Seminar
Invasion Ecology Seminar
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Invasion Ecology Seminar

  1. 1. Ignasi Bartomeusnacho.bartomeus@gmail.comBiological Invasions.Where and Who
  2. 2. *Survive*Increase in numbers*Expand its rangeWhat should a successfulinvader do?*Introduced
  3. 3. Why can exotic species,whose initial populationsare small, succeed toestablish themselves inenvironments to whichthey have noopportunity to adaptand even become moreabundant?“Invasion paradox”Sax & Brown 2000
  4. 4. Where?
  5. 5. Understanding  the  Na.ve-­‐Exo.c  Plant  Richness  rela.onshipsElton  1958nicheExotic plantsp1sp4sp2sp3
  6. 6. Understanding  the  Na.ve-­‐Exo.c  Plant  Richness  rela.onshipsElton  1958nichesp1 sp2nicheExotic plantsp2sp1sp4 sp3Exotic plant
  7. 7. Native richnessExoticrichnessBiotic resistance hypothesisStachowitz et al 1999, 2002, Naeem et al. 2000, Fargione & Tilman 2005,Case 1990, Knops et al. 1999, Levine 2000, Kennedy et al. 2002
  8. 8. Stohlgren et al. 2003, 2006U.S. counties
  9. 9. Shea & Chesson 2002
  10. 10. Shea & Chesson 2002
  11. 11. Shea & Chesson 2002Environmental factors that increasediversity of native species might alsoincrease diversity of exotics
  12. 12. UTM  de  10  km  *  10  KmData:ExoticNativeBDBC,  h2p://biodiver.bio.ub.es/biocat  Bartomeus et al. (GEB, 2011)
  13. 13. 200 400 600 800 1000 1200020406080100120140Native richnessExoticrichness
  14. 14. 200 400 600 800 1000 1200020406080100120140Native richnessExoticrichness
  15. 15. Land  use  Shannon  diversity  indexGeologic  Shannon  diversity  index%  Forest%  Scrub%  Agriculture%  Urban  land  use%  Bare  soilNo.  habitatsAltitudinal  rangeDistance  to  main  roadsDistance  to  main  citiesDistance  to  main  riversPopulation  densityFire  frequencyDistance  to  the  seaSolar  RadiationMean  January  temperatureMean  July  temperatureMean  annual  temperatureJanuary  precipitationJuly  precipitationAnnual  precipitationMean  altitudeHeterogeneityAnthropogenicClimatic
  16. 16. !
  17. 17. Naeem et al. 2000
  18. 18. 0.46-0.680.28-0.09-0.04-0.22-0.090.180.22-0.080.130.140.380.130.11NativesAliensPC1:Climate-Elevation0.22 0.74PC2: HumanpressurePC5:Climate-LandscapePC7:GeodiversityPC8:Roads PC9:Rivers PC10: HabitatHeterogeneity
  19. 19. HeterogeneityClimateAnthropicNativeExotic+++
  20. 20. HeterogeneityClimateAnthropicNativeExotic++-++
  21. 21. HeterogeneityClimateAnthropicNativeExotic++-+++++17 %
  22. 22. ok, some common factors,but the relation stills being positive!
  23. 23. HeterogeneityClimateAnthropicNativeExotic++-+++++17 %
  24. 24. 200 400 600 800 1000020406080100120140NativesNREXOTIQUESr2= 0.1ExoticNative Non Ruderal0 50 100 150 200020406080100120140RUDERALSEXOTIQUESr2= 0.56ExoticNative Ruderal
  25. 25. HeterogeneityClimateAnthropicRuderalsExotic++-++-+++58%
  26. 26. +exotic plants+ruderal native plants+propagule pressure+disturbanceHeterogeneityAnthropogenic activitiesMechanisms
  27. 27. Only in plants?
  28. 28. UrbanNaturalNativeExotic00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81humanfood Natural00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81p < 0.001Habitatp < 0.001p < 0.001Habitatp < 0.001p < 0.001Foodp < 0.001p < 0.001Foodp < 0.001Deliverate,AccidentalDeliverate, AccidentalSuburbs, WildlandSuburbs SuburbsEvidence from birds:UrbanNaturalNativeExotic00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81humanfood Natural00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81p < 0.001Habitatp < 0.001p < 0.001Habitatp < 0.001p < 0.001Foodp < 0.001p < 0.001Foodp < 0.001Deliverate,AccidentalDeliverate, AccidentalSuburbs, WildlandSuburbs SuburbsSol, Bartomeus & Griffin (Submitted)Based in 24Transects from Wildland to Urban areas in Australia.
  29. 29. UrbanNaturalNativeExotic00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81humanfood Natural00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81p < 0.001Habitatp < 0.001p < 0.001Habitatp < 0.001p < 0.001Foodp < 0.001p < 0.001Foodp < 0.001Deliverate,AccidentalDeliverate, AccidentalSuburbs, WildlandSuburbs SuburbsEvidence from birds:UrbanNaturalNativeExotic00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81humanfood Natural00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81p < 0.001Habitatp < 0.001p < 0.001Habitatp < 0.001p < 0.001Foodp < 0.001p < 0.001Foodp < 0.001Deliverate,AccidentalDeliverate, AccidentalSuburbs, WildlandSuburbs SuburbsSol, Bartomeus & Griffin (Submitted)Based in 24Transects from Wildland to Urban areas in Australia.UrbanNaturalNativeExotic00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81humanfood Natural00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81p < 0.001Habitatp < 0.001p < 0.001Habitatp < 0.001p < 0.001Foodp < 0.001p < 0.001Foodp < 0.001Deliverate,AccidentalDeliverate, AccidentalSuburbs, WildlandSuburbs SuburbsUrbanNatural00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81humanfood Natural00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81p < 0.001Habitatp < 0.001p < 0.001Habitatp < 0.001p < 0.001Foodp < 0.001p < 0.001Foodp < 0.001Deliverate,AccidentalDeliverate, AccidentalSuburbs, WildlandSuburbs Suburbs
  30. 30. UrbanNaturalNativeExotic00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81humanfood Natural00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81p < 0.001Habitatp < 0.001p < 0.001Habitatp < 0.001p < 0.001Foodp < 0.001p < 0.001Foodp < 0.001Deliverate,AccidentalDeliverate, AccidentalSuburbs, WildlandSuburbs SuburbsEvidence from birds:UrbanNaturalNativeExotic00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81humanfood Natural00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81p < 0.001Habitatp < 0.001p < 0.001Habitatp < 0.001p < 0.001Foodp < 0.001p < 0.001Foodp < 0.001Deliverate,AccidentalDeliverate, AccidentalSuburbs, WildlandSuburbs SuburbsSol, Bartomeus & Griffin (Submitted)Based in 24Transects from Wildland to Urban areas in Australia.UrbanNaturalNativeExotic00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81humanfood Natural00.20.40.60.81p < 0.001Habitatp < 0.001p < 0.001Habitatp < 0.001p < 0.001Foodp < 0.001p < 0.001Foodp < 0.001Deliverate,AccidentalDeliverate, AccidentalSuburbs, WildlandSuburbs Suburbs
  31. 31. UrbanNaturalNativeExotic00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81humanfood Natural00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81p < 0.001Habitatp < 0.001p < 0.001Habitatp < 0.001p < 0.001Foodp < 0.001p < 0.001Foodp < 0.001Deliverate,AccidentalDeliverate, AccidentalSuburbs, WildlandSuburbs SuburbsEvidence from birds:UrbanNaturalNativeExotic00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81humanfood Natural00.20.40.60.8100.20.40.60.81p < 0.001Habitatp < 0.001p < 0.001Habitatp < 0.001p < 0.001Foodp < 0.001p < 0.001Foodp < 0.001Deliverate,AccidentalDeliverate, AccidentalSuburbs, WildlandSuburbs SuburbsSol, Bartomeus & Griffin (Oecologia)Based in 24Transects from Wildland to Urban areas in Australia.
  32. 32. Who?
  33. 33. Sol et al PNAS 2005
  34. 34. Sol et al PNAS 2005
  35. 35. Life History TraitsTimePopulationsizedemographic orenvironmentalstochasticityFast population growth
  36. 36. Life History TraitsTimePopulationsizeFast population growthPropagule pressuredemographic orenvironmentalstochasticity
  37. 37. Life History TraitsTimePopulationsizeFast population growthPropagule pressuredemographic orenvironmentalstochasticity
  38. 38. 2,760 introduction, comprising 428 species from49 families, 1,292 of which were successful
  39. 39. Rmax: Fecundity, Age at first breeding & lifespanCole 1954Which Life history traits confers a fastpopulation growth?Clutch*broods
  40. 40. Rmax: Fecundity, Age at first breeding & lifespanCole 19545 10 15123456d$Clutchd$RmaxRmaxClutchWhich Life history traits confers a fastpopulation growth?
  41. 41. InvasionpotentialInvasionpotentialofspeciesFig. 1a bd e5 10 15-3-2-10123Clutch size-2 -1-3-2-10123Fast-Sl2323Even, when including Propagulepressure in the modelsClutch sizeSol et al. (Science)
  42. 42. However, Rmax do notpredict invasion success...b ce f10 15ch size-2 -1 0 1-3-2-10123Fast-Slow2 4 6-3-2-10123Body m33InvasionpotentialRmax1 2 3 4
  43. 43. So, no relation with other Life History Traits?
  44. 44. TimePopulationsizeTrade off:ReproductionSurvival
  45. 45. which risk are you willing to take for your brood?BroodValue =Total offspringClutch size
  46. 46. BroodValue =2 eggs*4broods*2years2 eggs= 0.125BroodValue =2 eggs*1broods*8years2 eggs= 0.125BroodValue =Clutch*broods*lifespanClutch size
  47. 47. Invasionpotentiad e5 10 15Clutch size-2 -1Fast-2.2 -1.8 -1.4 -1.0-3-2-10123Brood value-2 -1 0-3-2-10123ResidualInvasionpotential
  48. 48. LHT important, but in a different wayInvasionpotentialpropagule pressure +
  49. 49. Invasionpotentialofspecies a b cd e f5 10 15-3-2-10123Clutch size-2 -1 0 1-3-2-10123Fast-Slow2 4 6 8 10-3-2-10123Body mass-2.2 -1.8 -1.4 -1.0-3-2-10123Brood value-2 -1 0 1 2 3-3-2-10123Residual brain size1 2 3 4 5-3-2-10123Habitat generalismLHT important, but in a different wayInvasionpotentialpropagule pressure +
  50. 50. Invasionpotentialofspecies a b cd e f5 10 15-3-2-10123Clutch size-2 -1 0 1-3-2-10123Fast-Slow2 4 6 8 10-3-2-10123Body mass-2.2 -1.8 -1.4 -1.0-3-2-10123Brood value-2 -1 0 1 2 3-3-2-10123Residual brain size1 2 3 4 5-3-2-10123Habitat generalismLHT important, but in a different wayInvasionpotentialpropagule pressure +
  51. 51. Invasionpotentialofspecies a b cd e f5 10 15-3-2-10123Clutch size-2 -1 0 1-3-2-10123Fast-Slow2 4 6 8 10-3-2-10123Body mass-2.2 -1.8 -1.4 -1.0-3-2-10123Brood value-2 -1 0 1 2 3-3-2-10123Residual brain size1 2 3 4 5-3-2-10123Habitat generalismLHT important, but in a different wayInvasionpotentialpropagule pressure +
  52. 52. Explain success of pigeons
  53. 53. CompetitivenessNiche overlap+-+based in Mc Dougall et al. 2009
  54. 54. CompetitivenessNiche overlap+-+based in Mc Dougall et al. 2009
  55. 55. CompetitivenessNiche overlap+-+based in Mc Dougall et al. 2009
  56. 56. What am I doing in a bee lab?
  57. 57. Osmia cornifrons Osmia lignariaInvasive native
  58. 58. Osmia cornifrons Osmia lignaria* Same habitats* Same phenologies (?)* Same nesting preferences (?)* Same diet (?)Invasive nativeWe suspect:
  59. 59. CompetitivenessNiche overlap+-+based in Mc Dougall et al. 2009
  60. 60. CompetitivenessNiche overlap+-+based in Mc Dougall et al. 2009Is there competition going on?
  61. 61. Not all communities areequally resistantMost invaders use empty ordisturbed habitatsNot all species are goodinvadersMost invaders havebehavioral or phenotypicplasticity“paradox”Where?Who?
  62. 62. Thank you- nacho.bartomeus@gmail.comThanks to Co-Authors: Daniel Sol,Andrea Griffin,Joan Pino, Xavier Font, PalomaVicente, JoanMaspons, Josep Piñol, MiquelVall-llosera.People at CREAF, Oriol Lapiedra, Cesar Lagos,...
  63. 63. 0 1 2slow continuum-2.2 -2.0 -1.8 -1.6 -1.4 -1.2 -1.0 -0.8-2-10123Brood valueResidualBrainText

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