Native bees in a changing worldNacho Bartomeus - nacho.bartomeus@gmail.com - @ibartomeus
Honeybee
HoneybeeHoney
HoneybeeHoney              Sting
There are more than 20.000 bee species world wide>4000 in the USA                        >400 in the NJ
What makes a bee a bee?
What makes a bee a bee?Insects: Hymenopterans: bees                        Furry                                      Vege...
Life cycle of a solitary bee     spring    Adult
summer-autumn-winterNest           Life cycle              spring             Adult
Larva       summer-autumn-winterNest           Life cycle              spring             Adult
Larva       summer-autumn-winterNest                          Mating           Life cycle              spring             ...
Why are bees so importantAll species are important per se+ for plants: 85% of world plants are to somedegree pollinated by...
Other pollinators10cm             The usual suspects8cm4cm2cm0cm Beetles Flies   Bees   Butterflies     Birds
Other pollinators10cm             The usual suspects8cm4cm2cm0cm Beetles Flies    Bees      Butterflies   Birds          & ...
Back to the bees importance for agriculture:      Honeybee        Not native (need to be managed)                      Not...
Back to the bees importance for agriculture:      Honeybee        Not native (need to be managed)                      Not...
What about natives bees?   Don’t need to manage (almost)   Don’t sting (almost)   Generally good pollinators   Give a stab...
CCD       A syndrome, not a disease       Domestication associated problems       Transportation & nutrition       Nosema ...
Are natives doing well in this days?Well... bees are difficult to research:
Are natives doing well in this days?Well... bees are difficult to research:                                                ...
What about its importance as pollinators?    Natives bees are doing well in NJ   Winfree et al 2007                       ...
What about its importance as pollinators?                                 But not in extensive                            ...
Good practices:   Small plots   Nest sites   Flowering along all season                  Crop     Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug ...
And their populations?                Some Bumblebees are declining:                                          Cameron et a...
And their populations?                NY & NJ
And their populations?                Some Bumblebees are declining:                              Introduction of         ...
And their populations?   Other bees and syrphids: Britain and netherlands:
Global change: Land use  Effect of human disturbance on bee abundance                                                 Winf...
Global change: Land use                                   (Fedridge et al 2008)         Natural Habitat      Black Rock Fo...
Global change: Land use                                      (Fedridge et al 2008)         Natural Habitat      Black Rock...
Global change: Land use                                                  (Matteson et al 2007)         Natural Habitat    ...
Global change: Alien species                         Number species,replacement                            Exotic of Alien...
Global change: Alien species         Natural Habitat      Black Rock Forest: ~176 sp              (4% alien)              ...
Global change: Climate (Bartomeus et al 2011)                      Phenologydays from 1 January
Global change: Climatedays from 1 January
Global change: Climatedays from 1 January
Global change: Climatedays from 1 January
Global change: Climatedays from 1 January                                               Temperature                       ...
Global change: Climatedays from 1 January                                                          Temperature            ...
Global change: Climatedays from 1 January                                                      Temperature                ...
days from 1 JanuaryYear          Temperature
days from 1 January          {Year                         ~10 days of mean advance          Temperature
most dramatic advance in the last 40 yearsdays from 1 January                                                             ...
Main drivers of Global change:  Land use  Climate  Invasive species  Chemicals
Conclusions   If we take a little care on them, we can relay on            bees for pollinating “our” plants
more info:      http://winfreelab.rutgers.edu/       http://www.xerces.org/       http://greatpollinatorproject.org/
Thank you
Native bees in a changing world; Bartomeus2011
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Native bees in a changing world; Bartomeus2011

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This is my standard bee presentation, with some background on bee life histories and how global change is affecting them.

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Native bees in a changing world; Bartomeus2011

  1. 1. Native bees in a changing worldNacho Bartomeus - nacho.bartomeus@gmail.com - @ibartomeus
  2. 2. Honeybee
  3. 3. HoneybeeHoney
  4. 4. HoneybeeHoney Sting
  5. 5. There are more than 20.000 bee species world wide>4000 in the USA >400 in the NJ
  6. 6. What makes a bee a bee?
  7. 7. What makes a bee a bee?Insects: Hymenopterans: bees Furry Vegetarian Colletes sp
  8. 8. Life cycle of a solitary bee spring Adult
  9. 9. summer-autumn-winterNest Life cycle spring Adult
  10. 10. Larva summer-autumn-winterNest Life cycle spring Adult
  11. 11. Larva summer-autumn-winterNest Mating Life cycle spring Adult
  12. 12. Why are bees so importantAll species are important per se+ for plants: 85% of world plants are to somedegree pollinated by bees (Ollerton et al 2011)+ for agriculture: 76% of crops are bee dependent(Klein et al 2007)
  13. 13. Other pollinators10cm The usual suspects8cm4cm2cm0cm Beetles Flies Bees Butterflies Birds
  14. 14. Other pollinators10cm The usual suspects8cm4cm2cm0cm Beetles Flies Bees Butterflies Birds & Bats, & even Lizards... as long as they carry pollen
  15. 15. Back to the bees importance for agriculture: Honeybee Not native (need to be managed) Not perfect Problems associated Diseases (Varroa mites) CCD Africanized Honeybee
  16. 16. Back to the bees importance for agriculture: Honeybee Not native (need to be managed) Not perfect Problems associated Diseases (Varroa mites) CCD Africanized Honeybee “Sweat bees, giving free tomato buzz pollination since ever”
  17. 17. What about natives bees? Don’t need to manage (almost) Don’t sting (almost) Generally good pollinators Give a stable pollination service (Winfree & Kremen 2009) Flowering bee 4 bee 3 bee1 bee 2 Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug
  18. 18. CCD A syndrome, not a disease Domestication associated problems Transportation & nutrition Nosema fungi & IAP virus Varroa mites Pesticides?But is not because of:Cell phonesGMO
  19. 19. Are natives doing well in this days?Well... bees are difficult to research:
  20. 20. Are natives doing well in this days?Well... bees are difficult to research: small mobile short lived
  21. 21. What about its importance as pollinators? Natives bees are doing well in NJ Winfree et al 2007 >
  22. 22. What about its importance as pollinators? But not in extensive monocultures crops Why not? No nesting sites: bees need both, flowers, and nests! Flowers bloom for a short period of time Insecticides?
  23. 23. Good practices: Small plots Nest sites Flowering along all season Crop Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug
  24. 24. And their populations? Some Bumblebees are declining: Cameron et al 2011 Illinois: 4 sp locally extirpated 4 sp decreased Gritxi et al 2009 Ontario: 7 sp declining; 2 sp increasing Colla & Parcker 2008 Few winers, many loosers?
  25. 25. And their populations? NY & NJ
  26. 26. And their populations? Some Bumblebees are declining: Introduction of Nosema bombii fungi Bombus affinis
  27. 27. And their populations? Other bees and syrphids: Britain and netherlands:
  28. 28. Global change: Land use Effect of human disturbance on bee abundance Winfree et al. 2009, Ecology!
  29. 29. Global change: Land use (Fedridge et al 2008) Natural Habitat Black Rock Forest: ~176 sp
  30. 30. Global change: Land use (Fedridge et al 2008) Natural Habitat Black Rock Forest: ~176 sp Suburban Habitat Gardens: ~145 sp
  31. 31. Global change: Land use (Matteson et al 2007) Natural Habitat Black Rock Forest: ~176 sp Suburban Habitat Gardens: ~145 sp NY City Community gardens: ~60 sp
  32. 32. Global change: Alien species Number species,replacement Exotic of Alien species Abundance ofreplacementspecies Exotic species, Alien 10 15 8number of species number of records 10 6 4 5 2 0 0 Time time period Time time period
  33. 33. Global change: Alien species Natural Habitat Black Rock Forest: ~176 sp (4% alien) Suburban Habitat Gardens: ~145 sp (6% alien) NY City Community gardens: ~ 60 sp (19% alien)
  34. 34. Global change: Climate (Bartomeus et al 2011) Phenologydays from 1 January
  35. 35. Global change: Climatedays from 1 January
  36. 36. Global change: Climatedays from 1 January
  37. 37. Global change: Climatedays from 1 January
  38. 38. Global change: Climatedays from 1 January Temperature Time Year
  39. 39. Global change: Climatedays from 1 January Temperature Mean April Temperature Year
  40. 40. Global change: Climatedays from 1 January Temperature -Day of collection Year
  41. 41. days from 1 JanuaryYear Temperature
  42. 42. days from 1 January {Year ~10 days of mean advance Temperature
  43. 43. most dramatic advance in the last 40 yearsdays from 1 January Temperature { { Year
  44. 44. Main drivers of Global change: Land use Climate Invasive species Chemicals
  45. 45. Conclusions If we take a little care on them, we can relay on bees for pollinating “our” plants
  46. 46. more info: http://winfreelab.rutgers.edu/ http://www.xerces.org/ http://greatpollinatorproject.org/
  47. 47. Thank you

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