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Aijrfans14 269

  1. 1. ISSN (Print): 2328-3777, ISSN (Online): 2328-3785, ISSN (CD-ROM): 2328-3793 American International Journal of Research in Formal, Applied & Natural Sciences AIJRFANS 14-269; © 2014, AIJRFANS All Rights Reserved Page 126 Available online at AIJRFANS is a refereed, indexed, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary and open access journal published by International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR), USA (An Association Unifying the Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research) EFFECT OF DENSITY ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI OF BRACKISH WATER CULTURE SYSTEM IN WINTER SEASON WITH ARTIFICIAL DIET, INDIA Danya Babu. Ravuru1 and Jagadish Naik. Mude2 Department of Zoology and Aquaculture, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh–522510, INDIA I. Introduction Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931), is the most important penaeid shrimp species farmed worldwide (Alcivar – Warren et al., 2007). Because of the high demand for shrimps in Japan, the United States and Europe, shrimp aquaculture has expanded rapidly in all around the world, especially in tropical areas, such as Southeast Asia and Latin America (Lombardi et al., 2006). Among all species of shrimp, L. vannamei, which represents over 90% of shrimp culture in the Western hemisphere, is the most commonly cultured shrimp in Central and South American countries, China and Thailand (Frias- Espericueta et al., 2001; Mc Graw et al., 2002; Saoud et al., 2003). India ranks second next to china in shrimp production. India has the one of the longest coastal line of 8118 km. About 90percent of the total landings has commercially most importance for the shrimp culture all over the world. Andhra Pradesh has the second longest coast line 972 km distributed in India. Prakasam District has distributed 102 km coast line in Andhra Pradesh. The L.vannamei is growing much better than Penaeus monodon. The recent trends in shrimp culture shows a considerable increase of farming of L. vannamei replacing P. monodon culture. The optimal stocking density varies depending on the farm system and management practices. In India the production of L.vannamei culture about 18247 (MT) from 2930 ha culture in 2010–11, the production of shrimp 48430.00 (MT). II. Material and Methods All ponds were pumped with creek water. The pond shape is rectangular. The post larvae (PL15) of L.vannamei were 15 days old for beginning the study. The PL15 collected from BMR hatchery (Iscapalli village) situated about 20 km of Nellore District in Andhra Pradesh. Cost of seed Rs. 50 paisa for each. Water depth maintained 7ft. In the summer season, L.vannamei (post larvae) stocking densities were taken for culture in three ponds, each one contains (2, 50000) 50 species/m2 and also, survival was 82, 84 and 86% (2, 05,000; 2, 10,000; 2, 15,000), respectively. The temperature, salinity and DO ranges up to 16±20 C, 12±2ppt and 4.0ppm/day. The artificial diet was given made by Manamei feed pellet (Protein% 35 (Feed No. 1, 2, 3 and 3S) and Protein% 34(Feed No. 3M)).The methodology includes standard techniques to measure the water quality parameters. III. Results In the experiment the stocking density was influenced by the water quality parameters (see Table1) and also, indicated the reduction of survival rate at higher densities. The species L.vannamei was well grownup to 20 gm body weight from 2.0–3.5, 2.0–3.5 and 2.0–4.0g for P1, P2 and P3/15 days in Indian climate conditions, which is better than other countries. In the culture system the growth rate increased due to the artificial feed supplementation in the season. The oxygen consumption was higher in the large size groups than in the smaller shrimp. More the feed is given; more the Ammonia and H2S gas are released. When the electrical aerators and probiotics are used, the shrimp growth rate was increased due to lack of Dissolved Oxygen (DO). The shrimp culture of the mean average weights of the shrimp were 16.5, 17.0 and 17.5g (Tables 1,2 and 3), survival were Abstract: The White leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) is an Ecological important tropical and euryhaline species. The culture was conducted from three ponds each one of 0.5hac for the study. Semi Intensive culture system was selected in Chinaganjam village, Prakasam District under Brackish water conditions. Stocking densities of L.vannamei (post larvae) were taken from three samples, each one contains (2, 50,000) 50 species/m2 and its survival was 82%, 84% and 86%. The artificial diet was provided 4times/day with Manamei feed pellets (Protein 35 and 34%).In winter season in month of November to February, the water quality parameters were measured fortnightly in a month at 7a. m. The production was 3287, 3472 and 3554kg and FCR was1.43, 1.51 and 1.46 and the final growth was 26.5, 27.0 and 27.5g for P1, P2 and P3/95, 98 and 101 days, respectively. Key words: L. vannamei, Temperature, Salinity, Density, Feed, Growth and Production
  2. 2. Danya Babu Ravuru et al., American International Journal of Research in Formal, Applied & Natural Sciences, 6(2), March-May 2014, pp. 126-129 AIJRFANS 14-269; © 2014, AIJRFANS All Rights Reserved Page 127 82, 84 and 86%.The given feed 2352, 2359.4, 2486.7 kg/ 95, 98 and 101 days; FCR was1.43, 1.51 and 1.46 for P1,P2 and P3 (Table 1); production was 3287, 3472 and 3554 kg, respectively. Cost of the feed Rs.71.84/kg and Cost of the species at harvesting time Rs. 380, 390 and 400/kg for P1, P2 and P3. IV. Discussion The statistical analysis method was applied “ANOVA” test, comparison of the survival, production, growth rate and FCR in P1, P2, and P3. The maintenance of good water quality is essential for optimum health, survival and growth of shrimp. The present study was concluded that L.vannamei culture is successful in brackish water environments and the growth is directly related to stocking density. The shrimp was relatively inactive about 200 C and exhibited low food consumption comparatively at about 350 C. The shrimp maintained at 350 C had the highest rate of food consumption (Araneda et a., 2008) recorded the average growth rate of 0.38 g/wk in the 90 shrimp/m2 and lowest in the180 shrimp/m2 (0.33 g/wk).Despite the growth variation observed, all values of the parameters meet the water quality requirements for shrimp production (Cawthorne, Beard, Devenport and Wickins,1983; Allan and Maguire, 1991; Garcia and Brune, 1991; Lee and Wickins, 1992; Prado-Estepa, Llobrera,Villaluz and Saldes, 1993); early morning Dissolved Oxygen concentration was between 3.0 to 4.5 mg1-1 ; salinity was about 14% during the first week of grow out pond, which is preferable for post larvae (PL). The initial lower temperatures would have reduced metabolism and diet intake of the shrimp (Lester and Pante 1992), consequently slowing growth during the first weak. The growth rate of L.vannamei at higher salinities of 50ppt and more, showed the possibility of commercial production. The optimum feeding rate and frequency of presentation must, therefore, be determined for individual feeds and farms by carefully monitoring feed consumption, growth and feed efficiency over several growing seasons (Tacon, 1993). As one of key factors for culture shrimp, water quality not only affects the shrimp growth and survival rate, but also affects the accuracy of the experiment result (Chim et al., 2008). During the course of the attachment, a large number of shrimp could be assembled on the pond bottom from the artificial substrates (Zhang et al., 2010). Protein requirement has been defined by Guillaume (1997) as the minimum or the maximum amount of protein needed per animal per day. Protein requirements change with respect to changes in biotic factors (e.g. species, physiological state, size) and dietary characteristics (e.g. protein quality, energy: protein ratio). Abiotic factors such as temperature and salinity may also affect the protein requirement (Guillaume, 1997). The protein requirement of a given species is often based on the response (e.g. weight gain, feed efficiency, protein conversion efficiency) of the animal to varying levels of dietary protein under a given set of circumstances. Pro“W” Probiotic is provided to all 3 ponds depending on biomass control of dead shrimps. Minerals are provided to all three ponds depending on biomass i. e. EDTA 2.5 kg/0.5ha for molting of the species, Burunt lime to enhance the water quality. Sugar 7.5 kg/0.5 ha for hardening the shell. “Gasonex” to lift of the gas (while it is black soil, it will be given after 70 days). “Boonin” (do not use of above 15ppt of salinity) for deficiency of minerals. “Opti Oxygen” controls the DO. “AQ lite” for bottom clears. Potash 15kg/0.5/ha for control the body gram of species.P1 the survival rate was decreased comparatively with P2, P3 and P2 Food Conversion Ratio was high compared with P1,P3 (Table1) and P3 the growth was increased in P1,P2(Table 2, 3 and 4). Table 1: Pond performance Details Pond Details Area (ha) DOC Stocking date PL stocking (days) Density(m2 ) & Initial stocking Survival (%) & Numbers FCR P1 0.5 95 02/11/2012 PL15 50=2,50,000 82=2,05,000 1.43 P2 0.5 98 02/11/2012 PL15 50=2,50,000 84=2,10,000 1.51 P3 0.5 101 02/11/2012 PL15 50=2,50,000 86=2,15,000 1.46 Table 2: Pond 1 Water parameters & Growth performance (g) in winter season DOC Temperature (0 C) Salinity (ppt) DO (ppm) Giving feed (%) Feeding/day (kg) Total growth (gm) AVG/ fortnightly (gm) 15 13.0±2 9.0±2 3.4 – 120.00 2.00 2.00 30 14.0±2 10.0±2 3.6 6.5 54.90 4.00 2.00 45 14.5±2 10.5±2 3.7 5.0 41.00 7.00 3.00 60 15.0±2 11.0±2 3.8 4.5 36.90 10.00 3.00 75 16.0±2 12.0±2 4.0 3.5 28.70 13.00 3.00 95 15.5±2 11.5±2 3.9 3.5 28.40 16.50 3.50 Mean 14.6±2 10.5±2 3.7 Total production=3382kg; Dead shrimps=95kg; Final production=3287kg; Total feed=2352kg
  3. 3. Danya Babu Ravuru et al., American International Journal of Research in Formal, Applied & Natural Sciences, 6(2), March-May 2014, pp. 126-129 AIJRFANS 14-269; © 2014, AIJRFANS All Rights Reserved Page 128 Line Graph1: Pond 1 Water parameters & Growth performance (g) in winter season Table 3: Pond 2 Water parameters & Growth performance (g) in winter season DOC Temperatur e (0 C) Salinity (ppt) DO (ppm) Giving feed (%) Feeding/da y (kg) Total growth (gm) AVG/ fortnightly (gm) 15 13.0±2 9.0±2 3.4 – 120.0 2.00 2.00 30 13.5±2 9.5±2 3.5 6.5 54.6 4.50 2.50 45 14.0±2 10.0±2 3.6 4.5 37.8 7.50 3.00 60 15.0±2 11.0±2 3.8 4.0 33.6 10.50 3.00 75 16.0±2 12.0±2 4.0 3.5 29.4 13.50 3.00 98 15.5±2 11.5±2 3.9 3.5 29.2 17.00 3.50 Mean 14.5±2 10.3±2 3.7 Total production=3570kg; Dead shrimps=98kg; Final production=3472kg; Total feed=2359.40kg Line Graph 2: Pond 2 Water parameters & Growth performance (g) in winter season Table 4: Pond 3 Water parameters & Growth performance (g) in winter season DOC Temperatur e (0 C) Salinity (ppt) DO (ppm) Giving feed (%) Feeding/da y (kg) Total growth (gm) AVG/ fortnightly (gm) 15 13.5±2 9.5±2 3.5 – 120.0 2.00 2.00 30 14.0±2 10.0±2 3.6 6.5 55.90 4.50 2.50 45 14.5±2 10.5±2 3.7 4.5 38.70 7.50 3.00 60 15.0±2 11.0±2 3.8 4.0 34.40 10.50 3.00 75 16.0±2 12.0±2 4.0 3.5 30.10 13.50 3.00 101 15.5±2 11.5±2 3.9 3.5 30.00 17.50 4.00 Mean 14.7±2 10.7±2 3.7 Total production=3655kg; Dead shrimps=101kg; Final production=3554kg; Total feed=2486.70kg 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 15 30 45 60 75 95 Temperature Salinity (ppt) DO(ppm) Giving feed (%) Feeding/day (kg) Total growth (gm) AVG (gm) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 15 30 45 60 75 98 Temperature Salinity (ppt) DO(ppm) Giving feed (%) Feeding/day (kg) Total growth (gm) AVG (gm)
  4. 4. Danya Babu Ravuru et al., American International Journal of Research in Formal, Applied & Natural Sciences, 6(2), March-May 2014, pp. 126-129 AIJRFANS 14-269; © 2014, AIJRFANS All Rights Reserved Page 129 Line Graph 3: Pond 3 Water parameters & Growth performance (g) in winter season Note: P=Pond, DOC=Days of Culture, PL=Post Larvae, FCR=Food Conversion Ratio and DO=Dissolved Oxygen, AVG= Average growth V. Conclusion In the present study, it has been observed, Temperature, Salinity, Dissolved oxygen, Density and Survival have been observed and the shrimp Growth rate and Production were increased with artificial Manamei feed when compared with control. VI. Acknowledgements Authors are thankful to the Farmer and Owner of the culture ponds K. Ramana (Neeli Aqua Pvt, Ltd.) in Chinaganjam Village, Prakasakm District, for their encouragement and provided facilities up to harvest of the L.vannamei culture. References 1. Allen G.L., & Maguire G.B. (1991) lethal levels of low dissolved oxygen and effect of short-term oxygen stress on subsequent growth of juvenile Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture 94, 2–37. 2. Arenda.M., E.P.Perez, and E.Gasca–Leyva .2008 white shrimp Penaeus vannamei culture in fresh water 3densities; condition state based on length and weight. Aquaculture 283; 13–18. 3. Alcivar–Warren AD, Meehan–Meola S, Won Park, Xu Z, Delaney M, Zuniga G. (2007). Shrimp Map: a low-density, microsatellite-based linkage map of the Pacific white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei: identification of sex-linked markers in linkage group 4. Journal of Shellfish Research 26(4): 1259–1277, 26[1259: SALMLM] 2.0.CO; 2 4. Chim, L., M. Castex, D. Pham, P. Lemaire, P. Scmidely and M. Mariojouls, 2008. Evaluation of floating cages as an experimental tool for marine shrimp culture studies under practical earthen pond conditions. Aquaculture, 279: 63–69. 5. Cawthorne, D.E., Beard T., Davenport, J and Wickins, J. (1983). Response of juvenile Penaeus monodon Fabricius to natural and artificial sea water of low salinity. Aquaculture 32.165–174. 6. Frías–Espericueta, M.G, Voltolina, D. and Osuna–López, J.I, 2001. Acute toxicity of cadmium, mercury and lead to white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) post larvae. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 67: 580–586. 7. Garcia, A and Brune, D.E. (1991). Transport limitation of oxygen in shrimp culture pond. Aquaculture engineering 10,269–279. 8. Guillaume, J., 1997. Protein and amino acids. In: D’Abramo, L.R., Conklin, D.E., Akiyama, D.M. (Eds.), Crustacean Nutrition. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, LA, pp. 26–50. 9. Lee D.O.C. & Wickins J.E. (1992). Crustacean forming Black Well Scientific Publications. Oxford. 10. Lombardi, J.V., M.H .L. De Almeida, L.P.R. Toledo, B.O.J. Salee and E.J. De Paula, 2006. Cage Polyculture of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and the Philippines Sea weed Kappaphycusalvarezii. Aquaculture, 258: 412–415. 11. Lester, L. J. and M. J. Pante. 1992. Penaeid temperature and salinity responses. Pages 515–534 in A. W. Fast and L. J. Lester, editors. Marine shrimp culture: principles and practices. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Elsevier, New York, New York, USA. 12. Mc Graw, W.J., Davis, D.A., Teichert–Coddington, D and Rouse, D.B, 2002. Acclimation of Litopenaeus vannamei post larvae to low salinity: influence of age, salinity, endpoint and rate of salinity reduction. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 33: 78–84. 13. Parado–Estpa E.E.D, Llobera A., Villaluz, A and Saldes, R. (1993). Survival and metamorphosis of Penaeus monodon Larvae at different salinity levels. Israel Journal of Aquaculture 45, 3–7. 14. Saoud, I.P., Davis, D.A. and Rouse, D.B, 2003. Suitability studies of inland well waters for Litopenaeus vannamei culture. Aquaculture, 217: 373–383. 15. Tacon, A.G.J. 1993. Feed formulation and on-farm feed management. In M.B. New, A.G.J. Tacon and I. Csavas, eds. Farm-made aquafeeds, p. 61–74. Proceedings of the FAO/AADCP Regional Expert Consultation on Farm–Made Aquafeeds. Bangkok, FAO– RAPA/AADCP. 16. Zhang, B., W.H. Li, J.R. Huang, Y.J. W and R.L. Xu. (2010). Effects of artificial substrates on the growth, survival and spatial distribution of Litopenaeus vannamei in the intensive culture condition. Iran. J. Fish. Sci., 9: 293–304.20. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 15 30 45 60 75 101 Temperature Salinity(ppt) DO(ppm) Giving feed (%) Feeding/day (kg) Total growth (gm) AVG growth (gm)