Therapeutics in dentistry(general principles)

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Therapeutics in dentistry(general principles)

  1. 1. Therapeutics in Dentistry (General Principles) <ul><li>Iyad Abou Rabii </li></ul>
  2. 2. 1991 MRes (Master of Research) PG Diploma Oral and Max-Fac Surgery Docteur of Dental Surgery 1993 1998 1998 2001 2004 2005 PG Certificat (General Pharmacology) PG Diploma (Pharmaceutical Engeneering) PhD(Dental Pharmacology) PG Certificat (Implant Dentistry) 2012 MSc (Medical Education)
  3. 3. Pharmacology Basics <ul><li>Indications </li></ul><ul><li>Contra-indications </li></ul>2
  4. 4. Pharmacology Basics <ul><li>Indications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The reasons for administering a medication or performing a treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contra-indications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A factor that prevents the use of a medication or treatment (eg. Allergies) </li></ul></ul>2
  5. 5. Pharmacology Basics <ul><li>Dose </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism of Action </li></ul>3
  6. 6. Pharmacology Basics <ul><li>Dose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of a drug to be administered at one time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mechanism of Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How a drug works </li></ul></ul>3
  7. 7. Pharmacology Basics <ul><li>Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Side Effects </li></ul>4
  8. 8. Pharmacology Basics <ul><li>Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The desired result of administration of a medication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Side Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects that are not desired and that occur in addition to the desired therapeutic effects </li></ul></ul>4
  9. 9. Medication Names <ul><li>Chemical Name </li></ul><ul><li>Generic Name </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Name </li></ul><ul><li>Official Name </li></ul>6
  10. 10. Medication Names <ul><li>Chemical Name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>describes the drug’s chemical structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generic Name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reflects the chemical name, but in shorter form </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trade Name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the name the manufacturer uses to market the drug </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Official Name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the name used in the Pharmocopoeia </li></ul></ul>6
  11. 11. Routes of drug administration <ul><li>Enteral tract routes </li></ul><ul><li>Parenteral routes </li></ul>
  12. 12. Comparison of Enteral vs. Parenteral Routes
  13. 13. Enteral Routes <ul><li>Oral (PO) </li></ul><ul><li>Orogastric/nasogastric (OG/NG) </li></ul><ul><li>Sublingual (SL) </li></ul><ul><li>Buccal </li></ul><ul><li>Rectal (PR) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Parenteral Routes <ul><li>Topical </li></ul><ul><li>Intradermal </li></ul><ul><li>Intranasal </li></ul><ul><li>Subcutaneous (SC) </li></ul><ul><li>Intramuscular (IM) </li></ul><ul><li>Intravenous (IV) </li></ul><ul><li>Endotracheal (ET) </li></ul><ul><li>Sublingual injection </li></ul><ul><li>Intracardiac (IC) </li></ul><ul><li>Intraosseous </li></ul><ul><li>Inhalational </li></ul><ul><li>Umbilical </li></ul><ul><li>Vaginal </li></ul><ul><li>Pulpal </li></ul>
  15. 15. No single method of drug administration is ideal for all drugs in all circumstances Very Important Info!
  16. 16. What are the essential components of a drug prescription? Drug prescription
  17. 17. Essential Components of Prescriptions <ul><li>All written prescriptions should contain: </li></ul><ul><li>Patient's full name and address </li></ul><ul><li>Prescriber's full name, address, telephone number, </li></ul><ul><li>Date of issuance </li></ul><ul><li>Signature of prescriber </li></ul><ul><li>Drug name, dose, dosage form, amount </li></ul><ul><li>Directions for use </li></ul><ul><li>Refill instructions </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Medication Order (Prescription) <ul><li>Medication desired </li></ul><ul><li>Dose desired </li></ul><ul><li>Administration route </li></ul><ul><li>Administration rate </li></ul>
  19. 19. Before any Drug prescription <ul><li>Discuss with patient the possible consequences (god and bad) </li></ul><ul><li>Prescribe drugs you know </li></ul><ul><li>Keep updated (BNF, Vidal…others) </li></ul><ul><li>Dose: consider age, physiology, and pathology </li></ul><ul><li>Drug interactions </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>The Dentist is legally responsible for the signed prescription </li></ul><ul><li>Prescription should be indelible, dated, with full name and address of the patient </li></ul><ul><li>Age of patient should be mentioned when under 12. </li></ul><ul><li>Use generic drugs when possible </li></ul>Prescribing
  21. 21. <ul><li>Don`t use abbreviations for the drug names. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the quantity supplied </li></ul><ul><li>Directions should be in English with no use of the abbreviations </li></ul>Prescribing
  22. 22. Prescribing <ul><li>When writing the dose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantities of one gram is wrriten (1 g) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 1 g is written in milligrams (500 mg) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than l mg should be written in microgram 100 microgram (not 0.1 mg) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nanogram and microgram should not be abbreviated </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Clark’s Rule <ul><li>Clark's Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Divide the child’s weight (in pounds) by 150 to get the approximate fraction of the adult dose to give to the child. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: For a 50 pound child give 50/150 (or 1/3) of the adult dose. Therefore, if the adult dose is 30 drops taken 3 times per day, the child’s dose will be 10 drops taken 3 times per day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(not 30 drops taken 1 time per day). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Essential Components of Prescriptions <ul><li>All written prescriptions should contain: </li></ul><ul><li>Patient's full name and address </li></ul><ul><li>Prescriber's full name, address, telephone number, </li></ul><ul><li>Date of issuance </li></ul><ul><li>Signature of prescriber </li></ul><ul><li>Drug name, dose, dosage form, amount </li></ul><ul><li>Directions for use </li></ul><ul><li>Refill instructions </li></ul>
  25. 25. Essential Components of Prescriptions
  26. 26. Latin abbreviations <ul><li>Rx : abbreviation of the Latin word &quot;recipe” x as a substitute period. </li></ul><ul><li># ac (ante cibum) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>means &quot;before meals&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li># bid (bis in die) means </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;twice a day&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Latin abbreviations <ul><li># po (per os) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>means &quot;by mouth&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li># pc (post cibum) means </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;after meals&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li># prn (pro re nata) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>means &quot;as needed&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Latin abbreviations <ul><li># q 3 h (quaque 3 hora) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>means &quot;every 3 hours&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li># qd (quaque die) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>means &quot;every day&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li># qid (quater in die) means </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;4 times a day&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Feel free to use this PowerPoint presentation for your personal, </li></ul><ul><li>educational and business. </li></ul><ul><li>Do </li></ul><ul><li>Make a copy for backups on your harddrive or local network. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the presentation for your presentations and projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Print hand outs or other promotional items. </li></ul><ul><li>Don‘t </li></ul><ul><li>Make it available on a website , portal or social network website for download . (Incl. groups, file sharing networks, Slideshare etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Edit or modify the downloaded presentation and claim / pass off as your own work. </li></ul><ul><li>All copyright and intellectual property rights, without limitation, are retained by Dr. Iyad Abou Rabii. By downloading and using this presentatione, you agree to this statement. </li></ul><ul><li>Please feel free to contact me, if you do have any questions about usage. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr Iyad Abou Rabii </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>Copyright notice

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