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The WJ IV Cognitive GIA in iintellectual disability (ID) assessment

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This is a brief presentation that explains why the WJ IV (and WJ III) GIA IQ score is an appropriate and valid indicator of general intelligence that can be used in possible intellectual disability (ID) determinations

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The WJ IV Cognitive GIA in iintellectual disability (ID) assessment

  1. 1. I. General intelligence is the central tenant of the 1st Prong of an intellectual disability (ID) diagnosis (Dx) II. The WJ IV (and earlier WJ III) is listed in authoritative ID-related publications as a comprehensive measure of general intelligence suitable for ID assessment III. The Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory is the consensus taxonomic model of human intelligence IV. The WJ IV is the most comprehensive measure of the Cattell-Horn- Carroll (CHC) model of human intelligence and has been the leader in CHC intelligence test development since circa 1989 V. Validity evidence provided for the WJ IV (McGrew, LaForte & Schrank, 2014), in the judgement of independent scholars, supports the validity of the WJ IV GIA as valid indicator of general intelligence Overview
  2. 2. I. General intelligence is the central tenant of the 1st Prong of ID
  3. 3. General intelligence is the central tenant of the 1st Prong of ID • “Intellectual disability is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social and practical adaptive behavior skills (AAIDD, 2010) • “Intellectual functioning is currently best captured by a general factor of intelligence. Intelligence is a general mental ability” (AAIDD, 2010; p. 31; italics added). • DSM-5 (APA: DSM-5, 2013) also refers to an intellectual developmental disorder as requiring “deficits in general mental abilities (Criterion A)” (p. 37; italics added).
  4. 4. • A person’s general intelligence (g) cannot be seen or observed—it is a latent, unobservable, theoretical construct. • IQ test scores are the vehicles for operationalizing the theoretical construct of general intelligence (g) via observable or manifest indicators (tests) • The total composite IQ score (often called the full scale IQ score) from a comprehensive IQ test can be considered the best available and practical proxy of the unobservable (aka., latent; hidden; not observable) factor of general intelligence—historically referred to as g in the psychological literature (Gottfredson, 1997; Gottfredson & Saklofske, 2009; Haeir, 2016; Horton & Reynolds, 2015; Jensen, 1998; Kaufman, 2009; Neisser et al., 1996; Schneider & Flanagan, 2015; Watson, 2015; Widaman, 2015). • The full scale IQ score from a comprehensive intelligence battery “is the best estimate of a person’s general intellectual ability for the purposes of diagnosing ID” (McGrew, 2015a, p. 87; italics added; also see Tassé & Blume, 2018).
  5. 5. General intelligence cannot be seen or directly measured. It is hidden. Comprehensive IQ tests, like the WJ IV, WAIS-IV, etc., provide practical, observable vehicles (tests) from which we infer a person’s general intelligence.
  6. 6. Jensen & Weng (1994) Latent, hidden, unobservable intelligence constructs (theoretical domain) Observable, manifest, obtained test score indicators of constructs (measurement domain) General intelligence (g)(Note-red material added to original figure)
  7. 7. WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ Latent, hidden, unobservable intelligence constructs (theoretical domain) Observable, manifest, obtained test score indicators of general intelligence (g) construct (measurement domain) SB-V Full Scale IQ General intelligence (g) • The full scale IQ score from a comprehensive intelligence battery “is the best estimate of a person’s general intellectual ability for the purposes of diagnosing ID” (McGrew, 2015a, p. 87; italics added; also see Tassé & Blume, 2018). • The Wechsler tests, Stanford-Binet, and Woodcock-Johnson tests are the most psychometrically sound, individually administered, comprehensive proxies for general intelligence for adults (two most recent versions of each depicted above). WAIS-III Full Scale IQ SB-IV Full Scale IQ WJ IV GIA IQ score WJ III GIA IQ score
  8. 8. II. The WJ IV (and earlier WJ III) is listed in authoritative ID-related publications as a comprehensive measure of general intelligence suitable for ID assessment
  9. 9. (2002)
  10. 10. Floyd, R. G., Farmer, R. L., Schneider, W. J., & McGrew, K. S. (2018, in press). Theories and measurement of intelligence. In L. M. Glidden (Ed.), APA handbook of intellectual and developmental disabilities. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  11. 11. Floyd, R. G., Farmer, R. L., Schneider, W. J., & McGrew, K. S. (2018, in press). Theories and measurement of intelligence. In L. M. Glidden (Ed.), APA handbook of intellectual and developmental disabilities. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  12. 12. 2015 From McGrew chapter on intellectual functioning
  13. 13. 2015 From Watson chapter on intelligence testing
  14. 14. III. The Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory is the consensus psychometric taxonomic model of human intelligence
  15. 15. “The Cattell–Horn–Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities is the best validated model of human cognitive abilities” Ackerman, P. L. & Lohman D. F. (2006). Individual differences in cognitive functions. In P. A. Alexander, P. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology, 2nd edition (pp. 139-161). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. CHC is the consensus psychometric model of intelligence
  16. 16. “The CHC model provides an excellent fit to a broad range of individual differences data and is therefore considered one of the best, if not the best, latent variable models of intelligence in the psychometric literature” CHC is the consensus psychometric model of intelligence Conway, A. R., & Kovacs, K. (2015). New and emerging models of human intelligence. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 6(5), 419-426.
  17. 17. “The CHC model is the most strongly supported, empirically derived taxonomy of cognitive abilities…and has influenced the development of most contemporary intelligence tests” CHC is the consensus psychometric model of intelligence Jewsbury, P. A., Bowden, S. C., & Duff, K. (2017). The Cattell– Horn–Carroll model of cognition for clinical assessment. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 35(6), 547-567.
  18. 18. “In current psychometric theory, the integration of Cattell and Horn (1978) model of fluid intelligence with Carroll’s (1993) 3-stratum model (often referred to as the Cattell- Horn-Carroll model (CHC) is the dominant model of the architecture of the human mind” CHC is the consensus psychometric model of intelligence Demetriou, A., Makris, N., Spanoudis, G., Kazi, S., Shayer, M., & Kazali, E. (2018). Mapping the dimensions of general intelligence: An integrated differential-developmental theory. Human Development, 61(1), 4-42.
  19. 19. Gc GrwGqGf Gwm Gv Ga Gl Gr Gs Gt (More ability domains have been identified. Those listed here are those that are measured [completely or partially] in most contemporary intelligence tests) Definitions on next slide g Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory (CHC) of Cognitive Abilities g
  20. 20. Comprehension-knowledge (Gc): The depth and breadth of declarative and procedural knowledge and skills valued by one’s culture. Comprehension of language, words, and general knowledge developed through experience, learning and acculturation. Visual-spatial processing (Gv): The ability to use mental imagery, store images in primary memory, or perform visual-spatial analysis or mental transformation of images in the “mind’s eye.” Domain-specific knowledge (Gkn): The depth, breadth, and mastery of specialized declarative and procedural knowledge typically acquired through one’s career, hobby, or other passionate interest. The Gkn domain is likely to contain more narrow abilities than are currently listed in the CHC model. Auditory processing (Ga): The ability to perceive, discriminate, and manipulate sounds and information received through the ears. Includes the processing of auditory information in primary memory and/or the activation, restructuring, or retrieval of information from semantic-lexical memory based on phonemes. Reading and writing (Grw): The depth and breadth of declarative and procedural knowledge and skills related to written language or literacy. Learning efficiency (Gl): The ability and efficiency to learn, store, and consolidate new information in long-term memory. Quantitative knowledge (Gq): The depth and breadth of declarative and procedural knowledge related to mathematics. The Gq domain is likely to contain more narrow abilities than are currently listed in the CHC model. Retrieval fluency (Gr): The rate and fluency at which individuals can produce and retrieve verbal and nonverbal information or ideas stored in long-term memory. Fluid reasoning (Gf): The use of deliberate and controlled focused attention to solve novel “on the spot” problems that cannot be solved solely by using prior knowledge (previously learned habits, schemas, or scripts). Reasoning that depends minimally on learning and acculturation. Processing speed (Gs): The ability to control attention to automatically and fluently perform relatively simple repetitive cognitive tasks. Attentional fluency. Short-term working memory (Gwm): The ability to encode, maintain, and/or manipulate auditory or visual information in primary memory (while avoiding distractions) to solve multiple- step problems. The mind’s mental “scratchpad” or “workbench.” Reaction and decision speed (Gt): The speed at which very simple perceptual discriminations or decisions can be made.
  21. 21. IV. The WJ IV is the most comprehensive measure of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of human intelligence and has been the leader in CHC intelligence test development since circa 1989
  22. 22. Strong g indicators Moderate g indicators Weak g indicators GcGf Gv Gwm Ga Gl Gr Gs g Gv = Visual-spatial processing Gwm = Working memory Ga = Auditory Processing Gl = Learning efficiency Gr = Retrieval fluency Gf = Fluid reasoning (intelligence) Gc = Comprehension-knowledge (aka., crystallized intelligence) Gs = Processing speed Consensus Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) psychometric model of human intelligence (only broad ability domains typically represented in IQ tests included in model) Broad ability domains Full scale IQ scores are psychometric measurable estimates of hidden (latent) construct of general intelligence (g) Psychometric and theoretical soundness of full scale IQ scores According to well known psychometric principles, the most optimal IQ scores for representing general intelligence (g) include (a) tests that sample as great a diversity or variety of CHC ability domains as possible (aka., psychometric sampling error or adequacy) (Carroll, 1993; Jensen, 1987; 1984; 1998), (b) includes a minimum of six tests that samples at least three of the broad ability domains, and (c) adequately represents the most important CHC abilities that measure complex cognitive functioning
  23. 23. Comparison of CHC ability domains represented in the total composite score for three primary adult tests of general intelligence Gc GvGwmGf Ga Gl Gr Gs gg WJ IV WAIS-IV SB-V Squares represent tests
  24. 24. WJ IV General Intellectual Ability (GIA) composite score represents general intelligence (g) – weighted sum of the seven tests Gc GvGwmGf Ga Gl Gr Gs g Tests Number Series Oral Vocabulary Verbal Attention Visual- ization Phonological Processing Story Recall Letter- Pattern Matching GIA
  25. 25. V. Validity evidence provided for the WJ IV (McGrew, LaForte & Schrank, 2014), in the judgement of independent scholars, supports the validity of the WJ IV GIA as valid indicator of general intelligence (g)
  26. 26. WISC-IV WAIS-IV WPPSI-III KABC-II SB-5 DAS-II FS IQ FS IQ FS IQ FCI FS IQ GCA (n =174) (n =177) (n = 99) (n=50) (n = 50) (n = 49) WJ IV g-measures General Intellectual Ability (GIA) 0.86 0.84 0.72 0.77 0.80 0.83 Brief Intellectual Ability (BIA) 0.83 0.74 0.76 0.79 Gf-Gc Composite 0.83 0.78 0.71 0.82 Note. Correlations in italic represent correlations with a pseudo-WJ IV GIA score computed from 7 WJ IV tests (WJ IV COG does not provide an GIA-Edv cluster) Select concurrent validity evidence: Correlations of WJ IV primary COG g-scores with external measures (McGrew et al., 2014) Conclusion: The WJ IV GIA, BIA and Gf-Gc composite clusters demonstrate strong validity evidence as measures of general intelligence when the criterion are the global composite/total scores from other major IQ batteries in the field
  27. 27. Independent review
  28. 28. Independent review
  29. 29. Independent review
  30. 30. Conclusion from independent peer reviewed research
  31. 31. I. General intelligence is the central tenant of the 1st Prong of ID II. The WJ IV (and earlier WJ III) is listed in authoritative ID-related publications as a comprehensive measure of general intelligence suitable for ID assessment III. The Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory is the consensus taxonomic model of human intelligence IV. The WJ IV is the most comprehensive measure of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of human intelligence and has been the leader in CHC intelligence test development since circa 1989 V. Validity evidence provided for the WJ IV (McGrew, LaForte & Schrank, 2014), in the judgement of independent scholars, supports the validity of the WJ IV GIA as valid indicator of general intelligence VI. An individual’s WJ IV GIA score is psychometric sound indicator of general intelligence and, therefore, should be considered a reliable and valid indicator of general level of intellectual functioning, for consideration of a possible diagnosis of ID (1st Prong) Summary

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