Overview of the WJ IV Cognitive Battery: GIA and CHC Clusters

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This slideshow provides an overview of the composition of the WJ IV Cognitive clusters. It outlines the design principles used to assign tests to the GIA and CHC clusters, and also presents summary statistics as per the primary design principles used in constructing the COG clusters.

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  • Figure 6. Conceptual Map of Memory-Related Abilities in CHC Theory
  • Overview of the WJ IV Cognitive Battery: GIA and CHC Clusters

    1. 1. WJ IV Tests of Cognitive Ability: Overview Dr. Kevin McGrew Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) © Institute for Applied Psychometrics; Kevin McGrew 07-01-14
    2. 2. Gc Gwm Gs Ga Glr GvGf Clusters available from Standard Cognitive easel (10 tests) (#) = # tests Cognitive Efficiency (2) Other clusters available by combining Standard Cognitive tests with select tests from Extended Cognitive easel (8 tests) Cognitive Efficiency (4) Aud. Proc. (2) LT Ret. (2) Visual Proc. (2) Cog. Proc. Speed(2) Fld. Reas. (2) Cmp. Knw.(2) ST Work. Mem. (2) General Intellectual Ability – g (7) Brief Intellectual Ability (3) Gf+Gc Composite (4)  Scholastic Aptitude Clusters (each a mix of 4 CHC abilities)  Number Facility (2) Perc. Speed(2) Qnt. Reas. (3)   New ST Work. Mem. (3) Cmp. Knw.(3) Fld. Reas. (3)   
    3. 3. Gc Gwm Gs Ga Glr GvGf WJ IV Scholastic Aptitude Cluster Organization Visualization (Vz) Numbers Reversed (WM) Oral Vocabulary (LD/VL) Analysis- Synthesis (RG/RQ) Pair Cancellation (P/EF) Visualization (Vz) Oral Vocabulary (LD/VL) Number Series (RQ) Num Pattern Matching (P) Phonological Processing (PC) Oral Vocabulary (LV/VL) Verbal Attention (WM) Num Pattern Matching (P) Phonological Processing (PC) Oral Vocabulary (LD/VL) Verbal Attention (WM) Num Pattern Matching (P) Phonological Processing (PC) Oral Vocabulary (LV/VL) Story Recall (MM) Num Pattern Matching (P) Phonological Processing (PC) Oral Vocabulary (LD/VL) Concept Formation (I) Reading Broad Reading Reading Comp Reading Comp-Ext Reading Fluency Reading Rate Basic Rdg Skills Writing Broad Writing Written Expression Basic Writing Skills Math Broad Math Math Calc Skills Math Prob Solving WJ IV Ach Clusters Grw/Gq domain general Grw domain specific Gq domain specific © Institute for Applied Psychometrics; Kevin McGrew 07-01-14
    4. 4. WJ IV COG and OL tests by CHC factor domains Oral Vocabulary (VL) Number Series (RQ) General Information (K0) Object-Num. Sequencing (WM) Pair Cancellation (P/WM-AC) Memory for Words (MS) Analysis- Synthesis (RG) Concept Formation (I) Numbers Reversed (WM) Picture Recognition (MV) Visual-Aud. Learning (MA) Story Recall (MM) Number-Pat. Matching (P) COG OL New or sign. change Verbal Attention (WM/AC) Letter-Pat. Matching (P) Nonword Repetition (PC/UM-MS) Phonological Processing (PC/Glr-LA) Visualization (Vz) Picture Vocabulary (VL/LD) Oral Comp. (LS) Under. Directions (WM/Gc-LS) Sentence Repetition (MS) Retrieval Fluency (FI/LA) Rapid Picture Naming (NA/LA) Sound Awareness (PC) Sound Blending (PC) Segmentation (PC) CHC Factors Comp -Knowledge (Gc) Fluid Reasoning (Gf) Long-Term Retrieval (Glr) Visual Processing (Gv) Auditory Processing (Ga) Processing Speed (Gs) Short-Term Wrk Mem (Gwm) © Institute for Applied Psychometrics; Kevin McGrew 06-18-14
    5. 5. • Which 7 tests should be combined for the GIA (g) cluster? • Which 2 tests from each CHC factor domain should be combined for the 7 CHC factor clusters? Oral Vocabulary General Information Number Series Concept Formation Verbal Attention Numbers Reversed Story Recall Visual-Aud Learning Visualization Picture Recognition Letter-Pat. Match. Pair Cancellation Phon. Processing Nonword Repetition Obj-Num. Sequencing Analysis- Synthesis Memory for Words Number-Pat Match. Two primary WJ IV COG design decisions Gc Gwm GsGaGlr GvGf © Institute for Applied Psychometrics; Kevin McGrew 07-01-14
    6. 6. GIA - Standard GIAOral Vocabulary General Information Number Series Concept Formation Verbal Attention Numbers Reversed Story Recall Visual-Aud Learning Visualization Picture Recognition Letter-Pat. Match. Pair Canc. Phon. Processing Nonword Repetition Primary WJ III and WJ IV COG tests and Clusters Tests in WJ IV COG clusters Tests in WJ III COG Clusters WJ IV GIA WJ III GIA-Standard * Visual Matching is renamed Number-Pattern Matching in WJ IV Comparison of composition of primary WJ III and WJ IV COG CHC and GIA clusters (WJ III Spatial Relations is half of WJ IV Visualization) (WJ IV Oral Vocab. was part of WJ III Verbal Comp.) Auditory Attention Decision Speed Analysis- Synthesis Retrieval Fluency Spatial Relations Verbal Comp. Memory for Words Sound Blending Visual Matching * © Institute for Applied Psychometrics; Kevin McGrew 01-23-14 Gc Gwm GsGaGlr GvGf g
    7. 7. © Institute for Applied Psychometrics; Kevin McGrew 01-23-14
    8. 8. The WJ IV COG is not your father’s intelligence test! The WJ IV COG GIA is a much more cognitively complex (and high g) measure of intelligence How did we do this? What evidence do we have to support this conclusion? © Institute for Applied Psychometrics; Kevin McGrew 01-23-14
    9. 9. © Institute for Applied Psychometrics; Kevin McGrew 01-23-14 Some T 3’ s in this presentation Titillating Technical Teases
    10. 10. WJ IV Tests of Cognitive Ability: Overview and select data analysis results How do the general intelligence (g) clusters scores from …………. Compare to the general intelligence (g) total scores from ………… © Institute for Applied Psychometrics; Kevin McGrew 01-23-14
    11. 11. WISC-IV WAIS-IV WPPSI-III KABC-II SB-5 DAS-II FS IQ FS IQ FS IQ FCI FS IQ GCA (n =174) (n =177) (n = 99) (n=50) (n = 50) (n = 49) WJ IV g-measures General Intellectual Ability (GIA) 0.86 0.84 0.72 0.77 0.80 0.83 Brief Intellectual Ability (BIA) 0.83 0.74 0.76 0.79 Gf-Gc Composite 0.83 0.78 0.71 0.82 Note. Correlations in italic represent correlations with a pseudo-WJ IV GIA score computed from 7 WJ IV tests (WJ IV COG does not provide an GIA-Edv cluster) Select concurrent validity evidence: Correlations of WJ IV primary COG g-scores with external measures Conclusion: The WJ IV GIA, BIA and Gf-Gc composite clusters demonstrate strong validity evidence as measures of general intelligence when the criterion are the global composite/total scores from other major IQ batteries in the field WJ III GIA other IQ score correlations were from .67 to .76
    12. 12. Select validity evidence: Correlations of WJ IV GIA, Gf-Gc composite, and BIA clusters with Wechsler FS and GAI IQ scores General Intellectual Ability (GIA) Brief Intellectual Ability Gf-Gc composite WISC-IV WAIS-IV .86 .81 .83 .80 .83 .83 Correlations are from WJ IV and WISC-IV (n = 174) and WAIS-IV (n = 177) concurrent validity studies (McGrew, LaForte, & Schrank, 2014). Wechsler FS/GAI correlations are .95 (WISC-IV) and .94 (WAIS-IV) in these samples. FS GAI FS GAI .84 .78 .74 .68 .78 .76 © Institute for Applied Psychometrics; Kevin McGrew 07-31-14
    13. 13. Yet to be published preliminary cross-battery g- loading and cognitive complexity analysis of primary WJ IV/external IQ battery special studies T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9T1 T12T10 T11 g (1a) Spearman’s general Factor model g loadings based on factor/principal component analysis Spatial position from center of MDS Guttman radex analysis “maps” © Institute for Applied Psychometrics; Kevin McGrew 01-23-14
    14. 14. Loadings on first unrotated common factor Communality Estimates Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) 0.809 0.654 Auditory Processing (Ga) 0.804 0.646 Fluid Reasoning (Gf) 0.804 0.646 Perceptual Reasoning Index (PR) 0.800 0.639 Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc) 0.779 0.607 Short-Term Work. Memory (Gwm) 0.764 0.584 Working Memory Index (WMI) 0.749 0.562 Long-Term Retrieval (Glr) 0.683 0.466 Visual Processing (Gv) 0.604 0.365 Processing Speed Index (PSI) 0.569 0.323 Cog. Processing Speed (Gs) 0.537 0.288 1-factor (unrotated) common-factor solution for WJ IV COG / WISC-IV composite scores (n=173)  © Institute for Applied Psychometrics; Kevin McGrew 07-01-14
    15. 15. Guttman’s Radex Theory Ability tests can be classified by: • Degree of cognitive complexity • Differences in kind of content • Differences in type of processes Uses MDS (multidimensional scaling) © Institute for Applied Psychometrics; Kevin McGrew 02-05-14
    16. 16. Example of MDS (Radex Model) The closer a test is to the center of the figure, the more it is related to other tests. The center represents the most cognitively complex tests © Institute for Applied Psychometrics; Kevin McGrew 02-05-14
    17. 17. -2 -1 0 1 2 -2 -1 0 1 2 GIA GC GF GWM GS GA GLR GV VCI PRI WMI PSI 2 MDS solution for WJ IV / WISC-IV composite and g-scores (n=173)   •The WJ IV GIA score is as good (better?) a measure of general intelligence (g) as the WISC-IV FS IQ when defined by g-loadings and MDS cognitive complexity analysis. • The WJ IV Ga cluster is a measure of complex cognitive abilities; comparable to WJ IV & WISC-IV Gf/PRI composites. •The WJ IV measures cognitive abilities not represented in the WISC-IV (Ga, Glr, and possibly Gv). Measures closer to the center of the radex of more cognitively complex FSIQ 
    18. 18. -2 -1 0 1 2 -2 -1 0 1 2 ORLVOC NUMSERVRBATN LETPAT PHNPRO VAL VISUAL GENINF CONFRM NUMREV NUMPAT NWDREP STYREC PICREC ANLSYN OBJNUM PAIRCN MEMWRD PICVOC ORLCMP SEGMNT RPCNAM SENREP UNDDIR SNDBLN RETFLU SNDAWR LWIDNT APPROB SPELL PSGCMP CALC WRTSMP WRDATK ORLRDG SNRDFL MTHFLU SNWRFL RDGREC NUMMAT EDIT WRDFLU SPLSND RDGVOC SCI SOCHUM MEMNAM VRBANL VISCLO NUMSEN The calculation of a distance-based “relative cognitive complexity” (rCC) metric for COG/OL tests Guttman radex MDS of all WJ IV (and 4 research tests) in WJ IV norm sample (ages 6-90+) COG OL ACH Res. © Institute for Applied Psychometrics; Kevin McGrew 02-04-14 The MDS “distance metrics” were saved. COG test closest to center (Phonological Processing) identified. The distance of all other tests from Phonological Processing was calculated so that high (and rescaled) values indicated more relative cognitive complexity (rCC) and lower values (PICREC) indicated less rCC. Thi rCC metric is going to be revised using a slightly different statistical treament of the distance metrics in the near future.
    19. 19. 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 g-loading -0.10 0.45 1.00 1.55 2.10MDSrelativeCC(rCC) ORLVOC-Gc SNDAWR-Ga ORLCMP-Gc VRBATN-Gwm PHNPRO-Ga OBJNUM-Gwm NUMSER-Gf CONFRM-Gf UNDDIR-Gwm NUMREV-Gwm PICVOC-Gc STYREC-Glr SENREP-Gwm SEGMNT-Ga ANLSYN-GF MEMWRD-Gwm SNDBLN-Ga GENINF-Gc VISUAL-Gf RETFLU-Glr LETPAT-Gs VAL-Glr NWDREP-GaNUMPAT-Gs PAIRCN-Gs RPCNAM-Glr PICREC-Gv Relationship between g-loadings and MDS-based relative cognitive complexity (rCC) for WJ IV COG and OL tests Correlation = .93; but correspondence diverges as test become higher in g and cognitive complexity
    20. 20. Comparison of test g- loadings and MDS- based relative cognitive complexity (rCC) index for COG/OL tests (6- 90+) Table Notes: Sorted by g-loadings within CHC factors. Shading designates CHC factor with most relative g/rCC differences © Institute for Applied Psychometrics; Kevin McGrew 01-23-14 CHC factor Test g rCC Gc ORLVOC 0.76 1.78 ORLCMP 0.71 1.63 PICVOC 0.67 1.28 GENINF 0.63 1.04 Gf CONFRM 0.67 1.42 ANLSYN 0.64 1.01 NUMSER 0.63 1.45 Gwm OBJNUM 0.72 1.31 VRBATN 0.67 1.85 UNDDIR 0.67 1.44 MEMWRD 0.65 0.91 NUMREV 0.64 1.37 SENREP 0.62 1.11 CHC factor Test g rCC Gs LETPAT 0.58 0.75 NUMPAT 0.55 0.65 PAIRCN 0.52 0.46 Ga PHNPRO 0.75 2.09 SNDAWR 0.71 2.01 SEGMNT 0.64 1.16 SNDBLN 0.59 0.82 NWDREP 0.58 0.64 Glr STYREC 0.59 1.02 RETFLU 0.58 0.77 VAL 0.56 0.67 RPCNAM 0.51 0.25 Gv VISUAL 0.63 1.06 PICREC 0.48 0.00
    21. 21. Five primary design principles for WJ IV COG GIA The WJ IV COG GIA cluster tests should: 1. Be the best factor indicators of each CHC broad domain 2. Be the best predictors of achievement from each CHC broad domain 3. Be the most cognitively complex indicators from each CHC broad domain 4. Be the best measures of g (general intelligence) from each CHC broad domain 5. Collectively should have a relatively equal balance of type of stimulus characteristics (verbal, numeric, figural) Related
    22. 22. The Cognitive tests were evaluated on the basis of four (of five total) quantifiable COG design criteria Data augmented by Siskel and Ebert informal rating system Average CHC factor loadings Average achievement correlation across domains Average degree of g-loadings Average degree of relative cognitive complexity     (Average across ages 6-90+)
    23. 23. © Institute for Applied Psychometrics; Kevin McGrew 2- 04-14 Rdg Mdn (36 r's) Math Mdn. (20 r's) WLang Mdn (24 r's) Grand Mdn Ach Corr. Gc ORLVOC 0.56 0.58 0.57 0.57 ORLCMP 0.52 0.46 0.50 0.50 PICVOC 0.51 0.47 0.45 0.47 GENINF 0.54 0.49 0.45 0.49Test g rCC ORLVOC 0.76 1.78 ORLCMP 0.71 1.63 PICVOC 0.67 1.28 GENINF 0.63 1.04 Gc ORLVOC 0.87 SOC 0.83 PICVOC 0.82 HUM 0.81 ORLCMP 0.79 GENINF 0.78 SCI 0.77 VRBANL 0.59 RDGVOC 0.52 PSGCMP 0.31 PHNPRO 0.27 SENREP 0.26 Gc factor loadings Gc g-loadings and relative cog. complexity    Gc COG test eval. summary
    24. 24. Comprehension – KnowledgeComprehension – Knowledge ((Gc)Gc) Language Dev.Language Dev. (LD)(LD) General InformationGeneral Information (K0)(K0) Lexical KnowledgeLexical Knowledge (VL)(VL) ORLVOC* GENINFPICVOC   * Test in GIA Author/expert CHC narrow factor classifications (Gc cluster) (Voc. Cluster- LD/VL)
    25. 25. Rdg Mdn (36 r's) Math Mdn. (20 r's) WLang Mdn (24 r's) Grand Mdn Ach Corr. Gf NUMSER 0.63 0.74 0.63 0.63 CONFRM 0.43 0.52 0.36 0.43 ANLSYN 0.32 0.48 0.36 0.36 Test g rCC CONFRM 0.67 1.42 ANLSYN 0.64 1.01 NUMSER 0.63 1.45 Gf factor loadings Gf g-loadings and relative cog. complexity Gf COG test eval. summary Gf NUMSER 0.79 NUMMAT 0.75 CONFRM 0.69 ANLSYN 0.63 VRBANL 0.30      
    26. 26. InductionInduction (I)(I) General SequentialGeneral Sequential Reasoning (RG)Reasoning (RG) QuantitativeQuantitative Reasoning (RQ)Reasoning (RQ) ANLSYNCONFRMNUMSER* (Gf cluster) (Gf-Ext cluster) (Quantitative Reasoning Cluster-RQ) * Test in GIA Fluid Reasoning (Gf) Author/expert CHC narrow factor classifications     
    27. 27. Rdg Mdn (36 r's) Math Mdn. (20 r's) WLang Mdn (24 r's) Grand Mdn Ach Corr. Gwm SENREP 0.46 0.41 0.46 0.46 NUMREV 0.43 0.47 0.45 0.45 UNDDIR 0.44 0.45 0.41 0.44 VRBATN 0.43 0.44 0.51 0.44 OBJNUM 0.38 0.45 0.37 0.38 MEMWRD 0.32 0.31 0.35 0.32Test g rCC OBJNUM 0.72 1.31 VRBATN 0.67 1.85 UNDDIR 0.67 1.44 MEMWRD 0.65 0.91 NUMREV 0.64 1.37 SENREP 0.62 1.11 Gwm factor loadings Gwm g-loadings and relative cog. complexity Gwm COG test eval. summary Gwm VRBATN 0.77 OBJNUM 0.75 MEMWRD 0.66 UNDDIR 0.65 NWDREP 0.59 SENREP 0.49 NUMREV 0.48  (NUMREV had secondary content [numeric] loading on Gq)    
    28. 28. Short-Term WorkingShort-Term Working Memory (Memory (Gwm)Gwm) Work. MemoryWork. Memory Capacity (WM)Capacity (WM) Memory SpanMemory Span (MS)(MS) Attentional ControlAttentional Control (AC)(AC) MEMWRD SENREP (Auditory Memory Span Cluster-MS) OBJNUMVRBATN* NUMREV * Test in GIA (Gwm cluster) (Gwm-Ext cluster) Author/expert CHC narrow factor classifications    © Institute for Applied Psychometrics; Kevin McGrew 2- 04-14
    29. 29. Rdg Mdn (36 r's) Math Mdn. (20 r's) WLang Mdn (24 r's) Grand Mdn Ach Corr. Gs NUMPAT 0.52 0.53 0.57 0.53 LETPAT 0.51 0.50 0.49 0.50 PAIRCN 0.37 0.46 0.36 0.37 Test g rCC LETPAT 0.58 0.75 NUMPAT 0.55 0.65 PAIRCN 0.52 0.46 Gs factor loadings Gs g-loadings and relative cog. complexity Gs COG test eval. summary Gs NUMPAT 0.79 LETPAT 0.74 WRDFLU 0.70 PAIRCN 0.58 MTHFLU 0.52 SNRDFL 0.50 SNWRFL 0.49 RPCNAM 0.31 RETFLU 0.23 CALC 0.18      (PAIRCN had secondary low loading on Gv)
    30. 30. Cognitive Processing SpeedCognitive Processing Speed ((Gs)Gs) AttentionalAttentional Control (AC)Control (AC) PerceptualPerceptual Speed (P)Speed (P) PAIRCNNUMPATLETPAT* * Test in GIA Short-Term WorkingShort-Term Working Memory (Memory (GwmGwm)) (Gs cluster) (Perceptual Speed cluster-P) Author/expert CHC narrow factor classifications    
    31. 31. Rdg Mdn (36 r's) Math Mdn. (20 r's) WLang Mdn (24 r's) Grand Mdn Ach Corr. Glr STYREC 0.35 0.39 0.42 0.39 RETFLU 0.38 0.38 0.35 0.38 VAL 0.31 0.31 0.30 0.31 RPCNAM 0.34 0.27 0.26 0.27 Test g rCC STYREC 0.59 1.02 RETFLU 0.58 0.77 VAL 0.56 0.67 RPCNAM 0.51 0.25 Glr factor loadings Glr g-loadings and relative cog. complexity Glr COG test eval. summary Glr STYREC 0.57 VAL 0.51 MEMNAM 0.41 RETFLU 0.41 RPCNAM 0.26 WRTSMP 0.22 RDGREC 0.21 (NUMREV had secondary content (numeric) loading on Gq)      
    32. 32. LearningLearning EfficiencyEfficiency RetrievalRetrieval FluencyFluency Long-Term RetrievalLong-Term Retrieval ((GlrGlr)) * Test in GIA VALSTREC* (Glr cluster) AssociativeAssociative Memory (MA)Memory (MA) MeaningfulMeaningful Memory (MM)Memory (MM) Speed of LexicalSpeed of Lexical Access (LA)Access (LA) RETFLURPCNAM (Speed of Lexical Access cluster-LA) Author/expert CHC narrow factor classifications   
    33. 33. Learning Efficiency Retrieval Fluency Meaningful Memory Associative Memory Free Recall Naming Facility Ideational Fluency Associational Fluency Expressional Fluency Originality Word Fluency Figural Fluency Figural Flexibility Solution Fluency Glr Multiple-Trial and/or Delayed Recall Glr differs from acquired knowledge systems (Gc, Grw, Gq, Gkn) in that it includes the processes of memory Major implied Glr division made more explicit based on post-Carroll (1993) research. Learning efficiency (level trait) vs retrieval fluency (rate trait) Glr: The ability to store, consolidate, and retrieve information over periods of time measured in minutes, hours, days and years. Speed of Lexical Access (Adapted from Schneider & McGrew, 2012)
    34. 34. Rdg Mdn (36 r's) Math Mdn. (20 r's) WLang Mdn (24 r's) Grand Mdn Ach Corr. Ga SNDAWR 0.57 0.49 0.55 0.55 PHNPRO 0.54 0.51 0.54 0.54 SEGMNT 0.42 0.38 0.43 0.42 NWDREP 0.35 0.26 0.41 0.35 SNDBLN 0.34 0.35 0.34 0.34 Test g rCC PHNPRO 0.75 2.09 SNDAWR 0.71 2.01 SEGMNT 0.64 1.16 SNDBLN 0.59 0.82 NWDREP 0.58 0.64 Ga factor loadings Ga g-loadings and relative cog. complexity Ga COG test eval. summary Ga SEGMNT 0.74 SNDBLN 0.65 PHNPRO 0.62 SNDAWR 0.58 SPLSND 0.51 WRDATK 0.24 NWDREP 0.18    (NWDREP had high loading on Gwm)
    35. 35. AuditoryAuditory Processing (Processing (Ga)Ga) PhoneticPhonetic Coding (PC)Coding (PC) NWDREPPHNPRO* * Test in GIA Short-Term WorkingShort-Term Working Memory (Memory (GwmGwm)) Memory forMemory for Sound Patterns (UM)Sound Patterns (UM) SEGMNT SNDBLN (Ga cluster) (Phonetic Coding cluster-PC) Author/expert CHC narrow factor classifications   © Institute for Applied Psychometrics; Kevin McGrew 06-20-14 Memory SpanMemory Span (MS)(MS)
    36. 36. Rdg Mdn (36 r's) Math Mdn. (20 r's) WLang Mdn (24 r's) Grand Mdn Ach Corr. Gv VISUAL 0.34 0.49 0.38 0.38 PICREC 0.27 0.24 0.28 0.27 Test g rCC VISUAL 0.63 1.06 PICREC 0.48 0.00 Gv factor loadings Gv g-loadings and relative cog. complexity Gv COG test eval. summary Gv VISUAL 0.74 VISCLO 0.60 PICREC 0.49 PAIRCN 0.22 (PAIRCN had significant loading on Gs)    
    37. 37. Visual ProcessingVisual Processing ((GvGv)) Visual MemoryVisual Memory (MV)(MV) VisualizationVisualization (Vz)(Vz) * Test in GIA PICRECVISUAL* (Gv cluster) Author/expert CHC narrow factor classifications  

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