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“I Think…Therefore IM”           Kevin McGrew, PhD.Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)         www.themindhub.com
René Descartes“I think…therefore I am”      (Cogito ergo sum)
A more accurate title might be“IM…Therefore I Think—Better”
Kevin McGrew Affiliations   Institute of Applied Psychometrics (IAP)-Director   Woodcock-Munoz Foundation – Research   Dir...
Additional info re:Kevin McGrew and IAP can be found at theMindHub™ web portalwww.themindhub.com
Relevant Blogs
Primary goal of presentation:    To provide an understandable research-basedexplanation of one of the key cognitive benefi...
My 2006/2007 IM presentations focused primarily on        mental time-keeping (brain clock)                               ...
Will not deal with important motor, gait, stroke, etc.      IM implications and explanations….sorry
White matter matters!          (UK CONNECT brain        white matter micro-atlas)
Other possible titles (advance organizers)           Quieting the busy mind           On demand focus           A wanderin...
Brief Tribute to the Original   Time Doc – Jim Cassily                         ”If I have seen farther,                   ...
The Original Time Doc – Jim Cassily
The Original “Time Machine”
The Original Purpose + Serendipity         To help athletes and musicians improve         their timing, rhythmicity, coord...
Why I (like all of you) am a part of the IM Family        Purpose, Passion and Serendipity
My Brief Personal and           Professional IM JourneyMany a scientific adventurer sails the uncharted seas and sets hisc...
How can this…                                   Etc.    …produce positive outcomes    across such diverse domains?
Two IM reading achievement    studies
IM Must be Impacting a Domain-General    Cognitive/Learning Mechanism            The quest to find a domain-general       ...
Some aspect(s) of IM must be increasing the ability or efficiency of some domain generallearning mechanism (s)            ...
(feedback loop)                              Sensory                          Cognitive Abilities                         ...
IM Task Analysis: It is Measuring and Impacting         an Important Human Ability:          Attentional Control (Focus)
IM Long Form Assessment “Norms”                The core of IM therapy is measuring a human                ability that fol...
Examples of cognitive ability (IQ) and   physical development norms    WJ III Tests of Cognitive Abilities
The primary cognitive goal of IM is to stay in “right on” zone                                   IM “out of zone” feedback...
“It is quite difficult to force your brain to stay on     task and to shut of extraneous thoughts”    (Scientific American...
IM provides millisecond feedback. When not in synch(due to attentional pirates) performance feedback trains             pe...
IM and Focus, Controlled Attention,Working Memory and Executive Functions     Positive IM effects on cognitive and     lea...
Extensive intelligence research has suggested a strong relationshipbetween working memory and general intelligence and rea...
Extensive intelligence                      research has suggested a          r = .82   strong relationship between       ...
Executive attention, controlled attention, attentionalcontrol have been implicated as the fundamental core      mechanism ...
Positive IM effects on reading fluency/rate and comprehension can beexplained as increasing the efficiency of working memo...
Efficiency of Attentional Control (Focus) = Working    The goal is to maintain task critical information in attentional   ...
Two major threats to controlled attention(focus)—Attentional Capture: One from without               External             ...
Two major threats to controlled attention(focus)—Attentional Capture: One is from within                     Internal     ...
Comedian Steven Wright said it best“I was trying to day dream, but my mind            kept wandering”
Efficiency of Attentional Control = Working Memory                        Attentional Pirates                      Capacit...
IM trains the brain to shut down the attentional  pirates…and increases cognitive efficiency    External attention        ...
IM trains the brain to detect and deflect distractions…like a                     cognitive force field                   ...
•Focus    •Attentional Control        •Working Memory            •Executive Functioning            “Quiet the busy mind” t...
Mind wandering   The unquiet mind      TUTs
Mind wandering   The unquiet mind      TUTs
Mind wandering   The unquiet mind      TUTs
Mind wandering   The unquiet mind      TUTs
• There is a stable, general mind wanderingpropensity    • People who mind wander a lot while reading    also mind wander ...
•Focus    •Attentional Control        •Working Memory                                         Executive control theory    ...
Time Doc BytesWhen you must ponder…your mind must not wander            • A wandering mind is an unfocused mind           ...
IM and Meditation: An important link?
IM and Meditation: An important link?
IM and Meditation: An important link?
IM and Meditation: An important link?
IM and Brain Networks and Neural Efficiency       (A few very brief “teaser” comments)        More for your         later ...
Time Doc Bytes• Better thinking through brain synching• Fine tune your brain networks• Neurons that fire together…wire tog...
Increasing brain or neural efficiency or synchronization• Building more brain network communication connections• Increasin...
• Default mode network• Salience network• Central-executive network
The network model (vs.                                     modular) of the brain isClick for video – start at    30 second...
White matter matters!   Click for brief video
Is the P-FIT It?IM and The Parietal-Frontal Integration        Model of Intelligence              The Frontal (esp., DLPFC...
The Brain and Working Memory: The Evidence-Based P-FIT Model Frontal Lobe   (DLPFC)                                  Adapt...
Controlled attention (focus) is the minds gold/treasure                                 (limited attentional resources)Int...
The P-FIT Model
The P-FIT Model     Arcuate fasciculus tract
White matter matters!
Three biomarkers of white matter integrity                                                        Indicators of g-factor w...
Two IM readingachievement studies   White matter    related?
White matter matters!
White matter matters!arcuate fasciculus tract
White matter matters!
White matter matters! Very interestingcommon white matter tract finding in P-FIT and          recent reading research     ...
Increases the temporal resolution                    (faster clock speed) of the brain                    clock(s) which i...
I think...therefore IM
I think...therefore IM
I think...therefore IM
I think...therefore IM
I think...therefore IM
I think...therefore IM
I think...therefore IM
I think...therefore IM
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I think...therefore IM

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Kevin McGrew IM Keynote Oct 2012. Use of movement in slides is not present in this static SlideShare show ..the red circle bounces around in the live presentation.

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I think...therefore IM

  1. 1. “I Think…Therefore IM” Kevin McGrew, PhD.Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) www.themindhub.com
  2. 2. René Descartes“I think…therefore I am” (Cogito ergo sum)
  3. 3. A more accurate title might be“IM…Therefore I Think—Better”
  4. 4. Kevin McGrew Affiliations Institute of Applied Psychometrics (IAP)-Director Woodcock-Munoz Foundation – Research Director Measurement Learning Consultants - Associate Director University of Minnesota - Visiting Professor (Educ. Psych.) Interactive Metronome - Director of Research and Science (External Consultant) ** Conflict of interest disclosure: Financial relationship and interest in IM
  5. 5. Additional info re:Kevin McGrew and IAP can be found at theMindHub™ web portalwww.themindhub.com
  6. 6. Relevant Blogs
  7. 7. Primary goal of presentation: To provide an understandable research-basedexplanation of one of the key cognitive benefits of IM Importance icon
  8. 8. My 2006/2007 IM presentations focused primarily on mental time-keeping (brain clock) Still critically important but the focus today will be different. The brain clock research is at a different explanatory level So much research and theory…so little time  Increased brain clock temporal resolution?
  9. 9. Will not deal with important motor, gait, stroke, etc. IM implications and explanations….sorry
  10. 10. White matter matters! (UK CONNECT brain white matter micro-atlas)
  11. 11. Other possible titles (advance organizers) Quieting the busy mind On demand focus A wandering mind is an unfocused mind Better thinking through brain synching When you must ponder…your mind must not wander You must train to gain Train and maintain a “focused brain” Detect and deflect distractions and TUTs (task unrelated thoughts) Engage in focus…disengage from distractions Focus like a laser beam…that is the key Lock on the tone to think in the zone Fine tune your brain networks Is the P-FIT it?
  12. 12. Brief Tribute to the Original Time Doc – Jim Cassily ”If I have seen farther, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants” As stated by Isaac Newton in a letter to Robert Hooke in 1676:
  13. 13. The Original Time Doc – Jim Cassily
  14. 14. The Original “Time Machine”
  15. 15. The Original Purpose + Serendipity To help athletes and musicians improve their timing, rhythmicity, coordination and focus. However, it was quickly discovered that training with this physically and aurally interactive version of the traditional metronome yielded unprecedented improvement in children with debilitating cognitive, as well as, physical based disorders.” (Jim Cassily, 1993)
  16. 16. Why I (like all of you) am a part of the IM Family Purpose, Passion and Serendipity
  17. 17. My Brief Personal and Professional IM JourneyMany a scientific adventurer sails the uncharted seas and sets hiscourse for a certain objective only to find unknown land andunsuspected ports in strange parts. To reach such harbors, hemust ship and sail, do and dare; he must quest and question.These chance discoveries are called “accidental” but there isnothing fortuitous about them, for laggards drift by a haven thatmay be a heaven. They pass by ports of opportunity. Only thedetermined sailor, who is not afraid to seek, to work, to try, whois inquisitive and alert to find, will come back to his home portwith discovery in his cargo (p. 177)
  18. 18. How can this… Etc. …produce positive outcomes across such diverse domains?
  19. 19. Two IM reading achievement studies
  20. 20. IM Must be Impacting a Domain-General Cognitive/Learning Mechanism The quest to find a domain-general cognitive learning mechanism that can be manipulated has been one of the major goals of cognitive and educational psychology
  21. 21. Some aspect(s) of IM must be increasing the ability or efficiency of some domain generallearning mechanism (s) •There is a long-standing tradition within psychological research to search for general principles or cognitive mechanisms that can be used to address all aspects of behavior and cognition. •Not tied to any specific content or domain. •An underlying mechanism that can be applied to a wide range of novel problems and domains of performance •“Jack-of-all-trades” mechanisms (Chiappe & McDonald,2005)
  22. 22. (feedback loop) Sensory Cognitive Abilities Perceptual & Executive Cognitive Systems Functions (control) Performance Cognitive Processing Speed Visual Cognitive Processing Speed Auditory Motor Speed &Environmental input Timing Attention Motor Working Motor Tactile Performance Memory Control Kinesthetic Storage efficiency (feedback loop) Olfactory Retrieval fluency Most likely domain general mechanisms IM effects. Motor Motor Verbal Due to increased temporal Verbal Sequences Sequences (how) resolution of the brain (what) (what) (how) clock(s) Etc. Etc. Reading Reading (what) (how) (what) (how) Etc. Etc. (what) (how) Motor Cognitive Kevin McGrew Acquired Knowledge Systems (aka, long-term memory)
  23. 23. IM Task Analysis: It is Measuring and Impacting an Important Human Ability: Attentional Control (Focus)
  24. 24. IM Long Form Assessment “Norms” The core of IM therapy is measuring a human ability that follows a developmental pattern similar to other abilities (intelligence; physical growth). Such curves are believed to be due, depending on the specific ability, to the influence of education and experiences as well as genetically-driven biological maturation of the central nervous system (CNS). (Rotated version of original plot above)
  25. 25. Examples of cognitive ability (IQ) and physical development norms WJ III Tests of Cognitive Abilities
  26. 26. The primary cognitive goal of IM is to stay in “right on” zone IM “out of zone” feedback Out of zone IM “right on” feedback Right on zone
  27. 27. “It is quite difficult to force your brain to stay on task and to shut of extraneous thoughts” (Scientific American-Mind, 2012; Dr. Barry Gordon, John Hopkins) This is HARD to do. Research suggests a maximum of 20-30 minutes of true focus or controlled attention Focus of attention Difficult due to constant presence of external and internal distracting stimuli that results in attentional capture Attentional Pirates •People vary in this ability • Atypical development is associated with a variety of clinical disorders (e.g., ADHD)
  28. 28. IM provides millisecond feedback. When not in synch(due to attentional pirates) performance feedback trains person to get back “on target” Focus of attention Attentional Pirate “Attentional capture” pulls mental target out of focus of attention – attentional pirates
  29. 29. IM and Focus, Controlled Attention,Working Memory and Executive Functions Positive IM effects on cognitive and learning tasks (e.g., reading fluency/rate and comprehension) can be explained as increasing the efficiency of working memory and executive functions — all due to enhanced attentional control (focus)
  30. 30. Extensive intelligence research has suggested a strong relationshipbetween working memory and general intelligence and reasoning
  31. 31. Extensive intelligence research has suggested a r = .82 strong relationship between working memory and general intelligence and reasoningr = .50 r = .98
  32. 32. Executive attention, controlled attention, attentionalcontrol have been implicated as the fundamental core mechanism of effective working memory
  33. 33. Positive IM effects on reading fluency/rate and comprehension can beexplained as increasing the efficiency of working memory and executivefunctions—all due to enhanced attentional control (focus)Will explain via the information processing model in next slide In the next slide consider the red circle as a sentence of text a child has just read
  34. 34. Efficiency of Attentional Control (Focus) = Working The goal is to maintain task critical information in attentional focus zone – in activated working memory to allow efficient Memory Capacity  Complex cognitive processing learning to occur. Information in activated working memory (e.g.., reading a sentence) can then be connected with prior knowledge from long-term memory---therefore reading comprehensionSensation Perception Long-Term Memory Storage Retrieval Central Executive Focus of (Executive ???? attention functions or control? • Inhibit •Shift •Update Working Memory Notice the strong parallel of IM task demands and prominence of Decisions attentional control (focus) in information process models of intelligence Output where activated working memory space is key ability domain Schneider & McGrew (in press)
  35. 35. Two major threats to controlled attention(focus)—Attentional Capture: One from without External attention pirates Focus of attention Decisions Output
  36. 36. Two major threats to controlled attention(focus)—Attentional Capture: One is from within Internal attention pirates The Default Brain Network (40-50% of the time is active) • REST: Rapid episodic spontaneous thinking • TUT’s: Task unrelated thoughts • Mind Wandering Focus of attention Decisions Output
  37. 37. Comedian Steven Wright said it best“I was trying to day dream, but my mind kept wandering”
  38. 38. Efficiency of Attentional Control = Working Memory Attentional Pirates Capacity  Complex cognitive processing.Sensation Perception Long-Term Memory Storage Retrieval Central Executive Focus of (Executive Attention functions or ???? control? • Inhibit •Shift •Update Working Memory Efficiency of learning is impacted by ability to maintain focus and to detect and deflect distractions (attentional pirates—that displace task relevant information) Decisions from capturing or entering the focus of attention in activated working memory Output
  39. 39. IM trains the brain to shut down the attentional pirates…and increases cognitive efficiency External attention Internal attention pirates pirates Decisions Output
  40. 40. IM trains the brain to detect and deflect distractions…like a cognitive force field Internal attentionExternal attention pirates pirates Sustained & contained focus Repel…so you can excel Decisions Output
  41. 41. •Focus •Attentional Control •Working Memory •Executive Functioning “Quiet the busy mind” to maintain focus on task relevant information Central Executive Focus of (Executive Major attention functions or hypothesis: control? This is (these • Inhibit •Shift are) the •Update domain general cognitive Working Memory mechanism(s) trained by IM Consistent with McGrew (2006, 2007) and Taub & McGrew (2007)
  42. 42. Mind wandering The unquiet mind TUTs
  43. 43. Mind wandering The unquiet mind TUTs
  44. 44. Mind wandering The unquiet mind TUTs
  45. 45. Mind wandering The unquiet mind TUTs
  46. 46. • There is a stable, general mind wanderingpropensity • People who mind wander a lot while reading also mind wander a lot on other everyday tasks• WMC is related to reading comprehension partlybecause WMC reflects an executive ability to regulateand control thought while reading• Executive-attention theory • Attention-control capability (focus) is a domain-general system that controls both WMC and TUTs
  47. 47. •Focus •Attentional Control •Working Memory Executive control theory •Executive Functioning Central Executive Focus of (Executive attention functions or control? • Inhibit •Shift Working Memory •Update
  48. 48. Time Doc BytesWhen you must ponder…your mind must not wander • A wandering mind is an unfocused mind • Quiet the busy mind • On demand focus • Train and maintain a “focused brain” • Engage in focus…disengage from distractions • Detect and deflect distractions
  49. 49. IM and Meditation: An important link?
  50. 50. IM and Meditation: An important link?
  51. 51. IM and Meditation: An important link?
  52. 52. IM and Meditation: An important link?
  53. 53. IM and Brain Networks and Neural Efficiency (A few very brief “teaser” comments) More for your later review
  54. 54. Time Doc Bytes• Better thinking through brain synching• Fine tune your brain networks• Neurons that fire together…wire together• White matter matters• Is the P-FIT it?
  55. 55. Increasing brain or neural efficiency or synchronization• Building more brain network communication connections• Increasing efficiency of existing brain network communication Central Executive Focus of (Executive attention functions or control? • Inhibit •Shift •Update Working Memory Hypothesis: Increased brain clock temporal resolution facilitates neural efficiency and synchronization which in turn increases efficiency of working memory and executive functions
  56. 56. • Default mode network• Salience network• Central-executive network
  57. 57. The network model (vs. modular) of the brain isClick for video – start at 30 second mark) important Click for “brain duet” video –go to 6:58)
  58. 58. White matter matters! Click for brief video
  59. 59. Is the P-FIT It?IM and The Parietal-Frontal Integration Model of Intelligence The Frontal (esp., DLPFC) and Parietal lobes have been repeatedly linked (via research) to the cognitive constructs of controlled attention, working memory and executive functions general intelligence and higher level cognition
  60. 60. The Brain and Working Memory: The Evidence-Based P-FIT Model Frontal Lobe (DLPFC) Adapted from Hunt (2011) Focusing attention internally FocusingParietal Lobe attention T externally Working General Memory reasoning Short-term storage Procedural & Response Declarative selection know. Anteriorcingulate gyrus
  61. 61. Controlled attention (focus) is the minds gold/treasure (limited attentional resources)Internal attention pirates Focusing attention internally Key cognitive ability for cognitive and motor learning & Focusing performance attention T externally Working GeneralExternal attention pirates Memory reasoning Short-term storage Procedural & Response Declarative selection know. The P-FIT Model
  62. 62. The P-FIT Model
  63. 63. The P-FIT Model Arcuate fasciculus tract
  64. 64. White matter matters!
  65. 65. Three biomarkers of white matter integrity Indicators of g-factor were WAIS-III Gs tests (Symbol Search, Digit Symbol), Gsm tests (Digit Span- Backwards; Let-Num. Seq), Gf test (Matrix Reasoning), and Gv test (Block Design). Indicators of g-speed were measures of reaction time (Gt) – simple reaction time, four-choice reaction time, inspection time) CHC test classifications not by article authors but by Kevin McGrew as per CHC theory White matter matters!
  66. 66. Two IM readingachievement studies White matter related?
  67. 67. White matter matters!
  68. 68. White matter matters!arcuate fasciculus tract
  69. 69. White matter matters!
  70. 70. White matter matters! Very interestingcommon white matter tract finding in P-FIT and recent reading research arcuate fasciculus tract
  71. 71. Increases the temporal resolution (faster clock speed) of the brain clock(s) which improves neural efficiency of the brainThe observable IM Frontal Lobe treatment Parietal Lobe (DLPFC) Improves brain network communication efficiency via white matter tracts, Network particularly between the communication parietal-frontal regions (P-FIT neuro-model of intelligence) White matter tracts (brain network communication infrastructure) Working memory Improves focus (attentional control that maintains goal related information focus active in working memory) which in turn Cognitive improves efficiency of working memory, performance (reasoning, the most central cognitive ability for new learning and performance Knowledge in long- comprehension, term memory. etc) Cognitive abilities. Exec functions The observablepositive outcome Hypothesized IM effect at different “under the hood” explanatory levels (based on brain clock and IM-specific research and theory)

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