<ul><li>Evolution of the Assessment of Cognitive Functions </li></ul><ul><li>July 10, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Richard W. Wo...
Main Topics <ul><li>How has our conceptualization of cognitive ability evolved over the past century? </li></ul>
Main Topics <ul><li>How has our conceptualization of cognitive ability evolved over the past century? </li></ul><ul><li>Ho...
Main Topics <ul><li>How has our conceptualization of cognitive ability evolved over the past century? </li></ul><ul><li>Ho...
Path of Progress Better  Cognitive Theory Better  Cognitive Tests Better  Information Better  Instructional and Clinical P...
Single General Ability Conceptualizations  of Intelligence
Evolution of Intelligence Tests Single General Ability SB SB L,M 1910  1920  1930  1940  1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  200...
Single General Ability Pair of Abilities Conceptualizations  of Intelligence
Evolution of Intelligence Tests 1910  1920  1930  1940  1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  2010  Pair of Abilities WB  WI...
Single General Ability Pair of Abilities Limited Set of Broad Abilities Conceptualizations  of Intelligence
Evolution of Intelligence Tests 1910  1920  1930  1940  1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  2010  Incomplete Set of Abilit...
Single General Ability Pair of Abilities Limited Set of Broad Abilities “ Complete” Set of Broad Abilities Conceptualizati...
Evolution of Intelligence Tests 1910  1920  1930  1940  1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  2010  “ Complete” Set of Broad...
Nine Broad CHC Factors <ul><li>Stores of Acquired Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension-Knowledge ( Gc ) </li></ul><ul...
Comprehension-Knowledge ( Gc) <ul><li>The breadth and depth of knowledge including verbal communication, information, and ...
Reading-Writing ( Grw) <ul><li>An ability in areas common to both reading and writing. Probably includes basic reading and...
Quantitative Knowledge ( Gq) <ul><li>The ability to comprehend quantitative concepts and relationships, the facility to ma...
Nine Broad CHC Factors <ul><li>Stores of Acquired Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension-Knowledge ( Gc ) </li></ul><ul...
Long-Term Retrieval ( Glr) <ul><li>The ability to store information efficiently and retrieve it later. </li></ul>
Visual-Spatial Thinking ( Gv) <ul><li>Spatial orientation, the ability to analyze and synthesize visual stimuli, and the a...
Auditory  Processing ( Ga) <ul><li>The ability to discriminate, analyze, and synthesize auditory stimuli. </li></ul>
Fluid Reasoning ( Gf) <ul><li>The ability to reason and solve problems that often involve unfamiliar information or proced...
Nine Broad CHC Factors <ul><li>Stores of Acquired Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension-Knowledge ( Gc ) </li></ul><ul...
Processing Speed ( Gs) <ul><li>Speed and efficiency in performing automatic or very simple cognitive tasks. </li></ul>
Short-Term Memory ( Gsm) <ul><li>The ability to hold information in immediate awareness and then use it within a few secon...
Single General Ability Pair of Abilities Limited Set of Broad Abilities “ Complete” Set of Broad Abilities Narrow Abilitie...
Evolution of Intelligence Tests Narrow Abilities Underlying Broad Abilities WJ III 1910  1920  1930  1940  1950  1960  197...
Comprehension-Knowledge ( Gc ) General information ( K0 ) Listening ability ( LS ) Language development ( LD ) Lexical kno...
<ul><ul><li>General (verbal) information ( K0 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Where would you usually find a ___________?” ...
<ul><ul><li>Listening ability ( LS ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen to a sentence or ...
Reading-Writing ( Grw ) Spelling ability (SG) Cloze ability (CZ) Reading decoding (RD) Reading comprehension (RC) Reading ...
Quantitative Knowledge ( Gq ) Mathematical achievement (A3) Mathematical knowledge (KM) Examples of Narrow Abilities
Long-Term Retrieval ( Glr ) Associative memory (MA) Ideational fluency (FI) Naming facility (NA) Meaningful memory (MM) Fi...
Ideational fluency (FI)  “ How many different vehicles can you name? You will have one minute. Say the names as fast as yo...
Naming facility ( NA ) “ Tell me the names of these pictures as fast as you can.” NA: A Narrow  Glr  Ability (Not actual t...
Auditory Processing ( Ga ) Speech-sound discrimination (US) General sound discrimination (U3) Resistance to auditory stimu...
US: A Narrow ( Ga ) Ability <ul><li>Speech sound discrimination (US) </li></ul>(trees)  (keys)  (peas)  “ Point to keys.” ...
PC: A Narrow  Ga  Ability <ul><ul><li>Phonetic coding (PC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/d/ - /o/ - /g/ </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Visual-Spatial Thinking (Gv) Spatial relations (SR) Flexibility of closure (CF) Visualization (Vz) Closure speed (CS) Leng...
Fluid Reasoning ( Gf ) General sequential reasoning (RG) Quantitative reasoning (RQ) Induction (I) Examples of Narrow Abil...
RG: A Narrow  Gf  Ability <ul><li>General sequential reasoning (RG) </li></ul><ul><li>4  3  2  ___ </li></ul><ul><li>36 27...
Processing Speed (Gs) Perceptual speed (P) Semantic processing speed (R4) Writing speed (WS) Rate of test taking (R9) Numb...
P: A Narrow  Gs  Ability <ul><li>Perceptual speed (P) </li></ul><ul><li>a  e  c  a  d  f </li></ul><ul><li>bc  af  st  qr ...
Short-Term Memory ( Gsm ) Memory span ( MS ) Working memory ( WM ) Examples of Narrow Abilities
<ul><ul><li>Working memory ( WM ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ I am going to name some things and some numbers. After I say th...
Sources of Information <ul><li>Expert clinicians </li></ul><ul><li>Expert theoreticians </li></ul>
Some Cross-Battery References <ul><li>Alfonso, V., Flanagan, D. & Radwan, S. (2005).  The impact of the Cattell-Horn-Carro...
Some Cross-Battery References <ul><li>Flanagan, D. P., & McGrew, K. S. (1997). A cross-battery approach to assessing and i...
Sources of Information <ul><li>Expert clinicians </li></ul><ul><li>Expert theoreticians </li></ul><ul><li>Aided by informa...
Factor Analysis <ul><li>Exploratory factor analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmatory factor analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Joint...
 
Some Joint FA Studies <ul><li>Woodcock, R. W. (1990). Theoretical foundations of the WJ-R measures of cognitive ability.  ...
 
 
 
What might your next test battery do? <ul><li>Suggest tests based on the referral concern </li></ul>
What might your next test battery do? <ul><li>Suggest tests based on the referral concern </li></ul><ul><li>Seek and integ...
What might your next test battery do? <ul><li>Suggest tests based on the referral concern </li></ul><ul><li>Seek and integ...
<ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
Path of Progress Better   Better     Better Cognitive   Cognitive  Better   Instructional Theory   Tests Information   and...
Single General Ability Pair of Abilities Limited Set of Broad Abilities “ Complete” Set of Broad Abilities Narrow Abilitie...
Evolution of Intelligence Tests
Test batteries of the future will be more informative. The Good News …
Test batteries of the future will be more informative. Test batteries of the future will be more complex as test developer...
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Dr. Woocock's Evolution of Cognitive Assessments

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Dr. Richard Woodcock's Keynote presentation at the Third National School Psychology Neuropsychology Conference (July 10, 2008). The presentation presents a historical overview of the evolution of cognitive test batteries and thoughts about th future of cognitive testing. Copyrighted material has been deleted. Presentation also does not include personal stories Dr. Woodcock integrated in the presentation re: how he came to the field of psycho-educational test development and research

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Dr. Woocock's Evolution of Cognitive Assessments

  1. 1. <ul><li>Evolution of the Assessment of Cognitive Functions </li></ul><ul><li>July 10, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Richard W. Woodcock </li></ul><ul><li>University of Southern California </li></ul>Third National School Neuropsychology Conference
  2. 2. Main Topics <ul><li>How has our conceptualization of cognitive ability evolved over the past century? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Main Topics <ul><li>How has our conceptualization of cognitive ability evolved over the past century? </li></ul><ul><li>How well have intelligence batteries adapted to these changes? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Main Topics <ul><li>How has our conceptualization of cognitive ability evolved over the past century? </li></ul><ul><li>How well have intelligence batteries adapted to these changes? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the next challenges for test developers and users? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Path of Progress Better Cognitive Theory Better Cognitive Tests Better Information Better Instructional and Clinical Planning
  6. 6. Single General Ability Conceptualizations of Intelligence
  7. 7. Evolution of Intelligence Tests Single General Ability SB SB L,M 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
  8. 8. Single General Ability Pair of Abilities Conceptualizations of Intelligence
  9. 9. Evolution of Intelligence Tests 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Pair of Abilities WB WISC WAIS WISC-R
  10. 10. Single General Ability Pair of Abilities Limited Set of Broad Abilities Conceptualizations of Intelligence
  11. 11. Evolution of Intelligence Tests 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Incomplete Set of Abilities WJ SB IV
  12. 12. Single General Ability Pair of Abilities Limited Set of Broad Abilities “ Complete” Set of Broad Abilities Conceptualizations of Intelligence
  13. 13. Evolution of Intelligence Tests 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 “ Complete” Set of Broad Abilities WJ-R
  14. 14. Nine Broad CHC Factors <ul><li>Stores of Acquired Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension-Knowledge ( Gc ) </li></ul><ul><li>Reading-Writing ( Grw ) </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics ( Gq ) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Comprehension-Knowledge ( Gc) <ul><li>The breadth and depth of knowledge including verbal communication, information, and reasoning when using previously learned procedures . </li></ul>
  16. 16. Reading-Writing ( Grw) <ul><li>An ability in areas common to both reading and writing. Probably includes basic reading and writing skills, and the skills required for comprehension and expression . </li></ul>
  17. 17. Quantitative Knowledge ( Gq) <ul><li>The ability to comprehend quantitative concepts and relationships, the facility to manipulate numerical symbols. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Nine Broad CHC Factors <ul><li>Stores of Acquired Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension-Knowledge ( Gc ) </li></ul><ul><li>Reading-Writing ( Grw ) </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics ( Gq ) </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking Abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Long-Term Retrieval ( Glr ) </li></ul><ul><li>Visual-Spatial Thinking ( Gv ) </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory Processing ( Ga ) </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid Reasoning ( Gf ) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Long-Term Retrieval ( Glr) <ul><li>The ability to store information efficiently and retrieve it later. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Visual-Spatial Thinking ( Gv) <ul><li>Spatial orientation, the ability to analyze and synthesize visual stimuli, and the ability to hold and manipulate mental images. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Auditory Processing ( Ga) <ul><li>The ability to discriminate, analyze, and synthesize auditory stimuli. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Fluid Reasoning ( Gf) <ul><li>The ability to reason and solve problems that often involve unfamiliar information or procedures. Manifested in the reorganization, transformation, and extrapolation of information. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Nine Broad CHC Factors <ul><li>Stores of Acquired Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension-Knowledge ( Gc ) </li></ul><ul><li>Reading-Writing ( Grw ) </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics ( Gq ) </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking Abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Long-Term Retrieval ( Glr ) </li></ul><ul><li>Visual-Spatial Thinking ( Gv ) </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory Processing ( Ga ) </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid Reasoning ( Gf ) </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Processing Speed ( Gs ) </li></ul><ul><li>Short-Term Memory ( Gsm ) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Processing Speed ( Gs) <ul><li>Speed and efficiency in performing automatic or very simple cognitive tasks. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Short-Term Memory ( Gsm) <ul><li>The ability to hold information in immediate awareness and then use it within a few seconds. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Single General Ability Pair of Abilities Limited Set of Broad Abilities “ Complete” Set of Broad Abilities Narrow Abilities Underlying Broad Abilities Conceptualizations of Intelligence
  27. 27. Evolution of Intelligence Tests Narrow Abilities Underlying Broad Abilities WJ III 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
  28. 28. Comprehension-Knowledge ( Gc ) General information ( K0 ) Listening ability ( LS ) Language development ( LD ) Lexical knowledge (VL) Language comprehension (V) Oral production and fluency (OP) Information about culture (K2) Examples of Narrow Abilities
  29. 29. <ul><ul><li>General (verbal) information ( K0 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Where would you usually find a ___________?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What would people usually do with a ______________?” </li></ul></ul>K0: A Narrow Gc Ability
  30. 30. <ul><ul><li>Listening ability ( LS ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen to a sentence or two and provide an appropriate final word. </li></ul></ul>LS: A Narrow Gc Ability
  31. 31. Reading-Writing ( Grw ) Spelling ability (SG) Cloze ability (CZ) Reading decoding (RD) Reading comprehension (RC) Reading speed (RS) Writing ability (WA) English usage knowledge (EU) Examples of Narrow Abilities
  32. 32. Quantitative Knowledge ( Gq ) Mathematical achievement (A3) Mathematical knowledge (KM) Examples of Narrow Abilities
  33. 33. Long-Term Retrieval ( Glr ) Associative memory (MA) Ideational fluency (FI) Naming facility (NA) Meaningful memory (MM) Figural fluency (FF) Examples of Narrow Abilities
  34. 34. Ideational fluency (FI) “ How many different vehicles can you name? You will have one minute. Say the names as fast as you can. FI: A Narrow Glr Ability (Not actual test item.)
  35. 35. Naming facility ( NA ) “ Tell me the names of these pictures as fast as you can.” NA: A Narrow Glr Ability (Not actual test items.)
  36. 36. Auditory Processing ( Ga ) Speech-sound discrimination (US) General sound discrimination (U3) Resistance to auditory stimulus distortion (UR) Phonetic coding (PC) Attention and concentration (AC) Maintaining and judging rhythm (U8) Memory for sound patterns (UM) Musical discrimination and judgment (U1, U9) Examples of Narrow Abilities
  37. 37. US: A Narrow ( Ga ) Ability <ul><li>Speech sound discrimination (US) </li></ul>(trees) (keys) (peas) “ Point to keys.” (Not actual test item.)
  38. 38. PC: A Narrow Ga Ability <ul><ul><li>Phonetic coding (PC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/d/ - /o/ - /g/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>/b/ - /a/ - /s/ - /k/ - /i/ - /t/ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>(Not actual test items.)
  39. 39. Visual-Spatial Thinking (Gv) Spatial relations (SR) Flexibility of closure (CF) Visualization (Vz) Closure speed (CS) Length estimation (LE) Visual memory (MV) Spatial scanning (SS) Examples of Narrow Abilities
  40. 40. Fluid Reasoning ( Gf ) General sequential reasoning (RG) Quantitative reasoning (RQ) Induction (I) Examples of Narrow Abilities
  41. 41. RG: A Narrow Gf Ability <ul><li>General sequential reasoning (RG) </li></ul><ul><li>4 3 2 ___ </li></ul><ul><li>36 27 18 ___ </li></ul><ul><li>14 14 10 6 6 ___ </li></ul>(Not actual test items.)
  42. 42. Processing Speed (Gs) Perceptual speed (P) Semantic processing speed (R4) Writing speed (WS) Rate of test taking (R9) Number facility (N) Examples of Narrow Abilities
  43. 43. P: A Narrow Gs Ability <ul><li>Perceptual speed (P) </li></ul><ul><li>a e c a d f </li></ul><ul><li>bc af st qr af al </li></ul><ul><li>srv srw svr swx ssr svr </li></ul>(Not actual test items.)
  44. 44. Short-Term Memory ( Gsm ) Memory span ( MS ) Working memory ( WM ) Examples of Narrow Abilities
  45. 45. <ul><ul><li>Working memory ( WM ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ I am going to name some things and some numbers. After I say them, you say the things in the same order that I said them. Then you tell me the numbers in the same order that I said them.” goat….5….chair….3…..7….rug </li></ul>WM: A Narrow Gsm Ability (Not actual test item.)
  46. 46. Sources of Information <ul><li>Expert clinicians </li></ul><ul><li>Expert theoreticians </li></ul>
  47. 47. Some Cross-Battery References <ul><li>Alfonso, V., Flanagan, D. & Radwan, S. (2005).  The impact of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory on Test Development and Interpretation of Cognitive and Academic Abilities.  In D. P. Flanagan and P. L. Harrison (Eds.) Contemporary Intellectual Assessment:  Theories, Tests and Issues (pp. 185-202).  New York:  Guilford Press. Flanagan, D., Ortiz, S. & Alfonso, V.  (2007). Essentials of Cross-Battery Assessment (Second Edition).  Hoboken, NJ:  John Wiley & Sons. Flanagan, D. P., Ortiz, S. O., Alfonso, V. C., & Mascolo, J. T. (2002). The achievement test desk reference (ATDR) . Boston: Allyn & Bacon. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Some Cross-Battery References <ul><li>Flanagan, D. P., & McGrew, K. S. (1997). A cross-battery approach to assessing and interpreting cognitive abilities: Narrrowing the gap between practice and science.  In D. P. Flanagan, J. L. Genshaft, & P. L. Harrison (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment:  Theories, tests, and issues   (pp. 314-325). New York: Guilford Press. McGrew, K. S. (1997). Analysis of the major intelligence batteries according to a proposed comprehensive Gf-Gc framework. In D. P. Flanagan, J. L. Genshaft, & P. L. Harrison (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment:  Theories, tests, and issues (pp. 151-179). New York: Guilford Press. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Sources of Information <ul><li>Expert clinicians </li></ul><ul><li>Expert theoreticians </li></ul><ul><li>Aided by information from factor analysis studies </li></ul>
  50. 50. Factor Analysis <ul><li>Exploratory factor analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmatory factor analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Joint factor analyses </li></ul>
  51. 52. Some Joint FA Studies <ul><li>Woodcock, R. W. (1990). Theoretical foundations of the WJ-R measures of cognitive ability. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 8 , 231-258. </li></ul><ul><li>Phelps, L., McGrew, K. S., Knopik, S. N., & Ford, L. (2005). The general ( g ), broad, and Narrow CHC stratum characteristics of the WJ III and WISC-III tests: A confirmatory cross-battery investigation. School Psychology Quarterly, 20(1), 66-88. </li></ul><ul><li>Sanders, S., McIntosh, D. E., Dunham, M, Rothlisberg, B. A, & Finch, H. (2007). Joint confirmatory factor analysis of the Differential Ability Scales and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities—Third Edition. Psychology in the Schools, 44(2), 119-138. </li></ul><ul><li>Hunt, M. (2007). A joint confirmatory factor analysis of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition, and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities, Third Edition, with preschool children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ball State University, Muncie. </li></ul>
  52. 56. What might your next test battery do? <ul><li>Suggest tests based on the referral concern </li></ul>
  53. 57. What might your next test battery do? <ul><li>Suggest tests based on the referral concern </li></ul><ul><li>Seek and integrate qualitative information to present along with test scores </li></ul>
  54. 58. What might your next test battery do? <ul><li>Suggest tests based on the referral concern </li></ul><ul><li>Seek and integrate qualitative information to present along with test scores </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest interventions and compensatory procedures </li></ul>
  55. 59. <ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
  56. 60. Path of Progress Better Better Better Cognitive Cognitive Better Instructional Theory Tests Information and Clinical Planning
  57. 61. Single General Ability Pair of Abilities Limited Set of Broad Abilities “ Complete” Set of Broad Abilities Narrow Abilities Underlying Broad Abilities Conceptualizations of Intelligence
  58. 62. Evolution of Intelligence Tests
  59. 63. Test batteries of the future will be more informative. The Good News …
  60. 64. Test batteries of the future will be more informative. Test batteries of the future will be more complex as test developers close the gap between cognitive theory and practice. … the Bad News

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