CHC selective referral-focused assessment scenarios

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This is the second half of the a mini-skills workshop made at NASP 2009 in Boston (CHC COG-ACH Relations Research Synthesis: What We've Learned From 20 Years of Research". The first half of this presentation is also available at Kevin McGrew’s SlideShare space and is called “CHC-Cog-Ach Relations Research Synthesis” ---- the current module is an attempt to demonstrate selective testing (branching-tree) referral-focused testing scenarios based on the results of the CHC Cog-Ach relations research synthesis, using the WJ III battery as the illustrative instrument. The viewer should first view the CHC Cog-Ach Relations Research Synthesis module prior to viewing this module.

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CHC selective referral-focused assessment scenarios

  1. 1. This is the second half of the above presentation made at NASP 2009. The first half of this presentation is also available at Kevin McGrew’s SlideShare space and is called “ CHC-Cog-Ach Relations Research Synthesis” ---- the current module is an attempt to demonstrate selective testing (branching-tree) referral-focused testing scenarios based on the results of the CHC Cog-Ach relations research synthesis, using the WJ III battery as the illustrative instrument. The viewer should first view the CHC Cog-Ach Relations Research Synthesis module prior to viewing this module. CHC cognitive and achievement relations research synthesis: Part B: Selective testing (branching tree) referral-focused assessment scenarios
  2. 2. Conflict of interest disclosure for Kevin McGrew Dr. Kevin McGrew has a financial interest in the WJ III as a co-author of the WJ III Battery, the battery that is featured in the current slide show
  3. 3. Demonstration of possible referral-focused testing scenarios: BRS(6-8) research based summary
  4. 4. Broad Domain Markers Basic Reading Skills – ages 6 to 8 Gc Crystallized Intelligence Gsm Short-Term Memory Ga Auditory Processing Gs Processing Speed Glr Long-Term Retrieval Short-term Memory Working Memory Processing Speed Perceptual Speed-DS Comp-Knowledge Listening Comp. Phonemic Awareness Phonemic Awareness 3 Most Relevant WJ III Clusters Long-term Retrieval Associative Memory-DS Cognitive Fluency Work Mem (MW) Lang. Dev. (LD) Listen. Ability (LS) Gen. Info. (K0) Lex. Know. (VL) Phonetic Coding (PC) Perc. Speed (P) Narrow Domain Markers Assoc. Mem. (MA) Naming Fac. (NA) Numbers Reversed (MW) Understanding Dir (MW/LS ) Aud. Working. Mem. (MW) Visual Matching (P) Verbal Comp. (LD/VL) Oral Comp. (LS) General Info (K0) Picture Vocab. (VL) Snd. Aware. (PC/MW) Snd. Blending (PC) Most Relevant WJ III Tests Vis.-Aud.-Lrng. (MA) Rapid. Pic. Nam. (NA) Retrieval Fluency (FI) (NA) Research foundation: From McGrew @ Wendling (2009) CHC COG-ACH relations research synthesis (prior slides) Bridge research – real world practice WJ III clusters/test selected based on McGrew & Wendling (2009) plus expert-knowledge and clinical experience with WJ III battery Start with this information
  5. 5. BRS (6-8 yrs): WJ III Gc branching test scenarios
  6. 6. The big picture Where we are going in example Let’s break down the steps Yes: Gc-LS No yes Yes: Gc-K0 no No Yes Administer BRS (6-8) suggested start tests What are prelim concerns? Gc (VrCmp+GnInf) -Give PicVoc & OrlCmp -Get Gc~4 & Gc-LS cls. Gc narrow concerns? -Give StRec -Get Gc- LS~3 cls Examine Gc-K0~2 (GnInf+PicVoc) Gc-K0~2 concern? Stop testing in Gc-K0 -Give AcdKnw -Get Know. (Gc-K0+) and Gc-K0~3 cls Other areas (Ga, etc.) See other flow charts Compare broad and narrow Gc cls Make final broad Gc interp. Make final broad vs narrow Gc interp. Possible Gc retrieval/ access (Glr) problems? Examine Glr-NA~2 (ReFl+RPNam) Glr-NA~2 concern? Stop testing in Glr-NA -Give DecSpd -Get Cognitive Fluency cls Compare Glr-NA2 and/or Cog Flu to broad & narrow Gc clusters Make final broad & narrow Gc (level) and rate (fluency) of retrieval (Glr) interp.
  7. 7. (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) ( Ga-PC ) (Gv-SR) ( Gsm-MW ) (Gc-K0) (Glr-MA/MM) (Gsm-MW) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) ( Gsm-MW /Gc-LS) (Glr-MM) (Gc-VL) (Gc-LS) ( Gsm-MW / Ga-PC ) (Gc-LS) . BRS (6-8 yrs): Suggested starting point tests for WJ III referral-focused selective testing (based on CHC Cog-Ach correlates research synthesis ; McGrew & Wendling, 2009) WJ III tests suggested as most relevant for Basic Reading Skills referrals from ages 6-8
  8. 8. (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) ( Ga-PC ) (Gv-SR) ( Gsm-MW ) (Gc-K0) (Glr-MA/MM) (Gsm-MW) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) ( Gsm-MW /Gc-LS) (Glr-MM) (Gc-VL) (Gc-LS) ( Gsm-MW / Ga-PC ) (Gc-LS) Gc . Glr-NA Gs~2 Glr-NA~2 Cognitive efficiency (Std) Ga-PC~2 Gsm-MW~3 BRS (6-8 yrs): Suggested starting point tests for WJ III referral-focused selective testing (based on CHC Cog-Ach correlates research synthesis; McGrew & Wendling, 2009 ) Glr WJ III norm-based CHC cluster scores available (@ starting point) plus other special theoretical/ empirical cluster composites (designated with ~ # notation which designates “special” cluster status and the # of tests in each special cluster).
  9. 9. Special research-based or clinical clusters (~#) <ul><li>These are special groupings of tests (composites; clusters) for which the WJ III does NOT provide norm-referenced scores, but that post-WJ III research , other CHC-research , non-CHC research examined with a CHC lens , or clinical experience suggests are groupings of tests that may be useful in a clinically-based referral-focused testing process. These special clusters can be formed/interpreted in one of two ways : </li></ul><ul><li>Visually grouping them together on SS/PR profiles (the clinical “eye-ball” approach), or </li></ul><ul><li>Psychometric approach . Calculate actual cluster SS with psychometrically sound formula’s (i.e., those that take into account each tests reliability and the inter-correlation among the tests in the clusters; NOT the simple arithmetic average of test SS’s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WMF Press “compositator” program (in press) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Psychometric approach . Calculate actual cluster SS with psychometrically sound formula’s (i.e., those that take into account each tests reliability and the inter-correlation among the tests in the clusters; NOT the simple arithmetic average of test SS’s)
  11. 16. Administer BRS (6-8) Suggested Start Tests What are Preliminary Concerns? Gc (VC + GI) (UD) Other areas (Ga, etc.) See other flowcharts
  12. 17. BRS (6-8 yrs): WJ III Gc branching test scenarios: Lets “break it down” into the parts of possible selective testing scenarios Warning/Caution: The following set of branching tree-based selective testing examples are intended NOT to be THE sequence to follow. This is not a cookbook . All sequential scenarios are an attempt to model one possible research/expert-based possibility. Each referral and case is unique. It is the modeled logic and decisions that are important in the following slides. In reality, referral-based focused testing is more of a non-linear iterative cognitive testing hypothesis method based on the skills of the clinician (“We are the instrument”; K. McGrew; date unknown)
  13. 18. (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) ( Ga-PC ) (Gv-SR) ( Gsm-MW ) (Gc-K0) (Gsm-MW) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) ( Gsm-MW /Gc-LS) (Glr-MM) (Gc-VL) (Gc-LS) ( Gsm-MW / Ga-PC ) (Gc-LS) Gc . BRS (6-8 yrs): Gc branching test scenario: Gc starting point <ul><li>Possible Ho’s that could be examined: </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized problem in acquired Gc knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Problem is in narrow Gc ability </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate store of acquired Gc but possible problem in fluency/rate of Gc recall (speed of lexical access) </li></ul>
  14. 19. Gc (VC + GI) (UD) Picture Vocabulary Oral Comprehension Suggested additional tests to administer if Gc appears to be the major problem (based on primary Gc tests; background information; teacher info; other test info; etc.) These tests allow for calculation of the WJ III Listening Comprehension ( Gc -LS) cluster and Gc ~4 . (Listening Comp: UD + OC) ( Gc ~4: Gc + Gc -LS) <ul><li>Possible generalized problem in Gc </li></ul>
  15. 20. BRS (6-8 yrs): Gc branching test scenario - AB (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) (Ga-PC) (Gv-SR) (Gsm-MW) ( Gc-K0 ) (Gsm-MW) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) (Gsm-MW/ Gc-LS ) (Glr-MM) (Gc-VL/ K0?) ( Gc-LS ) (Gsm-MW/Ga-PC) (Gc-LS) Gc Suggested additional tests to administer if Gc (comp-knowledge) appears to be the major problem (based on primary Gc tests; background information; teacher info; other test info; etc.) These tests allow for calculation of the WJ III Listening Comprehension (Gc-LS) cluster and Gc~4 Gc-LS Gc~4
  16. 21. No Give PV and OC Get Gc -LS and Gc ~4 Gc narrow concerns? Make final broad Gc interpretation A. Possible generalized problem in Gc
  17. 22. Yes : Gc-LS Give PV and OC Get Gc -LS and Gc ~4 clusters Gc narrow concerns? Give Story Recall Get Gc -LS~3 cluster Compare broad and narrow Gc clusters Make final broad vs. narrow Gc interpretation B. Possible problem in narrow ability ( Gc- LS)
  18. 23. BRS (6-8 yrs): Gc branching test scenario - AB (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) (Ga-PC) (Gv-SR) (Gsm-MW) ( Gc-K0 ) (Gsm-MW) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) (Gsm-MW/ Gc-LS ) (Glr-MM) (Gc-VL/ K0?) ( Gc-LS ) (Gsm-MW/Ga-PC) (Gc-LS) Gc Gc-LS Compare Gc, Gc~4 and Gc-LS for possible specific vs broad Gc problems If listening ability (Gc-LS) needs further study administer Story Recall and examine compare broad Gc (Gc, Gc~4) and narrow Gc-LS (Gc-LS; Gc-LS~3) Gc-LS~3 Gc~4
  19. 24. Yes: Gc -K0 No Give PV & OC Get Gc -LS & Gc ~4 clusters Gc narrow concerns? Examine Gc -K0~2 (GI + PV) Gc -K0~2 concern? Stop testing in Gc -K0 B. Possible problem in narrow ability ( Gc- K0) Suggested general information (clinical) narrow cluster ( Gc -K0 ~ 2): General Information Picture Vocabulary
  20. 25. BRS (6-8 yrs): Gc branching test scenario - AB Gc Gc-LS Gc-K0~2 Gc-LS~3 Suggested general information (clinical) narrow cluster (Gc-K0~2) to evaluate if Gc (comp-knowledge) appears to be the major problem (based on primary Gc tests; background information; teacher info; other test info; etc.) Compare Gc (Gc4~4), Gc-LS (LS~3) and Gc-K0~2 for possible broad vs narrow Gc problems Gc~4 (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) (Ga-PC) (Gv-SR) (Gsm-MW) ( Gc-K0 ) (Gsm-MW) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) Gc (Gsm-MW/ Gc-LS ) (Glr-MM) (Gc-VL/ K0?) ( Gc-LS ) (Gsm-MW/Ga-PC) (Gc-LS)
  21. 26. Give AK Get Knowledge ( Gc -K0) and Gc -K0~3 clusters Yes: Gc -K0 Give PV & OC Get Gc -LS & Gc ~4 clusters Gc narrow concerns? Examine Gc -K0~2 (GI + PV) Gc -K0~2 concern? Stop testing in Gc -K0 No If general information ( Gc -K0~2) needs further study, administer Academic Knowledge test and examine Knowledge ( Gc -K0+) and Gc -K0~3 clusters. B. Possible problem in narrow ability ( Gc- K0) Yes
  22. 27. BRS (6-8 yrs): Gc branching test scenario - AB (Gsm-MW/ Gc-LS ) (Glr-MM) (Gc-VL/ K0?) ( Gc-LS ) (Gsm-MW/Ga-PC) (Gc-LS) Gc Gc-LS Gc-K0~2 Gc-LS~3 If general information (Gc-K0~2) needs further study administer Academic Knowledge test and examine Knowledge (Gc-K0+) and Gc-K0~3 clusters Compare Gc (Gc~4), Gc-LS (LS~3) and Knowledge (Gc-K0+) and Gc-K0~2 (K0~3) for possible broad vs specific Gc problems Test 19: Academic Knowledge (Gc-K0/1/2) Gc~4 Gc (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) (Ga-PC) (Gv-SR) (Gsm-MW) ( Gc-K0 ) (Gsm-MW) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) Gc Knowl (Gc-K0+) Gc-K0~3
  23. 28. Yes : Gc-LS Give PV and OC Get Gc -LS and Gc ~4 clusters Gc narrow concerns? Give Story Recall Get Gc -LS~3 cluster Compare broad and narrow Gc clusters Make final broad vs. narrow Gc interpretation Examine Gc -K0~2 (GI + PV) Gc -K0~2 concern? Stop testing in Gc -K0 Yes: Gc -K0 No Give AK Get Knowledge ( Gc -K0 and Gc -K0~3 clusters) Yes
  24. 29. What are prelim concerns? Gc (VC + GI) Other areas (Ga, etc .) Possible Gc r retrieval/ access (Glr) problems? Examine Glr-NA ~2 (RF+RPN) Glr-NA~2 concern? Make final broad & narrow Gc (level) and rate (fluency) of retrieval ( Glr ) interpretation No C. Exploring possible problem in rate (fluency) of retrieval Stop testing in Glr-NA Compare Glr-NA ~ 2 to broad & narrow Gc clusters
  25. 30. BRS (6-8 yrs): Gc branching test scenario - C (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) (Ga-PC) (Gv-SR) (Gsm-MW) ( Gc-K0 ) (Glr-MA/MM) (Gsm-MW) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) (Gsm-MW/ Gc-LS ) (Glr-MM) (Gc-VL/ K0?) ( Gc-LS ) (Gsm-MW/Ga-PC) (Gc-LS) Gc Gc-LS Gc-K0~2 Gc-LS~3 Test 19: Academic Knowledge (Gc-K0/1/2) Knowl (Gc-K0+) Gc-K0~3 Compare amount ( level ) of broad Gc (Gc, Gc~4) and narrow (Gc-LS/LS~3; Knowledge; Gc-K0~2/K0~3) abilities with fluency ( rate ) of retrieval from Gc for possible problem in naming facility (speed/fluency of cognitive/semantic-lexical access; Glr-NA~2; RAN?) If speed/fluency of cognitive/semantic-lexical access appears a problem, consider additional verification via administration of another test that taps semantic processing speed (R4 ) [continued on next slide] Glr-NA ~2 Gc~4
  26. 31. What are prelim concerns? Gc (VC + GI) Other areas (Ga, etc . Possible Gc retrieval/ access (Glr) problems? Examine Glr-NA ~2 (RF+RPN) Glr-NA~2 concern? Stop testing in Glr-NA No C. Exploring possible problem in rate (fluency) of retrieval Yes If speed/fluency of cognitive/semantic-lexical access appears a problem, consider additional verification via administration of another test that taps semantic processing speed (R4 ). Give DS Compare Glr-NA ~ 2 and/or Cog FL to broad & narrow Gc clusters Make final broad & narrow Gc (level) and rate (fluency) of retrieval ( Glr ) interpretation Get Cog FL cluster
  27. 32. BRS (6-8 yrs): Gc branching test scenario - C (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) (Ga-PC) (Gv-SR) (Gsm-MW) ( Gc-K0 ) (Glr-MA/MM) (Gsm-MW) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) (Gsm-MW/ Gc-LS ) (Glr-MM) (Gc-VL/ K0?) ( Gc-LS ) (Gsm-MW/Ga-PC) (Gc-LS) Gc Gc-LS Gc-K0~2 Gc-LS~3 Test 19: Academic Knowledge (Gc-K0/1/2) Knowl (Gc-K0+) Gc-K0~3 Glr-NA ~2 Gc~4 [ continued from prior slide] Administer Decision Speed - allows for calculation of Cognitive Fluency cluster Compare Cognitive Fluency and naming facility (Glr-NA~2; RAN) with Gc to determine if problem is specific to speed/fluency of cognitive/semantic-lexical access Cognitive Fluency
  28. 33. The big picture: Gc scenario Yes: Gc-LS No yes Yes: Gc-K0 no No Yes Administer BRS (6-8) suggested start tests What are prelim concerns? Gc (VrCmp+GnInf) -Give PicVoc & OrlCmp -Get Gc~4 & Gc-LS cls. Gc narrow concerns? -Give StRec -Get Gc- LS~3 cls Examine Gc-K0~2 (GnInf+PicVoc) Gc-K0~2 concern? Stop testing in Gc-K0 -Give AcdKnw -Get Know. (Gc-K0+) and Gc-K0~3 cls Other areas (Ga, etc.) See other flow charts Compare broad and narrow Gc cls Make final broad Gc interp. Make final broad vs narrow Gc interp. Possible Gc retrieval/ access (Glr) problems? Examine Glr-NA~2 (ReFl+RPNam) Glr-NA~2 concern? Stop testing in Glr-NA -Give DecSpd -Get Cognitive Fluency cls Compare Glr-NA2 and/or Cog Flu to broad & narrow Gc clusters Make final broad & narrow Gc (level) and rate (fluency) of retrieval (Glr) interp.
  29. 34. BRS (6-8 yrs): WJ III Cognitive Efficiency branching test scenarios: Lets “break it down” into the parts of a possible selective testing scenario Warning/Caution: The following set of branching tree-based selective testing examples are intended NOT to be THE sequence to follow. This is not a cookbook . All sequential scenarios are an attempt to model one possible research/expert-based possibility. Each referral and case is unique. It is the modeled logic and decisions that are important in the following slides. In reality, referral-based focused testing is more of a non-linear iterative cognitive testing hypothesis method based on the skills of the clinician (“We are the instrument” ; K. McGrew; date unknown)
  30. 35. (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) ( Ga-PC ) (Gv-SR) ( Gsm-MW ) (Gc-K0) (Glr-MA/MM) (Gsm-MW) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) ( Gsm-MW /Gc-LS) (Glr-MM) (Gc-VL) (Gc-LS) ( Gsm-MW / Ga-PC ) (Gc-LS) Glr-NA Gs~2 Glr-NA ~2 Gsm-MW~3 BRS (6-8 yrs): Cognitive efficiency branching test scenario <ul><li>Possible Ho’s that could be examined: </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized deficit in cognitive efficiency (Gsm+Gs) </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate cognitive processing speed/fluency but a problem in working memory </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate working memory but general cognitive processing speed/fluency problem </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate working memory and general cognitive processing speed/fluency but a specific problem in speed of semantic/lexical access (RAN?) problem </li></ul>Cognitive efficiency (Std)
  31. 36. (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) ( Ga-PC ) (Gv-SR) ( Gsm-MW ) (Gc-K0) (Glr-MA/MM) (Gsm-MW) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) ( Gsm-MW /Gc-LS) (Glr-MM) (Gc-VL) (Gc-LS) ( Gsm-MW / Ga-PC ) (Gc-LS) Gs~2 Gsm-MW~3 BRS (6-8 yrs): Cognitive efficiency branching test scenario - ABC Compare Cog Eff (Std), cognitive processing speed (Gs~2), and working memory (Gsm-MW~3) to ascertain if there is a posisible generalized deficit in cognitive efficiency (Gsm+Gs) Are all Gs~2 and Gsm-MW~3 scores low? If not, consider administering additional Gs and Gsm-MW tests to help differentiate Gs and Gsm-MW functioning [continued on next slide] Cognitive efficiency (Std)
  32. 37. (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) ( Ga-PC ) (Gv-SR) ( Gsm-MW ) (Gc-K0) (Glr-MA/MM) (Gsm-MW) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) ( Gsm-MW /Gc-LS) (Glr-MM) (Gc-VL) (Gc-LS) ( Gsm-MW / Ga-PC ) (Gc-LS) Gs~2 Gsm-MW~3 BRS (6-8 yrs): Cognitive efficiency branching test scenario - ABC [continued from prior slide] Administer Auditory Working Memory – allows for calculation of Working Memory (Gsm-MW ) cluster and Gsm-MW~4 [continued on next slide] Gsm-MW Cognitive efficiency (Std) Gsm-MW~4
  33. 38. (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) ( Ga-PC ) (Gv-SR) ( Gsm-MW ) (Gc-K0) (Glr-MA/MM) (Gsm-MW) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) ( Gsm-MW /Gc-LS) (Glr-MM) (Gc-VL) (Gc-LS) ( Gsm-MW / Ga-PC ) (Gc-LS) Gs Gsm-MW~3 BRS (6-8 yrs): Cognitive efficiency branching test scenario - ABC [ continued from prior slide] Administer Decision Speed (if not already administered ) - allows for calculation of Cognitive Efficiency (Ext) and Processing Speed (Gs; Gs~3) clusters Compare Cog Eff (Ext), cog. processing speed (Gs; Gs~3), and working memory (Gsm-MW; Gsm-MW~3,; Gsm-MW~4) to try isolate if problem is a generalized deficit in cognitive efficiency (Gsm+Gs) or specific to cognitive processing speed or working memory . [continued on next slide] Gsm-MW Cognitive efficiency (Ext) Gsm-MW~4 Gs~3
  34. 39. (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) ( Ga-PC ) (Gv-SR) ( Gsm-MW ) (Gc-K0) (Glr-MA/MM) (Gsm-MW) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) ( Gsm-MW /Gc-LS) (Glr-MM) (Gc-VL) (Gc-LS) ( Gsm-MW / Ga-PC ) (Gc-LS) Gs Gsm-MW~3 BRS (6-8 yrs): Cognitive efficiency branching test scenario - D [ continued from prior slide] Administering Decision Speed also allows for calculation of Cognitive Fluency cluster Compare Cog Eff (Ext), cog. processing speed (Gs; Gs~3), and working memory (Gsm-MW; Gsm-MW~3; Gsm-MW~4) with Cognitive Fluency and naming facility (RAN?; Glr-NA~2) to determine if problem is specific to speed/fluency of cognitive/semantic-lexical access Gsm-MW Cognitive efficiency (Ext) Gsm-MW~4 Gs~3 Glr-NA ~2 Cognitive Fluency
  35. 40. BRS (6-8 yrs): WJ III Cognitive Efficiency branching test scenarios: Delving even deeper into the cognitive speed/fluency domain: An example of even more selective and diagnostic possibilities Warning/Caution: The following set of branching tree-based selective testing examples are intended NOT to be THE sequence to follow. This is not a cookbook . All sequential scenarios are an attempt to model one possible research/expert-based possibility. Each referral and case is unique. It is the modeled logic and decisions that are important in the following slides. In reality, referral-based focused testing is more of a non-linear iterative cognitive testing hypothesis method based on the skills of the clinician (“We are the instrument”; K. McGrew; date unknown)
  36. 41. WJ III Diagnostic Supplement Tests
  37. 42. (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) (Ga-PC) (Gv-SR) (Gsm-MW) (Gc-K0) (Glr-MA/MM) (Gsm-MW) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) Gs BRS (6-8 yrs): Cognitive efficiency branching test scenario - E If problem seems to be even more narrowly focused in cognitive speed/fluency, and further exploration is desirable, consider administering additional tests (from WJ III Diagnostic Supplement) and comparing the relevant speeded/fluency broad and narrow clusters within domains. Administer Cross Out - allows for calculation of Perceptual Speed (Gs-P) cluster, as well as possible Gs~4 Compare broadest cognitive processing speed clusters (Gs; Gs~3; Gs~4) with narrower Perceptual Speed cluster (Gs-P) [continued on next slide] Gs-P Gs~3 Test 26: Cross Out (Gs-P) Gs~4
  38. 43. (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) (Ga-PC) (Gv-SR) (Gsm-MW) (Gc-K0) (Glr-MA/MM) (Gsm-MW) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) Glr-MA BRS (6-8 yrs): Cognitive efficiency branching test scenario - E Glr-NA ~2 [continued from prior slide] If problem seems to be focused in cognitive speed/fluency, and further exploration is desirable, consider administering additional tests (from WJ III Diagnostic Supplement) and compare the relevant speeded/fluency broad and narrow clusters within domains. Administer Memory for Names – allows for calculation of Associative Memory (Gs-MA) cluster. Compare broadest fluency of recall/cog fluency clusters (Cognitive Fluency; Glr) with narrower Associative Memory (Glr-MA) and naming facility (Glr-NA~2; RAN?) Test 30: Memory for Names (Glr-MA) Cognitive Fluency Glr
  39. 44. BRS (6-8 yrs): WJ III Ga/Gsm branching test scenarios
  40. 45. (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) ( Ga-PC ) (Gv-SR) ( Gsm-MW ) (Gc-K0) (Glr-MA/MM) (Gsm-MW) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) ( Gsm-MW /Gc-LS) (Glr-MM) (Gc-VL) (Gc-LS) ( Gsm-MW / Ga-PC ) (Gc-LS) Gsm-MW~3 BRS (6-8 yrs): Ga/Gsm branching test scenarios Ga-PC~2 <ul><li>Possible Ho’s that could be examined: </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized deficit in Ga and/or Gsm </li></ul><ul><li>Problem is in narrow Ga domain </li></ul><ul><li>Problem is in narrow Gsm domain </li></ul>
  41. 46. (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) ( Ga-PC ) (Gv-SR) ( Gsm-MW ) (Gc-K0) (Glr-MA/MM) (Gsm-MW) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) ( Gsm-MW /Gc-LS) (Glr-MM) (Gc-VL) (Gc-LS) ( Gsm-MW / Ga-PC ) (Gc-LS) Gsm-MW~3 BRS (6-8 yrs): Ga/Gsm branching test scenario AB <ul><li>Compare phonetic coding (Ga-P~2) to working memory (Gsm-MW~3) to determine if problem is more related to: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Auditory processing (Ga) or phonetic coding (Ga-PC), or </li></ul><ul><li>Working memory (Gsm-MW) </li></ul><ul><li>If Ga-PC~2 is possible problem (lower than Gsm-MW-3) administer additional Ga tests: </li></ul><ul><li>[continued on next slide] </li></ul>Ga-PC~2
  42. 47. (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) ( Ga-PC ) (Gv-SR) ( Gsm-MW ) (Gc-K0) (Glr-MA/MM) (Gsm-MW) ( Ga-PC ) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) ( Gsm-MW /Gc-LS) (Glr-MM) (Gc-VL) (Gc-LS) ( Gsm-MW / Ga-PC ) (Gc-LS) BRS (6-8 yrs): Ga branching test scenario AB [continued from prior slide] Administer Incomplete Words – allows for calculation of Phonemic Awareness (PA) and Phonemic Awareness 3 (PA3) cluster Administer Auditory Attention – allows for calculation of broad Auditory Processing (Ga) cluster Compare Ga, PA and PA3 to determine if problem is possible generalized auditory processing problem (all are low) or if isolated to narrow phonetic coding (Ga-PC---PA and PA3) Phon. Awr.-PA (Ga-PC) Phon. Awr3-PA3 (Ga-PC) Ga
  43. 48. (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) ( Ga-PC ) (Gv-SR) ( Gsm-MW ) (Gc-K0) (Glr-MA/MM) (Gsm-MW) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) ( Gsm-MW /Gc-LS) (Glr-MM) (Gc-VL) (Gc-LS) ( Gsm-MW / Ga-PC ) (Gc-LS) Gsm-MW~3 BRS (6-8 yrs): Gsm branching test scenario AC Ga-PC~2 If Gs-MW~3 is possible problem (lower than (Ga-PC~2) administer additional Gsm tests: [continued on next slide]
  44. 49. (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) ( Ga-PC ) (Gv-SR) ( Gsm-MW ) (Gc-K0) (Glr-MA/MM) (Gsm-MW) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) ( Gsm-MW /Gc-LS) (Glr-MM) (Gc-VL) (Gc-LS) ( Gsm-MW / Ga-PC ) (Gc-LS) Gsm-MW~3 [continued from prior slide] Administer Auditory Working Memory – allows for calculation of Working Memory (Gsm-MW ) cluster and Gsm-MW~4 Administer Memory for Words (Gsm-MS) – allows for calculation of broad Short-term Memory (Gsm) cluster Compare broad Short-term Memory (Gsm) with various working memory (Gsm-MW; Gsm-MW~3; Gsm-MW~4) clusters to attempt to differentiate problem as generalized broad Gsm problem or more narrow working memory (Gsm-MW) problem [continued on next slide] Gsm-MW Gsm-MW~4 BRS (6-8 yrs): Gsm branching test scenario AC Gsm
  45. 50. (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) ( Ga-PC ) (Gv-SR) ( Gsm-MW ) (Gc-K0) (Glr-MA/MM) ( Gsm-MW ) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) ( Gsm-MS ) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) ( Gsm-MW /Gc-LS) (Glr-MM) (Gc-VL) (Gc-LS) ( Gsm-MW / Ga-PC ) (Gc-LS) [continued from prior slide] Clinically explore possible domain-specific Gsm problem—disconnected primarily numeric stimuli vs primarily aud.-linguistic (lang.) stimuli Gsm-MW BRS (6-8 yrs): Gsm branching test scenario B Gsm~3
  46. 51. BRS (6-8 yrs): WJ III Ga/Gsm branching test scenario: Delving even deeper into the Ga/Gsm domains: An example of even more selective and diagnostic possibilities Warning/Caution: The following set of branching tree-based selective testing examples are intended NOT to be THE sequence to follow. This is not a cookbook . All sequential scenarios are an attempt to model one possible research/expert-based possibility. Each referral and case is unique. It is the modeled logic and decisions that are important in the following slides. In reality, referral-based focused testing is more of a non-linear iterative cognitive testing hypothesis method based on the skills of the clinician (“We are the instrument”; K. McGrew; date unknown)
  47. 52. WJ III Diagnostic Supplement Tests
  48. 53. (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) ( Ga-PC ) (Gv-SR) (Gsm-MW) (Gc-K0) (Glr-MA/MM) (Gsm-MW) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) ( Gsm-MW /Gc-LS) (Glr-MM) (Gc-VL) (Gc-LS) ( Gsm-MW / Ga-PC ) (Gc-LS) Gsm-MW BRS (6-8 yrs): Gsm-MW vs MS branching test scenario B Gsm-MS If it appears necessary to differentiate Memory Span (Gsm-MS) from Working Memory (Gsm-MW), consider administering additional tests (from WJ III Diagnostic Supplement) and comparing the narrow clusters within Gsm Administer Memory for Sentences Compare Working Memory (Gsm-MW) and Memory Span (Gsm-MS) clusters Test 27: Memory for Sentences (Gsm-MS)
  49. 54. (Gc-LD/VL) (Glr-MA) (Gs-P) (Gf-I) (Ga-PC) (Gv-SR) (Gsm-MW) (Gc-K0) (Glr-MA/MM) (Gsm-MW) (Ga-PC) (Gs-R4/RE) (Glr-FI) (Gv-MV) (Ga-US/UR) (Gf-RG) (Gsm-MS) (Glr-NA) (Gv-SS) (Gs-AC/EF) BRS (6-8 yrs): Ga (PC vs US/3) branching test scenario A If it appears necessary to differentiate Phonemic Awareness (Ga-PC) from general Sound Discrimination (Ga-US/U3), consider administering additional tests (from WJ III Diagnostic Supplement) and comparing the relevant broad and narrow clusters within domains. Administer Sound Patterns-Voice and Sound Patterns-Music – allows for calculation of Sound Discrimination (Ga-US/U3) cluster Compare Phonemic Awareness (Ga-PC) and Sound Discriminatio n (Ga-US/U3) clusters Test 23: Sound Patterns-Voice (Ga-U3/UR) Test 29: Sound Patterns-Music (Ga-U1/U8/U9) Ga-US/U3 Ga-PC
  50. 55. WJ III branching test scenarios PSYCHOLOGIST GENERAL’S WARNING: These are NOT to be used in a cook-book manner. The examples are intended to demonstrate modeled logical and decision-making. All cases are unique. Referral-based focused testing is a non-linear iterative cognitive testing hypothesis method based on the skills and expertise of the clinician.
  51. 56. Important Caveats <ul><li>90+ % of the empirical CHC designed studies are based on the WJ-R/WJ III </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The professional ice is thicker if you apply this information to use of the WJ III </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not all CHC narrow ability test classifications are equal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost all narrow CHC ability test classifications are logical or expert-consensus based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even when evidenced-based, tests with identical narrow ability test classifications cannot be assumed to be 100 % interchangeable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(see Floyd’s broad cluster exchangeability study – Floyd, 2005, SPR) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  52. 57. To what extent are the following similarly classified narrow indicators of Induction (I under Gf) and Working Memory (MW under Gsm) exchangeable? How correlated are scores from the indicators that are classified as measuring the same narrow abilities? We don’t know !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
  53. 58. <ul><ul><li>Even when evidenced-based, tests with identical narrow ability test classifications cannot be assumed to be 100 % interchangeable </li></ul></ul>Example from Phelps et al. (2005) WISC-III/WJ III CB CFA
  54. 59. <ul><ul><li>Even when evidenced-based, tests with identical narrow ability test classifications cannot be assumed to be 100 % interchangeable </li></ul></ul>Example from Phelps et al. (2005) WISC-III/WJ III CB CFA
  55. 60. Important note: No Indicators of Gq present In analysis (Keith et al., 2006) <ul><ul><li>Even when evidenced-based, not all CHC CFA analyses are created equal ( within vs across battery factor analysis ; McGrew & Flanagan, 1997). Within-battery classifications are on thinner ice: e.g. WISC-IV Arithmetic test as measure of Gf </li></ul></ul>
  56. 62. Phelps et al. (2005) WISC-III/WJ III CB CFA
  57. 63. No significant Gf  Arithmetic loading Arithmetic loaded high on Gq (.69) and low on Gs (.20) Phelps et al. (2005) WISC-III/WJ III CB CFA
  58. 64. <ul><ul><li>Predictive validities in the extant CHC COG-ACH literature integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(90+ % WJR/III) cannot be assumed to automatically generalize to similar CHC narrow ability classified tests in other batteries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Select correlations from Phelps et al. (2005) WISC-III/WJ III (n=147). </li></ul><ul><li>Classifications from Flanagan et al. (2007) “ Essentials of CB-2 nd Edition” </li></ul>Broad/ Narrow* COG Battery/Tests WJ III LWID WJ III WRDATK WJ III PSGCMP WJ III CALC WJ III APPROB Gs-P WJ III Visual Matching .42 .32 .40 .29 .29 Gs-P WJ III Pair Cancellation .38 .27 .23 .29 .24 Gs-P WJ III Cross Out .35 .31 .27 .27 .36 Gs-P WISC3 Symbol Search .32 .20 .27 .29 .27 Gc-K0 WJ III General Info .48 .35 .38 .35 .41 Gc-K0 WISC3 Information .39 .30 .43 .39 .37 Gf-Rq WJ III Number Series .33 .33 .39 .44 .53 Gf-Rq WISC3 Arithmetic .51 .44 .44 .53 .59
  59. 65. <ul><ul><li>Predictive validities in the extant CHC COG-ACH literature integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(90+ % WJR/III) cannot be assumed to automatically generalize to similar CHC narrow ability classified tests in other batteries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Select correlations from Phelps et al. (2005) WISC-III/WJ III (n=147). </li></ul><ul><li>Classifications from Flanagan et al. (2007) “ Essentials of CB-2 nd Edition” </li></ul>Broad/ Narrow* COG Battery/Tests WJ III LWID WJ III WRDATK WJ III PSGCMP WJ III CALC WJ III APPROB Gs-P WJ III Visual Matching .42 .32 .40 .29 .29 Gs-P WJ III Pair Cancellation .38 .27 .23 .29 .24 Gs-P WJ III Cross Out .35 .31 .27 .27 .36 Gs-P WISC3 Symbol Search .32 .20 .27 .29 .27 Gc-K0 WJ III General Info .48 .35 .38 .35 .41 Gc-K0 WISC3 Information .39 .30 .43 .39 .37 Gf-Rq WJ III Number Series .33 .33 .39 .44 .53 Gf-Rq WISC3 Arithmetic .51 .44 .44 .53 .59
  60. 66. <ul><ul><li>Predictive validities in the extant CHC COG-ACH literature integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(90+ % WJR/III) cannot be assumed to automatically generalize to similar CHC narrow ability classified tests in other batteries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Select correlations from Phelps et al. (2005) WISC-III/WJ III (n=147). </li></ul><ul><li>Classifications from Flanagan et al. (2007) “ Essentials of CB-2 nd Edition” </li></ul>Broad/ Narrow* COG Battery/Tests WJ III LWID WJ III WRDATK WJ III PSGCMP WJ III CALC WJ III APPROB Gs-P WJ III Visual Matching .42 .32 .40 .29 .29 Gs-P WJ III Pair Cancellation .38 .27 .23 .29 .24 Gs-P WJ III Cross Out .35 .31 .27 .27 .36 Gs-P WISC3 Symbol Search .32 .20 .27 .29 .27 Gc-K0 WJ III General Info .48 .35 .38 .35 .41 Gc-K0 WISC3 Information .39 .30 .43 .39 .37 Gf-RQ WJ III Number Series .33 .33 .39 .44 .53 Gf-RQ WISC3 Arithmetic .51 .44 .44 .53 .59
  61. 68. We now know that the world is not flat---and, we know have an empirically based workable taxonomic “map” of the terrain of cognitive abilities. We are now charting a more accurate course in our search for the “holy grail” of COG-ACH abilities research We have learned something about empirical support for CHC COG-ACH relations over the past 20 years. VCI/POI/FFD/PS
  62. 69. Detailed information re: the CHC COG-ACH research synthesis is available on the web www.iapsych.com
  63. 70. Important Caveats <ul><li>90+ % of the empirical CHC designed studies are based on the WJ-R/WJ III </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The professional ice is thicker if you apply this information to use of the WJ III </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not all CHC narrow ability test classifications are equal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost all narrow CHC ability test classifications are logical or expert-consensus based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even when evidenced-based, tests with identical narrow ability test classifications cannot be assumed to be 100 % interchangeable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(see Floyd’s broad cluster exchangeability study – Floyd, 2005, SPR) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  64. 71. Important Caveats We need more CHC-organized joint or cross-battery CFA studies
  65. 72. “ Tests do not think for themselves, nor do they directly communicate with patients. Like a stethoscope, a blood pressure gauge, or an MRI scan, a psychological test is a dumb tool , and the worth of the tool cannot be separated from the sophistication of the clinician who draws inferences from it and then communicates with patients and professionals” Meyer et al. (2001). Psychological testing and psychological assessment. American Psychologist,
  66. 73. Broad Domain Markers Basic Reading Skills – ages 6 to 8 Gc Crystallized Intelligence Gsm Short-Term Memory Ga Auditory Processing Gs Processing Speed Glr Long-Term Retrieval Short-term Memory Working Memory Processing Speed Perceptual Speed-DS Comp-Knowledge Listening Comp. Phonemic Awareness Phonemic Awareness 3 Most Relevant WJ III Clusters Long-term Retrieval Associative Memory-DS Cognitive Fluency Work Mem (MW) Lang. Dev. (LD) Listen. Ability (LS) Gen. Info. (K0) Lex. Know. (VL) Phonetic Coding (PC) Perc. Speed (P) Narrow Domain Markers Assoc. Mem. (MA) Naming Fac. (NA) Numbers Reversed (MW) Understanding Dir (MW/LS ) Aud. Working. Mem. (MW) Visual Matching (P) Verbal Comp. (LD/VL) Oral Comp. (LS) General Info (K0) Picture Vocab. (VL) Snd. Aware. (PC/MW) Snd. Blending (PC) Most Relevant WJ III Tests Vis.-Aud.-Lrng. (MA) Rapid. Pic. Nam. (NA) Retrieval Fluency (FI) (NA) Research foundation: From McGrew @ Wendling (2009) CHC COG-ACH relations research synthesis (prior slides) Bridge research – real world practice WJ III clusters/test selected based on McGrew & Wendling (2009) plus expert-knowledge and clinical experience with WJ III battery These are only tools
  67. 74. CHC COG  ACH Important Broad & Narrow Abilities Cognitive Efficiency Achievement Domains BRS BRS BRS RC RC RC MCS MCS MCS MR MR MR <ul><ul><li>Age Range </li></ul></ul>6-8 9-13 14-19 6-8 9-13 14-19 6-8 9-13 14-19 6-8 9-13 14-19 Broad/Narrow CHC Abilities Gsm Short-term memory X X X Working Memory (MW) X X X X X X X X X X X X Memory Span (MS) X X X Gs Processing speed X X X X X Perceptual Speed (P) [# fluency N ?] X X X X X X X X X X X X Attention-conc/Exec-funct (AC/EF?) X X X Glr Long-term storage and retrieval X Associative Memory (MA) X X X Naming Facility (NA) X X X X X X X Meaningful Memory (MM) X X Gc Comprehension-Knowledge X X X X X X X X X X X Language Development (LD) X X X X X X X X X X X General Information (K0) X X X X X X X X X Listening Ability (LS) X X X X X X X X X Lexical Knowledge (VL) X X X X X X Ga Auditory Processing X Phonetic Coding (PC) X X X X X X ? ? ? ? ? ? Spc-Snd Disc/Res to ASD (US/UR) X X Gf Fluid Reasoning X X X X X X Gen. Seq. Reasoning (RG) X X X X X X Quantitative Reasoning (RQ) X X X X X X These are only tools
  68. 75. CHC Selective Referral-Focused Assessment Worksheet (McGrew, 2009) Age/grade: _____ Academic referral concern ___________________________________________ CHC res. syn. based Non-CHC res. based Broad/Narrow CHC Abilities Referral Relevant domain? Selective/focused set of starting tests Selective/focused possible additional tests Gsm Memory Span (MS) Y N Working Memory (MW) Y N Gs Perceptual Speed (P) Y N Number Facility (N) Y N Glr Associative Memory (MA) Y N Naming Facility (NA) Y N Meaningful Memory (MM) Y N Gc Language Development (LD) Y N General Information (K0) Y N Listening Ability (LS) Y N Lexical Knowledge (VL) Y N Ga Phonetic Coding (PC) Y N Spch-Snd Disc/Res to ASD (US/UR) Gf Gen. Seq. Reasoning (RG) Y N Quantitative Reasoning (RQ) Y N EF Vigilance/inhibition/planning/ concentration, self-regulation, etc Y N Gkn Domain-specific knowledge (__) Y N Gv Visualization (Vz)/Spat Rel (SR)/ Visual Memory (MV)/Imagery (IM) Y N ??? Orthographic processing (???) Y N These are only tools
  69. 76. <ul><li>Beyond the CHC Theory “Tipping Point” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CHC “theory-centric” approach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In “search of the holy grail” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ The world is not flat” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Back to the future” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Just say maybe” vs. “Just say no” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Catching the wave” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>CHC  Achievement Research Literature Integration/Synthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CHC/WJ III organized cognitive-achievement research synthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-CHC cognitive-achievement research synthesis (viewed with a CHC lens) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sample referral- and domain-specific focused selective assessment scenarios </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ We are the instrument” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Beyond IQ” </li></ul></ul></ul>Presentation Outline This important research was NOT integrated in today’s material
  70. 77. Yes: Gc-LS No yes Yes: Gc-K0 no No Yes Administer BRS (6-8) suggested start tests What are prelim concerns? Gc (VrCmp+GnInf) -Give PicVoc & OrlCmp -Get Gc~4 & Gc-LS cls. Gc narrow concerns? -Give StRec -Get Gc- LS~3 cls Examine Gc-K0~2 (GnInf+PicVoc) Gc-K0~2 concern? Stop testing in Gc-K0 -Give AcdKnw -Get Know. (Gc-K0+) and Gc-K0~3 cls Other areas (Ga, etc.) See other flow charts Compare broad and narrow Gc cls Make final broad Gc interp. Make final broad vs narrow Gc interp. Possible Gc retrieval/ access (Glr) problems? Examine Glr-NA~2 (ReFl+RPNam) Glr-NA~2 concern? Stop testing in Glr-NA -Give DecSpd -Get Cognitive Fluency cls Compare Glr-NA2 and/or Cog Flu to broad & narrow Gc clusters Make final broad & narrow Gc (level) and rate (fluency) of retrieval (Glr) interp. PSYCHOLOGIST GENERAL’S WARNING: These are NOT to be used in a cookbook manner. The examples are intended to demonstrate modeled logical and decision-making. All cases are unique. Referral-based focused testing is a non-linear iterative cognitive testing hypothesis method based on the skills and expertise of the clinician. (“We are the instrument”; K. McGrew; date unknown)

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