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Dr. Kevin S. McGrew
Institute for Applied Psychometrics
& University of Minnesota
Beyond Cognitive Abilities: An Integrati...
Going “beyond cognitive abilities” has been an area of
study in education and psychology for decades
Spearman on “conative” abilities (1927)
“The process of cognition
cannot possibly be treated apart
from those of conation ...
Conation: the
proactive (as
opposed to habitual)
part of motivation
that connects
knowledge, affect,
drives, desires, and
...
“The tendency to take and maintain a definite
direction; the capacity to make adaptations for the
purpose of attaining a d...
“When our scales measure the non-
intellective as well as the intellectual factors
in intelligence, they will more nearly
...
Messick (1979) on “non-cognitive factors”
It is important to not target “feel good” faddish
variables that have good face or consumer
validity— and that have little...
Back to the Future: Non-cognitive factors are again being
revisited with different terminology
• Social-emotional learning...
“Students' engagement with school, the belief
that they can achieve at high levels, and their
ability and willingness to d...
Cognitive
engagement
literature
A “big picture” model (taxonomy; working
heuristic model), even if provisional, is needed to
guide research and developmen...
We have an embarrassment of riches in search of order
• Social-emotional learning
• Cognitive & student engagement
• Self-...
Physical
Competence
Social-
Emotional
Intelligence
Conceptual
Intelligence
Practical
Intelligence
Personal
Competence
Gree...
Physical Cognitive Conative Affective
Personality
Adapted Snow (Corno et al., 2002) model of aptitude
Intellect
© Institut...
• Aptitude – “a predisposition to respond in a way that fits, or
does not fit, a particular situation or class of situatio...
A proposed “big picture” heuristic conceptual framework (a meta-taxonomy model):
Integrate these two broad stroke models*
...
Despite the explosion of discussions regarding social-emotional
learning (SEL) by policy-makers and educators, well valida...
Physical
Physical
abilities
Psycho-
motor
abilities
Sensory-
perceptual
abilities
Cognitive
Cognitive
processes
Acquired
k...
Cool intelligences
Abilities involving
perceptual
processing and
logical reasoning
Hot intelligences:
Abilities involving
...
(Note. The cognitive aspects
of social intelligence [Gei]
have provisionally been added
to the CHC taxonomy)
Note. Cogniti...
Gc Gkn Grw Gq Gf Gwm Gv Ga Gl Gr Gs Gt
g
The Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) taxonomy of human abilities (v 2.4)
A higher-order...
Trait-complexes (combinations, mixtures, compounds, etc.)
Ackerman PPIK model
“Intelligence-as-Process
“Personality”
“Inte...
Affective
Temper-
ament traits
Character-
istic moods
AffectiveConative
Motivations
Volitional
controls
Temper-
ament
traits
Character-
istic moods
Personality
Personal compete...
Factor analysis
of 209 items in
very large
samples
The SENNA 1.0
SEMS (social
emotional skills)
empirically
based model
The SENNA 1.0 SEMS dimensions
correspond (subsume and go
beyond) the Big Five +
E = Extraversion
C = Conscientiousness
ES ...
The SENNA 2.0 SEMS empirically based model
The SENNA 2.0 SEMS
dimensions correspond
(subsume and go beyond)
the Big Five +
E A CN O
Engaging with Others (vs Withdraw...
The SENNA 2.0 SEMS dimensions correspond to
dimensions, or combinations of dimensions, from these
domains from the adapted...
Conative
Motivations
Volitional
controls
Personal
competence
domain
Conative taxonomy: A “working” heuristic framework:
Th...
The
background
information
and white
paper that
outlines the
Model of
Academic
Competence
and Motivation
(MACM) is
availab...
Dispositions concern not what abilities people have, but how people
are disposed to use and invest their abilities and cap...
© Institute for Applied Psychometrics
(IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
More information available at the MindHub™ web portal
Commitment
to action
“Crossing the
Rubicon”
Reciprocal
interactions
& feedback
Orientations Towards Self
(Motivations)
Phr...
• Academic motivation
• Intrinsic motivation
• Academic goal orientation
• ….
• Academic interests,
attitudes & values
• …...
Many current educational
initiatives are emphasizing abilities
such as creative thinking, creativity,
and complex problem ...
CHC
MACM
Proposal
The CHC, MACM,
& SENNA SEMS
taxonomies can be
used to understand
important constructs
and can be used as...
Constructs such as critical thinking, creativity, and complex problem solving might be conceptualized as
combinations (ama...
Think about these constructs as trait-complexes (combinations, compounds, etc.;
see Ackerman’s PPIK model as illustrative ...
Intellectual or cognitive
“performance”
A hypothesized model for
understanding various
cognitive constructs
Intended to he...
A hypothesized model for
understanding various
cognitive constructs
Intended to help minimize
the jingle-jangle fallacy an...
A hypothesized model for
understanding various
cognitive constructs
Intended to help minimize
the jingle-jangle fallacy an...
Cognitive
(Knowing)
Conative
(Willing)
Affecting
(Feeling)
Or, think of these
constructs in the
following manner
© Institu...
Cognitive
(Knowing)
Conative
(Willing)
Affective
(Feeling)
The constructs of critical thinking, complex problem solving, c...
Cognitive
(Knowing)
Conative
(Willing)
Conative
(Feeling)
Critical thinking ???
© Institute for Applied
Psychometrics (IAP...
Affective
(Feeling)
Conative
(Willing)
Cognitive
(Knowing)
Critical thinking ???
© Institute for Applied
Psychometrics (IA...
Cognitive
(Knowing)
Conative
(Willing)
Conative
(Feeling)
Complex problem solving ???
© Institute for Applied
Psychometric...
Conative
(Feeling)
Cognitive
(Knowing)
Conative
(Willing)
Complex problem solving ???
Cognitive
(Knowing)
Conative
(Willing)
Affective
(Feeling)
Social intelligence?????
Cognitive
(Knowing)
Conative
(Willing)
Affective
(Feeling)
Social intelligence?????
Critical thinking Complex problem solving Social intelligence
Think of these constructs (and others) as different
combinat...
CHC
MACM
Proposal
The CHC, MACM,
& SENNA SEMS
taxonomies can be
used to
understand
important
constructs and to
be used as
...
Beyond cognitive abilities:  An integrative model of learning-related personal competencies and aptitude trait complexes
Beyond cognitive abilities:  An integrative model of learning-related personal competencies and aptitude trait complexes
Beyond cognitive abilities:  An integrative model of learning-related personal competencies and aptitude trait complexes
Beyond cognitive abilities:  An integrative model of learning-related personal competencies and aptitude trait complexes
Beyond cognitive abilities:  An integrative model of learning-related personal competencies and aptitude trait complexes
Beyond cognitive abilities:  An integrative model of learning-related personal competencies and aptitude trait complexes
Beyond cognitive abilities:  An integrative model of learning-related personal competencies and aptitude trait complexes
Beyond cognitive abilities:  An integrative model of learning-related personal competencies and aptitude trait complexes
Beyond cognitive abilities:  An integrative model of learning-related personal competencies and aptitude trait complexes
Beyond cognitive abilities:  An integrative model of learning-related personal competencies and aptitude trait complexes
Beyond cognitive abilities:  An integrative model of learning-related personal competencies and aptitude trait complexes
Beyond cognitive abilities:  An integrative model of learning-related personal competencies and aptitude trait complexes
Beyond cognitive abilities:  An integrative model of learning-related personal competencies and aptitude trait complexes
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Beyond cognitive abilities: An integrative model of learning-related personal competencies and aptitude trait complexes

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For centuries educational psychologists have highlighted the importance of "non-cognitive" variables in school learning. The presentation is a "big picture" overview of how cognitive abilities and non-cognitive factors can be integrated into an over-arching conceptual framework. The presentation also illustrates how the big picture framework can be used to conceptualize a number of contemporary "buzz word" initiatives related to building 21st century educationally important skills (social-emotional learning, critical thinking, creativity, complex problem solving, etc.)

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Beyond cognitive abilities: An integrative model of learning-related personal competencies and aptitude trait complexes

  1. 1. Dr. Kevin S. McGrew Institute for Applied Psychometrics & University of Minnesota Beyond Cognitive Abilities: An Integrative Model of Learning-related Personal Competences and Aptitude Trait Complexes © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  2. 2. Going “beyond cognitive abilities” has been an area of study in education and psychology for decades
  3. 3. Spearman on “conative” abilities (1927) “The process of cognition cannot possibly be treated apart from those of conation and affection, seeing that all these are but inseparable aspects in the instincts and behavior of a single individual, who himself, as the vary name implies, is essentially indivisible” (p. 2) © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  4. 4. Conation: the proactive (as opposed to habitual) part of motivation that connects knowledge, affect, drives, desires, and instincts to behavior © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  5. 5. “The tendency to take and maintain a definite direction; the capacity to make adaptations for the purpose of attaining a desired end; and the power of auto-criticism” (translation by Terman, 1916, p. 45). All three of these phrases refer at least as much to conative processes and attitudes as to reasoning powers. Binet's concept of intelligence was much like Snow's concept of aptitudes (p. 5). Alfred Binet’s definition of Intelligence (Corno et al., 2002 translation by Terman, 1916) © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  6. 6. “When our scales measure the non- intellective as well as the intellectual factors in intelligence, they will more nearly measure what in actual life corresponds to intelligent behavior” (p. 103) Important distinction: Intelligence vs. intelligent performance David Wechsler (1944) on “non-intellective factors” © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  7. 7. Messick (1979) on “non-cognitive factors”
  8. 8. It is important to not target “feel good” faddish variables that have good face or consumer validity— and that have little empirical validity © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  9. 9. Back to the Future: Non-cognitive factors are again being revisited with different terminology • Social-emotional learning • Cognitive engagement • Self-determination • Growth mindset • Habits of Mind • Self-beliefs • Grit • ….. © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  10. 10. “Students' engagement with school, the belief that they can achieve at high levels, and their ability and willingness to do what it takes to reach their goals not only play a central role shaping students' ability to master academic subjects, they are also valuable attributes that will enable students to lead full lives, meeting challenges and making the most of available opportunities along the way (Schunk and Mullen, 2013). In order to effectively meet the economic, political and social demands for competencies, much more is required of students and adults than just cognitive proficiency (Levin, 2012).”
  11. 11. Cognitive engagement literature
  12. 12. A “big picture” model (taxonomy; working heuristic model), even if provisional, is needed to guide research and development regarding the assessment of student competencies and learning © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  13. 13. We have an embarrassment of riches in search of order • Social-emotional learning • Cognitive & student engagement • Self-determination • Habits of Mind • Growth mindset • Self-beliefs • Grit • ….. • Need for Achievement Theory • Intrinsic Motivation Theory • Goal Setting Theory • Attribution Theory • Achievement Goal Theory • Interest Theory • Self-efficacy Theory • Self-worth Theory • Self-regulation Theory • Self-determination theory • …… © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  14. 14. Physical Competence Social- Emotional Intelligence Conceptual Intelligence Practical Intelligence Personal Competence Greenspan’s Model(s) of Personal Competence © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  15. 15. Physical Cognitive Conative Affective Personality Adapted Snow (Corno et al., 2002) model of aptitude Intellect © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  16. 16. • Aptitude – “a predisposition to respond in a way that fits, or does not fit, a particular situation or class of situations. The common thread is potentiality” (Corno et al., 2002, p. 3) • “Aspects of personality—achievement motivation, freedom from anxiety, appropriately positive self-concept, control of impulses, and others—are aptitudes as well, contributing importantly to copy with some challenges” (Snow, et al., 1996, p. 4) Aptitude intelligence © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  17. 17. A proposed “big picture” heuristic conceptual framework (a meta-taxonomy model): Integrate these two broad stroke models* * Plus information from recent related research © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  18. 18. Despite the explosion of discussions regarding social-emotional learning (SEL) by policy-makers and educators, well validated models of social and emotional competencies are not available. The conceptual research in these areas is in the formative stages. • Lots of conceptual clutter • The jingle-jangle jungle fallacy © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  19. 19. Physical Physical abilities Psycho- motor abilities Sensory- perceptual abilities Cognitive Cognitive processes Acquired knowledge systems Conative Motivations Volitional controls Affective Temper- ament traits Character- istic moods Intellect Personality The big picture: An adapted Snow (Corno et al., 2002) model of aptitude (MACM revised; 10-13-16) Knowing FeelingWilling Cool intelligences Hot intelligences © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  20. 20. Cool intelligences Abilities involving perceptual processing and logical reasoning Hot intelligences: Abilities involving emotionally-salient information
  21. 21. (Note. The cognitive aspects of social intelligence [Gei] have provisionally been added to the CHC taxonomy) Note. Cognitive processes are similar to procedural knowledge or “intelligence-as- process” (Ackerman PPIK model) Acquired knowledge systems can also be labeled as declarative knowledge or “intelligence as knowledge” (Ackerman PPIK) Personal competence domain Cognitive Cognitive processes Acquired knowledge systems Cognitive taxonomy: Best evidence-based consensus model: Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of cognitive abilities © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  22. 22. Gc Gkn Grw Gq Gf Gwm Gv Ga Gl Gr Gs Gt g The Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) taxonomy of human abilities (v 2.4) A higher-order conceptualization based on MDS of the WJ IV norm data (McGrew & Schneider, 06-20-16) (The tentative broad abilities of Gh, Gk, Go, Gk, Gp, Gps & Gei and all broad domain level I narrow abilities omitted for readability purposes.) Intelligence-as- Knowledge (Ackerman) Acquired knowledge systems gc Cattell Intelligence-as-Process (Ackerman) System 2 (controlled deliberate cognitive operations/processes) (Kahneman) gf Cattell Intelligence-as-Process: Speed/fluency (Ackerman) System 1 (automatic rapid cognitive processes) (Kahneman) gs – General speed factor © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  23. 23. Trait-complexes (combinations, mixtures, compounds, etc.) Ackerman PPIK model “Intelligence-as-Process “Personality” “Interests” “Intelligence-as-Knowledge”
  24. 24. Affective Temper- ament traits Character- istic moods
  25. 25. AffectiveConative Motivations Volitional controls Temper- ament traits Character- istic moods Personality Personal competence domain E C AES OE Personality taxonomy: Best evidence-based consensus model: The Big Five E = Extraversion C = Conscientiousness ES = Emotional stability (aka, neuroticism) A = Agreeableness OE = Openness to experience © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  26. 26. Factor analysis of 209 items in very large samples The SENNA 1.0 SEMS (social emotional skills) empirically based model
  27. 27. The SENNA 1.0 SEMS dimensions correspond (subsume and go beyond) the Big Five + E = Extraversion C = Conscientiousness ES = Emotional stability (aka, neuroticism) A = Agreeableness OE = Openness to experience LC = Locus of control E C AES OE LC Conscientiousness (C): Working Hard and Persevering at Tasks at School Emotional Stability (ES): Managing Negative Emotions Versus Experiencing Negative Affect Agreeableness (A): Prosocial Skills in Peer Relationships Open-Mindedness (OE): Curiosity, Imagination, and Invention External Locus of Control/Negative Valence (LC): Ineffective Coping and Hopeless Beliefs Extraversion (E): Energetic Approach to the Social World The SENNA 1.0 SEMS empirically based model
  28. 28. The SENNA 2.0 SEMS empirically based model
  29. 29. The SENNA 2.0 SEMS dimensions correspond (subsume and go beyond) the Big Five + E A CN O Engaging with Others (vs Withdrawal and Avoidance) - E Conscientious Task Performance (or Goal Orientation) - C Negative-Emotion Regulation (or Emotional Resilience = ER) - N Amity (vs Enmity): “Tending and Befriending” Others - A Open-Mindedness: Interest and devotion to matters of the mind - O The SENNA 2.0 SEMS empirically based model
  30. 30. The SENNA 2.0 SEMS dimensions correspond to dimensions, or combinations of dimensions, from these domains from the adapted Snow model E A CN O © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  31. 31. Conative Motivations Volitional controls Personal competence domain Conative taxonomy: A “working” heuristic framework: The Model of Academic Competence and Motivation (MACM; Revised 09-26-16; K. McGrew)* Self- Regulation Cognitive styles & lrng approaches Volitional controls Motivational orientation Interests & Attitudes Self-beliefs Motivations (Note: Self-regulation is most likely closely tied to the concept of executive functions * The MACM domains are very similar to cognitive engagement action patterns and dispositions and drivers of engagement • “Do I want to do this activity and why?” • “Is this activity of interest to me…is it worth the effort?” • “Can I do this activity? • “Am I capable?” • “What do I need to do to succeed?” © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  32. 32. The background information and white paper that outlines the Model of Academic Competence and Motivation (MACM) is available online. http://tinyurl.com/cf7uj2
  33. 33. Dispositions concern not what abilities people have, but how people are disposed to use and invest their abilities and capabilities — what they are disposed to do. Passions, motivations, sensitivities, and values all seem likely to play a role in intelligence. To define intelligence as a matter of ability without also honoring the other elements that enliven it is to fail to capture its human spark. Thinking dispositions & drivers of cognitive engagement. The human spark of learning and intelligence © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  34. 34. © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  35. 35. More information available at the MindHub™ web portal
  36. 36. Commitment to action “Crossing the Rubicon” Reciprocal interactions & feedback Orientations Towards Self (Motivations) Phrases used to describe this stage -Arena of planning and decision-making -Contemplating and deliberating over options -Processes involved in decision to pursue goals -WishWantIntentions Self- Beliefs Motivational orientations Interests & Attitudes • Can I do this task? • Do I want to do this task & why? Volitional Controls (Cognitive Styles & Lrng. Approaches) Phrases used to describe this stage -Arena of Implementation and management -Carrying out plans and intentions -Action orientation (state or action oriented) -Mindfulness (mindful effort investment) -Self-regulation of cognition and emotions Self-Regulated Learning Strategies Conative styles • What do I need to do to succeed? OutcomesCOMMITMENT PATHWAY TO ENGAGED LEARNING Contemplate & plan Decide & Commit Implement & monitor Cognitive engagement Feedback loop © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  37. 37. • Academic motivation • Intrinsic motivation • Academic goal orientation • …. • Academic interests, attitudes & values • …. • Locus of control • Academic self-efficacy • Academic self-concept • Academic ability conception • …. • Planning & activation • Monitoring • Control & regulation • Reaction & reflection • …. • Cognitive styles • Approaches to learning • Defensive styles • …. Motivational orientation Interests & Attitudes Self- Regulation Self-beliefs Cognitive styles & lrng. approaches Motivations Volitional controls Conative © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  38. 38. Many current educational initiatives are emphasizing abilities such as creative thinking, creativity, and complex problem solving. How can one conceptualize these type of valued educational outcomes?
  39. 39. CHC MACM Proposal The CHC, MACM, & SENNA SEMS taxonomies can be used to understand important constructs and can be used as blueprints for evaluating and developing instruments SENNA SEMS (Big 5+) © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  40. 40. Constructs such as critical thinking, creativity, and complex problem solving might be conceptualized as combinations (amalgams) of cognitive, conative and affective characteristics Other models of “intelligence” (Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences) might be considered as a model that combines characteristics across cognitive, physical, conative and affective domains Think about these constructs as trait-complexes (combinations, mixtures, compounds, amalgams, etc.) © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  41. 41. Think about these constructs as trait-complexes (combinations, compounds, etc.; see Ackerman’s PPIK model as illustrative example)
  42. 42. Intellectual or cognitive “performance” A hypothesized model for understanding various cognitive constructs Intended to help minimize the jingle-jangle fallacy and amount of conceptual clutter Example trait complexes Relative strength Relative weakness © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  43. 43. A hypothesized model for understanding various cognitive constructs Intended to help minimize the jingle-jangle fallacy and amount of conceptual clutter • Expertise/ach in math • Critical thinking in math • Creativity in math • Gardner’s logical- mathematical intelligence • Expertise/ach in science • Critical thinking in science • Creativity in science © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  44. 44. A hypothesized model for understanding various cognitive constructs Intended to help minimize the jingle-jangle fallacy and amount of conceptual clutter • Expertise/ach in dance • Critical thinking in dance • Creativity in dance • Gardner’s bodily-kinesthetic intelligence © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  45. 45. Cognitive (Knowing) Conative (Willing) Affecting (Feeling) Or, think of these constructs in the following manner © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  46. 46. Cognitive (Knowing) Conative (Willing) Affective (Feeling) The constructs of critical thinking, complex problem solving, creativity, etc. can be thought of as trait complexes (mixtures, compounds, amalgams, constellations) © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  47. 47. Cognitive (Knowing) Conative (Willing) Conative (Feeling) Critical thinking ??? © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  48. 48. Affective (Feeling) Conative (Willing) Cognitive (Knowing) Critical thinking ??? © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  49. 49. Cognitive (Knowing) Conative (Willing) Conative (Feeling) Complex problem solving ??? © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  50. 50. Conative (Feeling) Cognitive (Knowing) Conative (Willing) Complex problem solving ???
  51. 51. Cognitive (Knowing) Conative (Willing) Affective (Feeling) Social intelligence?????
  52. 52. Cognitive (Knowing) Conative (Willing) Affective (Feeling) Social intelligence?????
  53. 53. Critical thinking Complex problem solving Social intelligence Think of these constructs (and others) as different combinations of personal characteristics (complexes, amalgams, combinations, constellations, etc.) © Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16
  54. 54. CHC MACM Proposal The CHC, MACM, & SENNA SEMS taxonomies can be used to understand important constructs and to be used as blueprints for evaluating and developing instruments SENNA SEMS (Big 5+)© Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Dr. Kevin McGrew 10-13-16

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