The Future of TechnologyDr Ian YeomanSchool of Management
Learning points• In order to understand the future oftechnology advancement reality can be bestviewed through the paradigm of sciencefiction• The lecture overviews the drivers oftechnological change as an interface betweentourist and tourism• This is the story of Maria, on holiday inEdinburgh
• Maria, a 29 year old from Madrid loves culture, art and festivals and every otheryear visits the festivals of Edinburgh. She is thinking, what shall I do this year?Using her mobile phone, she watches the latest www.visitscotland.com, aninteractive film which follows the exploits of Hamish, holidaying in Edinburgh,whether it is bungee jumping off the Forth Road Bridge, a performance of theChicago Ballet at the international festival or the Russian veteran political satiristVladimir Putin. As Maria watches the film, she ‘tags’ the things she wants to do,places to stay and makes arrangements for flights all brought together as anindividual itinerary. Maria then confirms everything speaking to Mary,VisitScotland’s intelligent agent, a 3D hologram image on her phone.• On arrival at Edinburgh Airport, Maria wants to check some local information; thecyborg information assistant is a wealth of knowledge advising Maria on localrestaurants and pubs. Arriving in the city centre, Maria checks into her hotel usinga biometric eye registration system. Before leaving for a tour of the old town, shehas purchased a ‘witchery tour’ app for her contact lens so that she can visualizewhat medieval Edinburgh would be like in 1650. All possible given the ubiquitousnature of the city’s information network. That night, dinner is at the Rhubarbrestaurant with friends before heading to the Festival Theatre to watch Mr Putin’s‘vodka politiks’ comedy routine. The evening finishes about 1.00am with drinks atthe Balmoral Champagne Bar, a seven star bar which features mind reading barattendants who offer immaculate service.
2050: An Information Society• The role of technology in tourism is increasingly becomingmore pronounced. Constant innovations anddevelopments of new technologies allow users andsuppliers to interact on platforms that were unimaginablein the past decade. Today, the provision of information ontourism products is available through a variety ofchannels and technological platforms, bringing with it arange of benefits such as convenience with user-friendlyinterfaces, up-to-date information and affordability to theend user. These developments increasingly drives theintegration of technology within our everyday lives withmobile internet, navigation systems and smartphones,which attempts to constantly keep us connected to thedigital world.5
2050: An Information Society• The role of technology in tourism is increasinglybecoming more pronounced. Constantinnovations and developments of new technologiesallow users and suppliers to interact on platforms thatwere unimaginable in the past decade. Today, theprovision of information on tourism products is availablethrough a variety of channels and technologicalplatforms, bringing with it a range of benefits such asconvenience with user-friendly interfaces, up-to-dateinformation and affordability to the end user. Thesedevelopments increasingly drives the integration oftechnology within our everyday lives with mobileinternet, navigation systems and smartphones, whichattempts to constantly keep us connected to the digitalworld..and this is only the beginning6
2050: An Information Society8Ubiquitous ComputingVirtual Reality
• Ubiquitous computing (UC) refers totechnologies which interact with humanity out inthe open rather than users with a computer• Maria uses a ‘witchery tour’ app to experienceand interpret medieval Edinburgh. Virtual reality(VE) is defined as computer-generated 3Denvironments that consumers can navigate andinteract with. Augmented reality (AR) is a live,direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-worldenvironment whose elements are augmented bycomputer-generated sensory input such assound, video, graphics or GPS data.
• In Japan 30% of onlinetravel agents report30% of hotel bookingscoming via mobilephones on the day ofarrival (Hatton 2009)Augmented audio and visual recognitiontechnology means that a smartphone with acamera can recognise the environment andprovide information
Terminator Salvation…….Scientists at the University of Washington have been developinga contact lens containing one built-in LED, powered wirelessly withradio frequency waves, facial recognition systems etc (Nelson 2008)
Gestural Interfaces16A gestural interface is a platform that bridges communication betweenhumans by inventing measures which allow computers to understandhuman body language (Yeoman 2011). The best example of futuredevelopment is the Sixth Sense Project or google ‘Pranav Mistry’
Gestural Interfaces• The screen of these interfaces are embeddedwith optical sensors that track the movementof the user’s fingers such that they do nothave to come into contact with the display asportrayed in Minority Report17
Biometrics• The use of retinal eye scanners and biometricsis present in todays technologies.• Physiological biometrics refers too usingphysical traits of a person, such asfingerprints, the iris i.e., passports• Behavioural biometrics is about individualspsychology including voice, typing rhythm andgait recognition
When will Moore’s end?Moores law is the numberof transistors that can beplaced inexpensively onan integrated circuit hasdoubled approximately everytwo yearsPredictions about the deathof Moores Law have beenwrong several times, too. In1978, IBM scientists predictedMoores Law had only 10years left. When they got to1988, they said it would endin 10 years again. (Kanellos2005)20Optical computing uses lightbeams to store information andperform computations. Asconventional silicon-basedelectronic processors reachtheoretical limits, opticalcomputers present an attractivealternative, because they aremuch faster and energyefficient. (Techcast 2010)
21What is the Future of Visitor Information Centres?
Technology and LifeEight Net Gen Norms• They want freedom in everything they do, from freedomof choice to freedom of expression• They love to customise, personalise• They are the new scrutinizers• They look for corporate integrity and openness whendeciding what to buy and where to work• The Net Gen wants entertainment and play in their work,education, and social life• They are the collaboration and relationship generation• The Net Gen has a need for speed – and not just in videogames• They are the innovators24
Artificial IntelligenceSince 1950 when Alan Turingdefined the ‘Turing Test’ in whichcomputers are indistinguishablefrom human behaviour. Artificialintelligence has proven to theillusive holy grail of technologyforecasters. Computers havebeaten chess masters and chattedwith humans. But when will wereach singularity? The point whenthe processing power of thecomputer surpasses the humanbrain.25
Artificial Intelligence26Adaptive Inc, is an artificialgeneral intelligence system thatcan conduct smart intelligenceconservations with you.SmartActionIVR monitors theconversation for mood, degree ofcertainty, learns how to respondand even ask you on a dateGoogle’s cross-languagesearch can retrieve resultsin another by providingautomatic translationservices
Artificial Intelligence27Adaptive Inc, is an artificialgeneral intelligence system thatcan conduct smart intelligenceconservations with you.SmartActionIVR monitors theconversation for mood, degree ofcertainty, learns how to respondand even ask you on a dateGoogle’s cross-languagesearch can retrieve resultsin another by providingautomatic translationservices
Can I read your mind?28DAPRA’s Silent Talk. The goal is to“allow user-to-user communication onthe battlefield without the use ofvocalized speech through analysis ofneural signals.” This is were telepathybecomes real.
A brain–computer interface (BCI), sometimes calleda direct neural interface or a brain–machineinterface, is a direct communication pathwaybetween a brain and an external device. BCI’s areoften aimed at assisting, augmenting or repairinghuman cognitive or sensory-motor function.Avatar: Artificial bodies operatedwirelessly by thought alone
Haptic Technologies30The concept of haptictechnology builds on theusers’ sense of touch,allowing them to touch andfeel objects within thevirtual real. (Yeoman 2011)Hatsune Miku
Concluding remarks..• The internet has changed everything and themobile changing everything again.• Ubiquitous computing brings the computerinto your domain as the ‘internet ofeverything’• Virtual reality, augmented reality and gesturalinterfaces brings us to the world of ‘liminalworlds’