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Argument styles condensed


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Argument styles condensed

  1. 1. Argument Styles:<br />Notes on Chapter 7, Everything’s an Argument<br />
  2. 2. What are these things?<br />Classical Oration<br />Rogerian Argumentation<br />Toulmin Argumentation<br />Warrants<br />
  3. 3. The classical oration:<br />Exordium: intro<br />Narratio: facts and context<br />Partitio: Division into claim and key issues<br />Confirmatio: Support for the claim (logos)<br />Refutatio: Counterarguments <br />Peroratio: Summary<br />
  4. 4. A modern version:<br />Intro: Hook, Ethos, Claim<br />Background: Necessary context and facts<br />Argument: Logos/pathos to support the claim<br />Alternatives: Counterarguments stated and/or refuted<br />Conclusion: Summary, elaborate implications, closing<br />
  5. 5. The Rogerian Model:<br />Introduction: describe an issue and demonstrate understanding of multiple sides<br />Contexts: acknowledge situations in which alternative positions may be valid<br />Writer’s position: State claim and explain its validity—i.e., logos<br />Benefits to opponent: Reasons to adopt the the writer’s position, conclusion<br />
  6. 6. The Toulmin Model:<br />Claims: controversial and debatable: answers the question, “So what’s your point?”<br />Evidence/Reasons: Logos. <br />Warrants: Logical bridge between the claim and the evidence.<br />Backing: Further support for the arguments of the warrant itself.<br />Qualifiers: Limit the scope of the claim<br />Conditions of rebuttal: Counterarguments<br />
  7. 7. <ul><li>Warrant
  8. 8. Restriction
  9. 9. Backing
  10. 10. Claim
  11. 11. Qualifier
  12. 12. Data</li></li></ul><li>
  13. 13. From Jim Dwyer, in the New York Times from Jan 5:<br />“It is winter. A third of the city is poor. And unworn clothing is being destroyed nightly.”<br />