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1 © Nokia 2016
Experiences in the Development and Usage
of a Privacy Requirements Framework
Public
Dr. Ian Oliver
Security...
2 © Nokia 2016
Contents
Public
• Introduction
• Ontology
• Requirements Framework
• Tool Support
• Practice
• Conclusions ...
3 © Nokia 2016
Introduction
Public
• Privacy is Important (alledgedly)
• Regulated”: GDPR, Safe Harbour, Privacy Shield
• ...
4 © Nokia 2016
Lawyers & Engineers
Public
• Legal meet Engineering, Engineering meet Legal...
5 © Nokia 2016
Lawyers & Engineers
Public
• Legal meet Engineering, Engineering meet Legal...
• Privacy Lawyer: ”Do you co...
6 © Nokia 2016
Lawyers & Engineers
Public
• Legal meet Engineering, Engineering meet Legal...
• Privacy Lawyer: ”Do you co...
7 © Nokia 2016
Lawyers & Engineers
Public
• I’m not saying that this is an ontological problem but...
”Privacy by Design” ...
8 © Nokia 2016
Public
Ontologies – Information Type
9 © Nokia 2016
Public
• Requirements
• Ontology & Semantics
• Modelling
• Metrics
• Culture
What’s the semantics of an IP
...
10 © Nokia 2016
Public
Ontologies - Usage
11 © Nokia 2016
Public
Ontologies – Data Flow Modelling
12 © Nokia 2016
Public
Ontologies – Requirements Aspects
13 © Nokia 2016
Public
Requirements Framework
x
y
z
More dimensions possible...
14 © Nokia 2016
Public
Requirements Framework
15 © Nokia 2016
Public
• find(e,a,d) -> set(Req)
• e – ontology element
• a – requirment aspect
• s - context
• Empty Resu...
16 © Nokia 2016
Public
• Excel & Word 
• Ontologies in OWL/RDF
• RDF Database back-end
• Individual projects extract a se...
17 © Nokia 2016
Public
• Policy Level Requirements
• Formalisation of legal texts
• Suprisingly sparse and generic
• Inter...
18 © Nokia 2016
Public
• Communication & Culture
• Safety-critical systems and Compliance
• Risk Management
• Privacy Metr...
Experiences in the Development and Usage of a Privacy Requirements Framework
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Experiences in the Development and Usage of a Privacy Requirements Framework

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Any reasonable implementation of privacy requirements
can not be made through legal compliance alone. The
belief that a software system can be developed without privacy
being an integral concept, or that a privacy policy is sufficient
as requirements or compliance check is at best dangerous for
the users, customers and business involved. While requirements frameworks exist, the specialisation of these into the privacy domain have not been made in such a manner that they unify both the legal and engineering domains. In order to achieve this one must develop ontological structures to aid communication between these domains, provide a commonly acceptable semantics and a framework by which requirements expressed at different levels of abstractness can be linked together and support refinement. An effect of this is to almost completely remove the terms ‘personal data’ and ‘PII’ from common usage and force a deeper understanding of the data and information being processed. Once such a structure is in place - even if just
partially or sparsely populated - provides a formal framework by
which not only requirements can be obtained, their application
(or not) be justified and a proper risk analysis made. This
has further advantages in that privacy requirements and their
potential implementations can be explored through the software
development process and support ideas such as agile methods
and ‘DevOps’ rather than being an ‘add-on’ exercise - a privacy
impact assessment - poorly executed at inappropriate times.

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Experiences in the Development and Usage of a Privacy Requirements Framework

  1. 1. 1 © Nokia 2016 Experiences in the Development and Usage of a Privacy Requirements Framework Public Dr. Ian Oliver Security Research Group Nokia Bell Labs, Finland 15 September 2016 RE’16 Beijing
  2. 2. 2 © Nokia 2016 Contents Public • Introduction • Ontology • Requirements Framework • Tool Support • Practice • Conclusions / Future work
  3. 3. 3 © Nokia 2016 Introduction Public • Privacy is Important (alledgedly) • Regulated”: GDPR, Safe Harbour, Privacy Shield • Telecommunication Law, Health, Financial Law, Child Protection • National Security (LI) • Behavioural Profiling... • or we missed the singularity playing Pokemon Go...?
  4. 4. 4 © Nokia 2016 Lawyers & Engineers Public • Legal meet Engineering, Engineering meet Legal...
  5. 5. 5 © Nokia 2016 Lawyers & Engineers Public • Legal meet Engineering, Engineering meet Legal... • Privacy Lawyer: ”Do you collect any personal data/PII?” • Engineer: ”No”
  6. 6. 6 © Nokia 2016 Lawyers & Engineers Public • Legal meet Engineering, Engineering meet Legal... • Privacy Lawyer: ”Do you collect any personal data/PII?” • Engineer: ”Yes” • Privacy Lawyer: ”You need to be compliant, here are the requirements:”
  7. 7. 7 © Nokia 2016 Lawyers & Engineers Public • I’m not saying that this is an ontological problem but... ”Privacy by Design” C++/Java/...
  8. 8. 8 © Nokia 2016 Public Ontologies – Information Type
  9. 9. 9 © Nokia 2016 Public • Requirements • Ontology & Semantics • Modelling • Metrics • Culture What’s the semantics of an IP address? Which interpretation(s) do you want? ....and when?....and why? Ontologies – Information Type
  10. 10. 10 © Nokia 2016 Public Ontologies - Usage
  11. 11. 11 © Nokia 2016 Public Ontologies – Data Flow Modelling
  12. 12. 12 © Nokia 2016 Public Ontologies – Requirements Aspects
  13. 13. 13 © Nokia 2016 Public Requirements Framework x y z More dimensions possible...
  14. 14. 14 © Nokia 2016 Public Requirements Framework
  15. 15. 15 © Nokia 2016 Public • find(e,a,d) -> set(Req) • e – ontology element • a – requirment aspect • s - context • Empty Results • Refinement Properties • Initial Population • (Un-)necessity of a populated matrix • Spareness • Formal Semantics • Requirements text • Requirements framework Requirements Framework - Rules
  16. 16. 16 © Nokia 2016 Public • Excel & Word  • Ontologies in OWL/RDF • RDF Database back-end • Individual projects extract a set of requirements and process locally • local reasoning, eg: ID->LOC • Tracability, GORE • Integration • SDElements • Jira Tool Support
  17. 17. 17 © Nokia 2016 Public • Policy Level Requirements • Formalisation of legal texts • Suprisingly sparse and generic • Interesting omissions • Architectural Level • Exceedingly sparse • Patterns and reference to guideline material • More accepted by engineers (language change) • Post-priori requirements elicidation • Resistance, ”Agility”, Education • Over-constrainment (Retrenchment) • Data Flow Modelling & Reasoning Practice Ian Oliver. Privacy Engineering: A Dataflow and Ontological Approach CreateSpace / Amazon ISBN: 978-1497569713
  18. 18. 18 © Nokia 2016 Public • Communication & Culture • Safety-critical systems and Compliance • Risk Management • Privacy Metrics • Ontologies => Metric Spaces; Refinement => Distance • Formal Semantics • Everything is an algebra/topological (metric) space • Ontologise everything • Ontology fragility is a myth Conclusions/Future Work Ian Oliver and Yoan Miche (2016) On the Development of A Metric for Quality of Information Content over Anonymised Data-Sets. Quatic 2016, Lisbon, Portugal

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