Android and Android Phones. Oblepias, Ian Lorenz SY1219 http://www.slideshare.net/ianoblepias
What is Android ?Android, This word means a lot in present High-TechWorld. Today Smartphone are known for its operatingsystem which is Android. Earlier there is no option foroperating systems like Android in mobile, as usual thereare Symbian, java featured operating systems but todaythings had changed a lot, everyone wants a Smartphonewhich is functioned on Android only. Even if someone asksme that what smartphone would i should buy? I suggestthem to buy a one which consist of android in it with latestversion no matter what’s the cost. In a very short span oftime android created a reputed place in the market.
What is this Android actually? Android is a software cluster for mobile devices thatincludes an operating system OS, key applications andmiddleware. The Android SDK provides the tools and APIsrequired to begin developing applications on the Androidplatform using the Java programming language. About thedesign, Kernal of Android is based on Linux kernal and furtherfurnished by Google. Android doesn’t have a essential X WindowSystem nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries,which makes it difficult to port existing Linux applications orlibraries to Android.
After that on 12, November 2007 Android beta SDK wasreleased. Many of you thinking what is SDK? its a SoftwareDevelopment Kit which gives you platform to make new applications,games and other Software. With proper knowledge you can make anyapplication according to your will. On 23 September, 2008 the first Android device is launched,that is HTC Dream G1 which operates Android 1.0,and after thatandroid shows 1.1 update which was released for T-Mobile G1 only. On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a bunch ofseveral companies which include Broadcom Corporation, Google, HTC,Intel, LG, Marvell Technology Group, Motorola, Nvidia, Qualcomm,Samsung Electronics, Sprint Nextel, T-Mobile and Texas Instrumentsexpose themselves in front of media itself. The aim of the OpenHandset Alliance is to develop open standards for mobile devices. Onthe same day, the Open Handset Alliance also unveiled their firstproduct, Android, a mobile device platform which is built on the Linuxkernel (version 2.6). On 9 December, 2008 14 new members accompany, includingARM Holdings, Asustek Computer Inc, Garmin Ltd, HuaweiTechnologies, PacketVideo, Atheros Communications, Vodafone, SonyEricsson, Toshiba Corp.
History Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California inOctober 2003 by Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger),[Rich Miner(co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc.),Nick Sears(onceVP at T-Mobile),and Chris White (headed design and interfacedevelopment at WebTV) to develop, in Rubins words "smartermobile devices that are more aware of its owners location andpreferences". Despite the past accomplishments of the foundersand early employees, Android Inc. operated secretly, revealingonly that it was working on software for mobile phones. Thatsame year, Rubin ran out of money. Steve Perlman, a closefriend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope andrefused a stake in the company.[
On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, aconsortium of technology companies including Google, devicemanufacturers such as HTC and Samsung, wireless carriers such asSprint Nextel and T-Mobile, and chipset makers such as Qualcommand Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop openstandards for mobile devices. That day, Android was unveiled as itsfirst product, a mobile device platform built on the Linux kernelversion 2.6.The first commercially available phone to run Android wasthe HTC Dream, released on October 22, 2008. Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which haveincrementally improved the operating system, adding new featuresand fixing bugs in previous releases. Each major release is named inalphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat; for example, version1.5 Cupcake was followed by 1.6 Donut. The latest release is 4.2 JellyBean. In 2010, Google launched its Nexus series of devices—a line ofsmartphones and tablets running the Android operating system, andbuilt by a manufacturer partner. HTC collaborated with Google torelease the first Nexus smartphone, the Nexus One. The series hassince been updated with newer devices, such as the Nexus 4 phoneand Nexus 10 tablet, made by LG and Samsung, respectively. Googlereleases the Nexus phones and tablets to act as their flagship Androiddevices, demonstrating Androids latest software and hardwarefeatures.
InterfaceAndroids user interface is based on direct manipulation usingtouch inputs that loosely correspond to real-world actions, likeswiping, tapping, pinching and reverse pinching to manipulateon-screen objects. The response to user input is designed to beimmediate and provides a fluid touch interface, often using thevibration capabilities of the device to provide haptic feedback tothe user. Internal hardware such as accelerometers, gyroscopesand proximity sensors are used by some applications to respondto additional user actions, for example adjusting the screen fromportrait to landscape depending on how the device is oriented,or allowing the user to steer a vehicle in a racing game byrotating the device, simulating control of a steering wheel.
Android devices boot to the home screen, the primarynavigation and information point on the device, which is similarto the desktop found on PCs. Android home screen are typicallymade up of app icons and widgets; app icons launch theassociated app, whereas widgets display live, auto-updatingcontent such as the weather forecast, the users email inbox, ora news ticker directly on the home screen. A home screen maybe made up of several pages that the user can swipe back andforth between, though Androids home screen interface isheavily customizable, allowing the user to adjust the look andfeel of the device to their tastes. Third party apps available onGoogle Play and other app stores can extensively re-theme thehome screen, and even mimic the look of other operatingsystems, such as Windows Phone. Most manufacturers, andsome wireless carriers, customize the look and feel of theirAndroid devices to differentiate themselves from thecompetition.
Present along the top of the screen is a status bar, showinginformation about the device and its connectivity. This status barcan be "pulled" down to reveal a notification screen where appsdisplay important information or updates, such as a newlyreceived email or SMS text, in a way that doesnt immediatelyinterrupt or inconvenience the user. In early versions of Androidthese notifications could be tapped to open the relevantapp, but recent updates have provided enhancedfunctionality, such as the ability to call a number back directlyfrom the missed call notification without having to open thedialer app first. Notifications are persistent until read ordismissed by the user.
Open Source CommunityAndroid has an active community of developers and enthusiastswho use the Android source code to develop and distribute theirown modified versions of the operating system. Thesecommunity-developed releases often bring new features andupdates to devices faster than through the officialmanufacturer/carrier channels, albeit without as extensivetesting or quality assurance; provide continued support for olderdevices that no longer receive official updates; or bring Androidto devices that were officially released running other operatingsystems, such as the HP Touchpad. Community releases oftencome pre-rooted and contain modifications unsuitable for non-technical users, such as the ability to overclock or over thedevices processor. Cyanogen Mod is the most widely usedcommunity firmware, and acts as a foundation for numerousothers.
Historically, device manufacturers and mobile carriers have typicallybeen unsupportive of third-party firmware development.Manufacturers express concern about improper functioning of devicesrunning unofficial software and the support costs resulting from this.Moreover, modified firmware such as Cyanogen Mod sometimes offerfeatures, such as tethering, for which carriers would otherwise chargea premium. As a result, technical obstacles including locked bootloaders and restricted access to root permissions are common in manydevices. However, as community-developed software has grown morepopular, and following a statement by the Librarian of Congress in theUnited States that permits the "jail breaking" of mobiledevices, manufacturers and carriers have softened their positionregarding third party development, with some, includingHTC, Motorola, Samsung and Sony providing support and encouragingdevelopment. As a result of this, over time the need to circumventhardware restrictions to install unofficial firmware has lessened as anincreasing number of devices are shipped with unlocked bootloaders, similar to the Nexus series of phones, although usuallyrequiring that users waive their devices warranties to do so.However, despite manufacturer acceptance, some carriers in the USstill require that phones are locked down.
Foundation:Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, United States inOctober 2003 by Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger),Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc.),Nick Sears (once VP at T-Mobile),and Chris White (headed design and interface development atWebTV) to develop, in Rubins words "...smarter mobile devices thatare more aware of its owners location and preferences". Despite theobvious past accomplishments of the founders and early employees,Android Inc. operated secretly, revealing only that it was working onsoftware for mobile phones. That same year, Rubin ran out of money.Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash inan envelope and refused a stake in the company.
Google acquisition:• Google acquired Android Inc. on August 17, 2005, making Android Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary of Google. Key employees of Android Inc., including Andy Rubin, Rich Miner and Chris White, stayed at the company after the acquisition. Not much was known about Android Inc. at the time of the acquisition, but many assumed that Google was planning to enter the mobile phone market with this move.• At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradable system. Google had lined up a series of hardware component and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation on their part.• Speculation about Googles intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. Reports from the BBC and The Wall Street Journal noted that Google wanted its search and applications on mobile phones and it was working hard to deliver that. Print and online media outlets soon reported rumors that Google was developing a Google-branded handset. Some speculated that as Google was defining technical specifications, it was showing prototypes to cell phone manufacturers and network operators.• In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony.
Open Handset Alliance:• On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of several companies which include Broadcom Corporation, Google, HTC, Intel, LG, Marvell Technology Group, Motorola, Nvidia, Qualcomm, Samsung Electronics, Sprint Nextel, T-Mobile and Texas Instruments unveiled itself. The goal of the Open Handset Alliance is to develop open standards for mobile devices. On the same day, the Open Handset Alliance also unveiled its first product, Android, a mobile device platform built on the Linux kernel version 2.6.• On December 9, 2008, 14 new members joined, including ARM Holdings, Atheros Communications, Asustek Computer Inc, Garmin Ltd, Huawei Technologies, PacketVideo, Softbank, Sony Ericsson, Toshiba Corp, and Vodafone Group Plc.
Linux:• Androids kernel is based on the Linux kernel and has further architecture changes by Google outside the typical Linux kernel development cycle. Android does not have a native X Window System by default nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries, and this makes it difficult to port existing Linux applications or libraries to Android.• Certain features that Google contributed back to the Linux kernel, notably a power management feature called wake locks, were rejected by mainline kernel developers, partly because kernel maintainers felt that Google did not show any intent to maintain their own code. Even though Google announced in April 2010 that they would hire two employees to work with the Linux kernel community, Greg Kroah-Hartman, the current Linux kernel maintainer for the -stable branch, said in December 2010 that he was concerned that Google was no longer trying to get their code changes included in mainstream Linux. Some Google Android developers hinted that "the Android team was getting fed up with the process", because they were a small team and had more urgent work to do on Android.
• Java support While most Android applications are written in Java, there is no Java Virtual Machine in the platform and Java byte code is not executed. Java classes are compiled into Dalvik executables and run on Dalvik, a specialized virtual machine designed specifically for Android and optimized for battery-powered mobile devices with limited memory and CPU. J2ME support can be provided via third-party applications.•Media support Android supports the following audio/video/still media formats: WebM, H.263, H.264 (in 3GP or MP4 container), MPEG-4 SP, AMR, AMR-WB (in 3GP container), AAC, HE-AAC (in MP4 or 3GP container), MP3, MIDI, Ogg Vorbis, FLAC, WAV, JPEG, PNG, GIF, BMP, WebP.•Streaming media support RTP/RTSP streaming (3GPP PSS, ISMA), HTML progressive download (HTML5 <video> tag). Adobe Flash Streaming (RTMP) and HTTP Dynamic Streaming are supported by the Flash plugin. Apple HTTP Live Streaming is supported by RealPlayer for Android, and by the operating system in Android 3.0 (Honeycomb).•Additional hardware support Android can use video/still cameras, touch screens, GPS, accelerometers, gyroscopes, barometers, magnetometers, dedicated gaming controls, proximity and pressure sensors, thermometers, accelerated 2D bit blits (with hardware orientation, scaling, pixel format conversion) and accelerated 3D graphics.
•Multi-touch Android has native support for multi-touch which was initially made available in handsets such as the HTC Hero. The feature was originally disabled at the kernel level (possibly to avoid infringing Apples patents on touch-screen technology at the time). Google has since released an update for the Nexus One and the Motorola Droid which enables multi-touch natively. Supports A2DP, AVRCP, sending files (OPP), accessing the phone book (PBAP), voice dialing and sending contacts between phones. Keyboard, mouse and joystick (HID) support is available in Android 3.1+, and in earlier versions through manufacturer customizations and third-party applications.•Video calling Android does not support native video calling, but some handsets have a customized version of the operating system that supports it, either via the UMTS network (like the Samsung Galaxy S) or over IP. Video calling through Google Talk is available in Android 2.3.4 and later. Gingerbread allows Nexus S to place Internet calls with a SIP account. This allows for enhanced VoIP dialing to other SIP accounts and even phone numbers. Skype 2.1 offers video calling in Android 2.3, including front camera support.•Multitasking Multitasking of applications, with unique handling of memory allocation, is available.•Voice based features Google search through voice has been available since initial release. Voice actions for calling, texting, navigation, etc. are supported on Android 2.2 onwards.
•Tethering Android supports tethering, which allows a phone to be used as a wireless/wired Wi-Fi hotspot. Before Android 2.2 this was supported by third-party applications or manufacturer customizations.•Screen capture Android supports capturing a screenshot by pressing the power and volume-down buttons at the same time. Prior to Android 4.0, the only methods of capturing a screenshot were through manufacturer and third- party customizations or otherwise by using a PC connection (DDMS developers tool). These alternative methods are still available with the latest Android.•External storage Most Android devices include micro SD slot and can read micro SD cards formatted with FAT32, Ext3 or Ext4 file system. To allow use of high- capacity storage media such as USB flash drives and USB HDDs, many Android tablets also include USB A receptacle. Storage formatted with FAT32 is handled by Linux Kernel VFAT driver, while 3rd party solutions are required to handle other popular file systems such as NTFS, HFS Plus and exFAT.
Uses: While Android is designed primarily for smartphones andtablets, the open and customizable nature of the operating systemallows it to be used on other electronics, including laptops andnetbooks, smart books, e-book readers, and smart TVs (Google TV).Further, the OS has seen niche applications on wristwatches,headphones, car CD and DVD players, smart glasses (Project Glass),refrigerators, vehicle satnav systems, home automation systems,games consoles, mirrors, cameras, portable media players, landlines,and treadmills. The first commercially available phone to run Android was theHTC Dream, released on October 22, 2008. In early 2010 Googlecollaborated with HTC to launch its flagship Android device, the NexusOne. This was followed later in 2010 with the Samsung-made Nexus Sand in 2011 with the Galaxy Nexus. iOS and Android 2.3.3 Gingerbread may be set up to dual booton a jail broken iPhone or iPod Touch with the help of OpeniBoot andiDroid. In December 2011 it was announced the Pentagon hasofficially approved Android for use by its personnel.
Respectfully Submitted To: Prof. Erwin Globio MSIT