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GCSE Film Studies Coursework introduction to creating a script & screenplay writing a teen film

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A free download (available from my website at sellfy.com/iandoublem) of a KeyNote and PowerPoint presentation that includes 80+ slides of information and guidance as to writing a screenplay.
You can download directly from here: https://sellfy.com/p/mgb4/
Designed to introduce both the coursework as a task and screenplay writing itself, this KeyNote includes details on:

What a screenplay/script is
The conventions of layout and presentation
How to write effective openings
How dialogue should be used
Generic conventions overall
The specific generic conventions of a teen film
Film clips with examples of teen films
Clips of films with poor/effective openings
Activities for planning and
Much, much more.

A few things to point out: I use a LOT of custom fonts and therefore these may not show on your downloaded version. I cannot include them as separate files to constraints on the license I purchased for these fonts. If they do not display accurately KeyNote/PowerPoint should substitute something else in, resulting in a somewhat messy layout! A PDF has been included for reference, as this will contain the correctly formatted and presented layout. As well as this, I created it in KeyNote and exported to PowerPoint, so again, some issues of layout/presentation may occur. Similarly, the video files may not have copied across in the conversion. The whole document was designed with my own students in mind, meaning that the document is geared towards a teen film and references films we have studied so will need editing to suit your plans. Finally, issues of copyright: the professional screenplays documents that are used as examples cannot be shared due to copyright reasons but can be easily be found online. Similarly, the 'top band' screenplay example I provide was written for Eduqas as an exemplar so I cannot share that on here, but you should be able to source a copy from them (or zoom in and make your own copy). However, the planning documents are hosted online with Eduqas and can be found as part of the Guide to Screenplay writing I created for them here: http://resources.eduqas.co.uk/Pages/ResourceSingle.aspx?rIid=1036

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GCSE Film Studies Coursework introduction to creating a script & screenplay writing a teen film

  1. 1. GCSE FILM STUDIES: THE NEA (COURSEWORK)
  2. 2. BREAKDOWN OF MARKS: Component 1: Key Developments in US Film Written examination: 1 hour 30 minutes
 35% of qualification.
  3. 3. BREAKDOWN OF MARKS: Component 1: Key Developments in US Film Written examination: 1 hour 30 minutes
 35% of qualification. Component 2: Global Film: Narrative, Representation and Film Style Written examination: 1 hour 30 minutes
 35% of qualification.
  4. 4. BREAKDOWN OF MARKS: Component 1: Key Developments in US Film Written examination: 1 hour 30 minutes
 35% of qualification. Component 2: Global Film: Narrative, Representation and Film Style Written examination: 1 hour 30 minutes
 35% of qualification. Component 3: Production Non-exam assessment 30% of qualification.
  5. 5. BREAKDOWN OF MARKS: Component 1: Key Developments in US Film Written examination: 1 hour 30 minutes
 35% of qualification (70 marks). Component 2: Global Film: Narrative, Representation and Film Style Written examination: 1 hour 30 minutes
 35% of qualification (70 marks). Component 3: Production Non-exam assessment 30% of qualification (60 marks).
  6. 6. COMPONENT 3:
  7. 7. TASK: To create one piece of production work (to begin with): a screenplay.
  8. 8. TASK: To create one piece of production work: a screenplay. Your screenplay will NOT be an entire film. Instead, it will be an extract, meaning just one part of a film. The extract must take the form of one of the following two options: 
 • the opening of the film or • an extract from any part of the film which creates suspense and tension.
  9. 9. TASK:To create one piece of production work: a screenplay. The extract must take the form of one of the following two options: 
 • the opening of the film or • an extract from any part of the film which creates suspense and tension. 
 The extract must be between 800 and 1000 words. It must be accompanied by a shooting script of a key section from the screenplay (approximately 1 minute of screen time, corresponding to approximately one page of screenplay).
  10. 10. To create one piece of production work: a screenplay. As well as this, you will then produce an evaluative analysis of between 750 and 850 words. 
 This will include reference to: 
 the aims of the genre film extract (the chosen genre of the production, its main audience); 
 an indication of how key aspects from approximately three genre films have influenced the production (which may include genre films studied during the course);
 an analysis of the production in relation to comparable, professionally-produced genre films. TASK:
  11. 11. WHY NO FILM? You can’t make a film without a script! Every film has a script; actors need lines, dialogue needs to be written in advance, descriptions of locations and actions needs to be prepared-and this is where the script comes in. We’re going to write our screenplays and then if you have time, you will be able to make a film. There is a LOT of work involved though, so for now, let’s concentrate on creating some brilliant screenplays.
  12. 12. SCREENPLAY OR SCRIPT?? The purposes of this task, they mean the same thing. However, a screenplay is slightly more accurate as it is the term used in the film industry. While a script tends to focus just on dialogue; a screenplay describes the dialogue and the action we see on screen.
  13. 13. ANYTHING ELSE? Your screenplay extract MUST be written by YOU and MUST be from one of the following genres of film: crime; science fiction; war; horror; the teenage film or the musical.
  14. 14. ANYTHING ELSE? Your screenplay extract MUST be written by YOU and MUST be from one of the following genres of film: crime; science fiction; war; horror; the teenage film or the musical. WHICH OF THESE HAVE WE STUDIED?
  15. 15. WHICH OF THESE HAVE WE STUDIED? science fiction; the teenage film.
  16. 16. CREATING A GENRE PIECE But, we’ve seen elements of these genres in each of the films we’ve seen so far. With this in mind-steal what you’ve seen/discovered/ learned. crime; science fiction; war; horror; the teenage film. WRITE WHAT YOU KNOW.
  17. 17. YOUR SCREENPLAY WILL BE A: teenage film
  18. 18. TEEN FILMS We will be watching many more of these next year, but we’ve already seen two films which have teenagers as the lead characters. These films however, aren’t necessarily indicative of the ‘traditional’ teen film.
  19. 19. WHAT IS A TEEN FILM? Teen film is a film genre targeted at teenagers and young adults in which the plot is based upon the special interests of teenagers and young adults, such as coming of age, attempting to fit in, peer pressure, first love, rebellion, conflict with parents, teen angst or alienation. Often these normally serious subject matters are presented in a glossy, stereotyped or trivialised way. For legal reasons, many teenage characters are portrayed by young adults. Some teen films appeal to young males while others appeal to young females. Films in this genre are often set in high schools and colleges or contain characters that are of high school or college age.
  20. 20. WHAT IS A TEEN FILM? Teen film is a film genre targeted at teenagers and young adults in which the plot is based upon the special interests of teenagers and young adults, such as coming of age, attempting to fit in, peer pressure, first love, rebellion, conflict with parents, teen angst or alienation. Often these normally serious subject matters are presented in a glossy, stereotyped or trivialised way. For legal reasons, many teenage characters are portrayed by young adults. Some teen films appeal to young males while others appeal to young females. Films in this genre are often set in high schools and colleges or contain characters that are of high school or college age. DO ATTACK THE BLOCK OR TSOTSI FIT THIS DESCRIPTION?
  21. 21. WHAT IS A TEEN FILM? Teen film is a film genre targeted at teenagers and young adults in which the plot is based upon the special interests of teenagers and young adults, such as coming of age, attempting to fit in, peer pressure, first love, rebellion, conflict with parents, teen angst or alienation. Often these normally serious subject matters are presented in a glossy, stereotyped or trivialised way. For legal reasons, many teenage characters are portrayed by young adults. Some teen films appeal to young males while others appeal to young females. Films in this genre are often set in high schools and colleges or contain characters that are of high school or college age.
  22. 22. TEEN FILMS Can anyone name any teen films?
  23. 23. TEEN FILMS
  24. 24. CODES & CONVENTIONS (Meaning, the key aspect of the narrative, film language or themes that we see across the genre, i.e; in more than one film in a genre)
  25. 25. CODES & CONVENTIONS These vary depending on the cultural context of the film, but they can include proms, alcohol, illegal substances, high school, parties, losing one's virginity, teen pregnancy, social groups and cliques, interpersonal conflict with peers and/or the older generations, fitting in, peer pressure, and American pop culture (music, shopping, playing sports, ‘hanging out’).
  26. 26. CODES & CONVENTIONSThese vary depending on the cultural context of the film, but they can include proms, alcohol, illegal substances, high school, parties, losing one's virginity, teen pregnancy, social groups and cliques, interpersonal conflict with peers and/or the older generations, fitting in, peer pressure, and American pop culture (music, shopping, playing sports, ‘hanging out’). Apart from the characters, there are many other codes and conventions of teen film. These films are often set in or around high schools and places frequented by teens such as shopping malls and themed restaurants, as this allows for many different social cliques to be shown. This is different in hybrid teen films, but for the classic romantic comedy teen film, this is almost always the case.
  27. 27. STEREOTYPESA stereotype is an over-generalised belief about a particular category of people. Stereotypes are generalised because one assumes that the stereotype is true for each individual person in the category. Such generalisations are useful when making quick decisions, however they may be erroneous when applied to a particular individuals. Stereotypes create a barrier that leads to prejudice, making one assume they know a person just based on a stereotype.
  28. 28. STEREOTYPESHere are some of the classic stereotypes from teen films: The Jock / Cheerleader School Diva (Alternately The ‘It' Girl) The Geek / Nerd The Rebel The Misfit / Outcast The Boy / Girl next door The New Girl / Boy The Loner The Band Geek Class Hottie Class Clown The Stoner The Athlete The Queen Bee
  29. 29. STEREOTYPES
  30. 30. STEREOTYPES
  31. 31. TIME TO START PLANNING YOUR FILM
  32. 32. THE 5 WS
  33. 33. TIME TO START PLANNING YOUR FILM 
 The five Ws Any story should contain a useful structure that is ideally, planned and considered beforehand so that it makes sense and is enjoyable to watch or read. Use the timeline below to help prepare and plan an overview of how the structure of your story could work. Who are the characters? How many are there? What are their names? What are the unique elements about each character that makes them specifically interesting or different to each other? What are each of the characters trying to do? Why should be care whether they succeed or not? What barriers are in their way? WHO? WHERE? Where is the story set? Ensuring that it suits the genre, does the location provide any interesting problems? Is the location typical for this type of film or different in any way? Does it have any aspect or part of it that could provide an interesting twist or focus to the story? WHEN? When is the story set? Is it a specific time period? Is it a specific date that could be on significance for a character of the audience? When does the story end? When do certain characters become involved When do things in the story change or develop-what events might act as ignition or a starting point for other moments or key sequences. WHY? Why do certain characters behave in a certain way? Why have certain events happened in a certain order? Why has the story developed in this way? Why might this effect what is happening towards the end of the film? WHAT? What could go wrong? What barriers are put in the way of the characters to stop them from achieving their desired goals? How will you make the journey for the character interesting for the audience? By the end, what has changed? Why does this change help create some form of resolution? What makes this ending a recognisable one for this genre?
  34. 34. TIME TO START PLANNING YOUR FILM WHO? WHERE? WHEN? WHY? WHAT?
  35. 35. DEVELOPING IDEAS FOR CHARACTERS
  36. 36. DEVELOPING IDEAS FOR CHARACTERS Developing ideas for characters Names: Use a name generator website or perhaps even a baby naming website or book to get ideas for your character. Ensure that it is suitable for their age and the genre. Ages: Consider this carefully-your character needs to be of a suitable age for the genre and your story, but it will also dictate what you character will be like. The older they are, the more world-weary they could be but also more knowledgeable. The younger they are they will generally be more energetic and vibrant but perhaps more naïve. Jobs: They may not have a job or may have an idea for a career that they are working towards, but a job can give the audience plenty of idea about the type of person they are. For example, someone who is a nurse will instantly tell the audience that this character is likely to be caring and selfless, whereas an assassin will be cold, calculating and quite secretive. If stuck for ideas, use the internet to research career options. Family: Deciding on family, such as number of siblings, their parents and how well they get on with them, are important elements of any character. It will give your audience an idea about what they are like as a person and why they might react in certain ways. For example, consider the difference between an older character put the needs of their wife or husband before themselves compared to a young, orphaned teenager. Aspirations: What goals, dreams or hopes does your character have? Do they have grand dreams that will never happen but that make your character a day dreamer and a fantasist, or is your character a driven workaholic who is so driven to achieving their goals that they sacrifice everything to achieve them? Characters need to be complicated, multi-faceted people in order for an audience to believe in them and care about them Come up with a range of ideas for each of these areas to help you decide upon the most suitable and believable ideas for your own characters. Barriers: What things can you put in place to stop your character achieving their goals or dreams? If your chosen genre is crime film and the goal of the character is to rob a bank, what can you do as a writer to stop the character? Maybe you’re creating a horror film and the main character’s main goal is to stop a serial killer; how can you put barriers in the way to make that difficult for the character and therefore, making the film more interesting to watch?
  37. 37. STUCK? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 tired fast slow excited awake different lucky hysterical impudent 2 spiteful incomparable young unpleasant eager great proficient fussy expert 3 unpredictable suspicious flexible admirable forgiving kooky excellent gullible helpful 4 important vulgar conceited peculiar awful tough dim disgusting joyful 5 odd boring touchy meticulous maverick thin successful short kind 6 retired plucky lonely modest considerate forgetful selfish infuriating meek 7 unbelievable evil direct noble enthusiastic ferocious spontaneous boisterous virtuous 8 wonderful stressed accommodating terrible elderly violent unlucky unassuming optimistic 9 fanatical strange positive fierce ominous naive prepared vain notorious Adjectives
  38. 38. NOW YOU HAVE YOUR CHARACTERS
  39. 39. 3 ACT STRUCTUREThe three-act structure is a way of examining narrative fiction that divides a story into three parts or acts. These 3 acts are often called the Setup, the Confrontation and the Resolution. It was Greek philosopher Aristotle who put forth the idea plays should form a single whole action or story. "A whole is what has a beginning and middle and end”. Of course, he is here discussing a Three Act structure. One way of looking at this therefore, is to refer to the Beginning, the Middle and the End of the film. This usually refers to the plot of the film, but can also be used to describe the stories in the film.
  40. 40. FIRST ACT: THE SETUP OR THE BEGINNING To identify where the First Act, the Setup or Beginning starts and ends, it’s perhaps best to consider what it is used for. The first act is usually used for exposition-another way of describing how important information such as main character names, locations and background details are explained to the audience. We also find that later in the first act, a on-screen incident occurs which forces the protagonist to deal with this situation. This is known as the inciting incident. This is where the first act ends; the protagonist has to set off on a quest or deal with something that ensures their life will never be the same again.
  41. 41. SECOND ACT: RISING ACTION OR THE MIDDLE The second act, also referred to as Rising Action shows the protagonist’s attempt to resolve the problem from the Inciting Incident. Often protagonists are unable to easily resolve their problems is because they do not yet have the skills or emotional development required to deal with the forces that confront them. The middle of the film then usually has the protagonist learning new skills but also learn about themselves. This is referred to as character development or a character arc. This usually cannot be achieved alone so the protagonist often will require help from mentors and other characters.
  42. 42. THIRD ACT: THE RESOLUTION OR THE ENDING The third act features the resolution of most of the stories and the plot of the film. The climax is the scene or sequence in which the main problems of the story are brought to their most intense point, often through action or an intense meeting. The inciting incident is finally dealt with in some way, with the protagonist and other characters having changed and developed in some way.
  43. 43. WRITING AN OVERVIEWAs mentioned before, your screenplay is just an extract-one small moment from a larger film. With this in mind, creating this extract is MUCH easier if you have, at least, a plan for your film. Remembering to stick to your genre and using the character/s you’ve already created, use the space below to plan the WHOLE idea for a film. Remember: a good narrative should follow the 3 Act structure that Aristotle defined, as a minimum. You may wish to consider a 5 Act structure, but for now, plan a 3 Act structure using the guidance on the worksheet.
  44. 44. PLANNING YOUR FILM
  45. 45. WRITING OPENINGS Beginnings can be difficult to write and can be easily passed over by simply revealing information that we think the audience needs to know at the start of the film. In reality, beginnings are difficult because they need to be effective; they need to hook an audience, they need to draw attention, they need to be good. Screenplays that fail to attract the interest of the audience set the rest of the film up to fail because if your audience are not invested from the first few scenes, what reason do they have to care about what happens? There are many ways to start a film and many that may not suit the screenplay you want to create so the key is identifying techniques or conventions that could be useful to you and your film and making them as good as they can be.
  46. 46. WRITING OPENINGS As a writer you also shouldn’t try to set up a story or introduce characters in a way that feels unnatural- we don’t have voice overs or on screen text in real life, so instead showcase what your characters are like by showing what they do. Similarly, don’t spend time explaining a backstory or information that isn’t important at that exact moment. If there’s something important that the audience will need to know, aim to introduce in a natural, interesting way, such as bringing it into the story and getting the characters involved with it.
  47. 47. EFFECTIVE OPENINGS The beginning of a film isn’t where you need to introduce every character and theme, every part of the story and backstory at once, it’s a place to entice an audience. To do this, have the film open with something important and to try to force your characters out of their everyday situation in some way. You need to set your characters on some journey, and quickly, by giving them a problem or an issue-give them a problem to solve. This problem can be big or small, inconsequential or important, but just make sure that you change things for your character a reason for doing something exciting and this will give your audience a reason for watching.
  48. 48. EFFECTIVE OPENINGS The difference between an effective start to a film and one that isn’t is simple: create excitement and intrigue. To do so, it’s important that you as a writer know how and where to start the story in terms of how it will lead to the end of the story.
  49. 49. SUICIDE SQUAD 1:
  50. 50. SUICIDE SQUAD 2:
  51. 51. WORLD WAR Z:
  52. 52. WRITING EFFECTIVE OPENINGS Each of you has an extract from an excellent screenplay. For each, annotate along the sides which of the techniques below has been used. Get ready to share your findings with other people and write neatly; we’ll be using these as examples for the whole class.
  53. 53. WRITING OPENINGS
  54. 54. WRITING OPENINGS Creating the opening to a film is not a simple exercise and takes many revisions and a confidence in what they are trying to communicate, but here are 5 key things that may help in creating an effective opening that you could do, rather than you shouldn’t do.
  55. 55. 1:INTRODUCE YOUR PROTAGONIST Introduce your protagonist as soon as possible. This need not be by revealing everything about the protagonist-the audience does not necessarily need to see every part of the character or learn everything about them, but provide some semblance of who they are quickly. This is most effective through action, reaction or failing this, through dialogue. What is key however is that the protagonist be introduced to the audience in some manner, quickly.
  56. 56. 2:MAKE SURE TO ESTABLISH THE GENRE Whilst generic elements can be introduced during different parts of the script to establish, maintain or even subvert genre, it can be worthwhile to include some references to genre early on. Even brief mentions of props or visual signifiers of genre that are fleeting can help establish setting and expectation for an audience.
  57. 57. 3:CREATE CONFLICT Conflict is a key elements needed throughout the entirety of any interesting script. Utilising conflict near the beginning of your script can be an effective way of establishing pace, tone and narrative and is widely used in modern filmmaking. Conflict need not be ‘large’ and could be used in something as simple as a character having to make a decision under duress or other pressures.
  58. 58. 4:SEND YOUR PROTAGONIST ON A JOURNEY Much like conflict, having a protagonist set off on some form of journey can and should be done throughout a script. However, establishing some form of journey for the protagonist early on allows an audience to engage with a quest and therefore a desire, making things interesting and creating a ‘stake’ for people to be invested in. As with conflict, a journey need not be a ‘large’ or especially important near the start of a script and could be something as straightforward as a small emotional journey or a quick physical one. So long as the journey allows an audience to appreciate how the protagonist approaches the journey it will be effective.
  59. 59. 5:MAKE IT VISUAL This one is vital for all aspects of a script. The opening, as with all parts of a script needs to be visual. Establish the strong visual nature of the script and do so at the beginning of the script to help create a style and tone for the rest of the script.
  60. 60. LAYOUT A screenplay has a very specific layout and must be followed precisely. Any deviation from this will lose you marks. The exam board states it must be:
  61. 61. LAYOUTA screenplay has a very specific layout and must be followed precisely. Any deviation from this will lose you marks. The exam board states it must be:
  62. 62. LAYOUTA screenplay has a very specific layout and must be followed precisely. Any deviation from this will lose you marks. The exam board states it must be:
  63. 63. 8 KEY FEATURES
  64. 64. 8 KEY FEATURES Overall then, there are 8 key features that your script layout and format MUST have. Luckily for you, the iPads will automatically do these for you, but you still need to understand what they are to be able to select the correct feature.
  65. 65. SCENE HEADING (ALSO KNOWN AS A SLUGLINE) he Scene Heading or Slugline tells the reader where the scene takes place. There are two main choices to begin with, are we indoors or outdoors? If it’s indoors the Scene Heading should begin with (INT.). If outdoors write (EXT.) Then, name the location: for example, BEDROOM, LIVING ROOM, at SCHOOL, near a FIELD. Finally, if relevant, include the time of day - NIGHT, DAY, DUSK, DAWN. The Scene Heading is should be a simple and direct way of setting a scene.
  66. 66. ACTION The Action sets the scene, describes the setting, and allows you to introduce your characters and set the stage for your story. Ensure that you write in the present tense. Some exceptions may be made in some instances, but even scenes like flashbacks need to be written in the present tense. Also make sure that you write in the active voice (a door slammed shut) and not the passive voice (a door is slammed shut).
  67. 67. CHARACTER NAME Character names should be formatted in uppercase letters (all caps). The first time that a character is introduced give their age, if relevant, directly afterwards. A character’s name can also be a description (ANGRY MAN) or an occupation (TEACHER). Sometimes, you might have DETECTIVE #1 and then DETECTIVE #2 speaking if they are not important characters. If the name is given to indicate that the character is about to say something, type their name on a new line, ensure that it is centralised and type the dialogue underneath, now aligned ot the left of the page.
  68. 68. DIALOGUE DIALOGUE is a generic term name given for when anyone on screen speaks. Technically, a “dialogue” should involve two people talking whereas “monologue” is the term for one person talking. For the purposes of this guide, dialogue will refer to a conversation between characters, when a character talks out loud to him/herself and also when a character is off- screen and only a voice is heard. This should not be confused with a voice over.
  69. 69. PARENTHETICAL Meaning, to include in brackets, a Parenthetical remark is used to provide more information about how a character says or does something. Generally they are adverbs and they can be an attitude, verbal direction or action direction for the actor who is speaking the part. These must be short, to the point, descriptive, and only used if there is no other way to make this point.
  70. 70. EXTENSIONS Extensions are notes placed to the right of the Character name. They are often included in parenthesis. They denote how the character's voice will be heard by the audience. An Off- Screen voice can be heard from a character out of the camera range, or from another room altogether. This can be shown on the script as O.S (off screen) or O.C (off camera). The other common extension is the use of a voice over. This is shown on a script as V.O. The V.O is the narrator, can reflect on something and/or describe something.
  71. 71. WRITING YOUR SCREENPLAY You know what a screenplay is. You’ve read some good examples. You know how a screenplay should be formatted. You know what genre your film needs to be. You’ve got an idea for a film. You’ve got ideas for your main character. Let’s start a screenplay.
  72. 72. WRITING YOUR SCREENPLAY To help, I’ve printed copies of an example screenplay. Use this to clarify some of the ideas and as an example.
  73. 73. WRITING YOUR SCREENPLAY To help, I’ve printed copies of an example screenplay. Use this to clarify some of the ideas and as an example. DO NOT COPY IT
  74. 74. WRITING YOUR SCREENPLAYTo help, I’ve printed copies of an example screenplay. Use this to clarify some of the ideas and as an example.
  75. 75. EXAMPLE TOP BAND SCREENPLAY To help, I’ve printed copies of an example screenplay. Use this to clarify some of the ideas and as an example.
  76. 76. TO BEGIN:
  77. 77. FORMATTING/STYLE
  78. 78. FORMATTING/STYLE
  79. 79. FORMATTING/STYLE
  80. 80. FORMATTING/STYLE
  81. 81. FORMATTING/STYLE
  82. 82. FORMATTING/STYLE
  83. 83. EXT or INT ? Day? Morning? Afternoon? Night? Where? SLUGLINE/SCENE HEADING
  84. 84. EXT. A large secondary school in England. Day INT. A messy bedroom. Night. EXT. Large park next to a supermarket. Afternoon. INT. Nearly empty shopping centre. Morning. EXT. Outside a newsagents. Night. SLUGLINE/SCENE HEADING
  85. 85. SLUGLINE/SCENE HEADING
  86. 86. ACTION Next: start your screenplay with some ACTION. The idea here is to paint a picture in the mid of the reader. establish where and when the film is taking place. Make the place feel alive with description and details. Try to establish genre if you can, but more than anything, make it INTERESTING!
  87. 87. ACTION
  88. 88. ACTION Your turn to write some ACTION. But not action. Save that for later. Unless you’re starting your ACTION with some action. Which is great, just make sure that it fits into the teen genre. And be careful not to include that kind of action. This isn’t THAT kind of film. Anyway:
  89. 89. DIALOGUE
  90. 90. DIALOGUE Make sure that it’s formatted correctly. STOP USING IT. Seriously. Stop using dialogue. You probably don’t need to. Consider=why is your character talking? Unless we learn something about them, don’t include dialogue. Avoid having characters tell the audience what the narrative or plot is. Do that in other ways.
  91. 91. DIALOGUE
  92. 92. PARENTHETICAL Not all speech is the same. When we speak to people, we vary our tone and the way in we address people. Situations and context affect how we say things and this, sometimes, needs reflecting in dialogue in screenplay. Using ‘brackets’, or a ‘parenthetical’, is the most economical way to do this.
  93. 93. PARENTHETICAL Notice here how the parenthetical helps to tell the audience, and the actors, how to ‘speak’ and adds extra information and detail in the dialogue. It then also informs the audience what a character is like.
  94. 94. EXTENSIONExtensions are another way to add, small amounts of added details. They are placed to the right of the character name and often included in parenthesis but do not have to be. BUT, be consistent with this. Generally, extensions aren’t used a lot. The idea of ‘added detail’ should not be needed as this should come across in your script in other ways, such as the description of action. However, if there is something you need to do or add that does not fit in any other technique, an extension can be a way to do this. For example, off-screen voices such as a voice-over or dialogue from another room, can be included as a V.O (voice over) or O.S (off screen).
  95. 95. EXTENSIONFor example, off-screen voices such as a voice-over or dialogue from another room, can be included as a V.O (voice over) or O.S (off screen). Notice how, in this example, the action/ character name, is essentially explaining where the voice is coming from anyway, but the O.S extension makes this clear.
  96. 96. AFTER ALL OF THAT… It’s now your turn…

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