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FILIPINO
PHILOSOPHY
“Pilosopiyang
Pilipino”
PHILOSOPHY OF THE
HUMAN PERSON
How the Filipino looks at
himself as an individual?
 This can be investigated from two viewpoints:
 LOOB
 THE BODY
Both...
I. LOOB
 No single English word can translate loob, the
Tagalog word for buot in Visayan and nakem
in Ilocano.
Metalingui...
Table 1 - INTELLECTUAL THEME
VISAYAN TAGALOG ILOCANO COMMON ENGLISH MEANING
Buot (motive, intention)
Kapin nga buot (ulter...
VISAYAN TAGALOG ILOCANO COMMON ENGLISH MEANING
Buot, panimuot, kalibutan
(consciousness, conscience,
awareness, degree of
...
VISAYAN TAGALOG ILOCANO COMMON ENGLISH
MEANING
Buot (wish, desire will)
Ituman ang buot mo (Your will
be done)
Pagbuot (wi...
VISAYAN TAGALOG ILOCANO COMMON ENGLISH
MEANING
Mausab ang buot (to change
attitude or feeling)
Magbago ang loob (to change...
VISAYAN TAGALOG ILOCANO COMMON ENGLISH
MEANING
Madaut ang buot (to be
discouraged, to lose
confidence)
Masira ang loob (to...
VISAYAN TAGALOG ILOCANO COMMON ENGLISH
MEANING
Loob (courage,valor)
Lakas ng loob (courage, valor)
Pakinakem (courage,valo...
VISAYAN TAGALOG ILOCAN
O
COMMON ENGLISH
MEANING
Loob, kalooban, kaloob (internal part, inside,
within)
Sa loob ng bahay (i...
Filipino Behavior
 Considering loob as ‘debt of volition’ or utang na loob.
The Tagalog proverb “Ang utang na loob ay hin...
Filipino Behavior
 Anybody without the sense of ‘debt of volition’ is considered
‘shameless’ (walang hiya) – an expressio...
Filipino Behavior
The Filipino may forgive an
insult but he carries the wound
for a long time.
That is why when Filipinos...
Loob and the Filipino Philosophy of
Man
 The metalinguistic considerations on LOOB have exceeded their
boundaries. Such i...
(1) Holistic
 Western man compartmentalizes himself. This way of thinking is
evident in expressions like ‘not letting emo...
(1) Holistic
According to Abegg, 1952 on the paper The Mind of East Asia
“. . .mention should be made of the far-reaching
...
(2) Interior
 In the Parable of Ox Mountain, Mencius, a disciple of Confucius,
teaches that man is naturally good and tha...
(2) Interior
Interiority manifests itself in freedom.
The early Filipinos always resisted being
subdued by their coloniz...
(2) Interior
Loob therefore as ethical is inseparable from
thinking, willing, and feeling.
This again demonstrates its n...
II. THE BODY
Metalinguistic Analysis
“Physiology teaches that the brain is really
the center of emotions but the heart ser...
Metalinguistic Analysis
 The nose – as in the expression ‘mataas ang ilong’ (having a
high nose) – is an expression havin...
Metalinguistic Analysis
 ‘Blood’ is as variedly used as loob. The physiological sense is
obvious in expressions like ‘hav...
Metalinguistic Analysis
 Since blood is connected with sex, it follows then
that blood is also related to kinship. Relati...
Behavior
 The Tagalogs in Bay, Laguna, believe that the blood must be in
the state of right harmony for the sake of healt...
Behavior
 The “pan-Philippine” concept of hot and cold “permeates all
facets of Filipino peasant life. The terms hot and ...
PHILOSOPHY Ø
The principle of harmony which the
Filipino tries to maintain is an another
dimension besides from the previ...
PHILOSOPHY Ø on the Soul
(dreams and death)
The formation of man includes both the development of
the physical body and bi...
PHILOSOPHY Ø on the Soul
(dreams and death)
The Visayan expression “maghilak ang
imong kalag” (your soul will weep)
confi...
Filipino PHILOSOPHY Ø in Conclusion
Filipino as individual looks at himself as
holistic from the interior dimension
under...
Filipino PHILOSOPHY Ø in Conclusion
“The Filipino looks at himself as
a self, as one who feels, as one
who wills, as one w...
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Pilosopiyang Filipino

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Ang Pilosopiya ng mga Pilipino, Pilosopiyang Filipino
May Pilosopiya ba ang mga PIlipino?

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Pilosopiyang Filipino

  1. 1. FILIPINO PHILOSOPHY “Pilosopiyang Pilipino” PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN PERSON
  2. 2. How the Filipino looks at himself as an individual?  This can be investigated from two viewpoints:  LOOB  THE BODY Both converge on the same philosophy of man.
  3. 3. I. LOOB  No single English word can translate loob, the Tagalog word for buot in Visayan and nakem in Ilocano. Metalinguistic Analysis “A nation’s soul was its language because a genuine national pride is anchored on one’s native language.”  The Philippine languages, as everyone knows, can build hundreds of words from a single stem by means of AFFIXATION.
  4. 4. Table 1 - INTELLECTUAL THEME VISAYAN TAGALOG ILOCANO COMMON ENGLISH MEANING Buot (motive, intention) Kapin nga buot (ulterior motive) Isaloob (to bear something in mind) Nakem (motive, intention) (motive, intention) Buot (thoughts, mind, reason) Wala sa buot (not in the mind) Nakem (mind, reason) Nadadael ti nakem (to be crazy) (mind, reason) Walay buot ka (You are stupid) Kabuot (understanding, perception, mental discernment) Awan ti nakemmo (You are stupid) Nakem (understanding, perception, judgment) (understanding, perception) Pagbuot (judgment, decision) Pagkakaloob (judgment, decision, adjudication) Nakem (judgment, decision) (judgment, decision) Magbuot (to decide, to dictate) Ikaw ang magbuot kon pila (You decide how much) Loob sa saklawin (to comprehend, to understand) Mapasaloob (to occur to one’s mind) Saloobin (attitude) Salooban, isaloob, magsaloob (to distrust, to suspect) Saloob (suspicion) Magpasaloob (suspicious, malicious)
  5. 5. VISAYAN TAGALOG ILOCANO COMMON ENGLISH MEANING Buot, panimuot, kalibutan (consciousness, conscience, awareness, degree of intelligence) Walay buot kay bata pa siya (He has not yet reached the age of discretion because he is still a child) Nakem (consciousness, conscience, awareness) Awan ti nakemna gapu ta ubing pay (He has not yet reached the age of discretion because he is still a child) (consciousness, conscience, awareness) Tigmaan ug buot (regain consciousness) Ang iyang panimuot sama sa batang tulo ka tuig (His mental age is like a three-year old child’s) But-an (possessing reason, sese) But-an ba siya o buang? (Is he sane or mad?) Makinakem (to follow advice) Patien ti nakem [ti sabali] (literally, to believe in another, i. e., to follow advice) But-on (to expect) Mabuot (civic-minded, considerate) Kabut-an, kamabuot (prudence, sensibleness, smartness) Kabut-an (controllable, manageable, tractable) Table 1 - INTELLECTUAL THEME
  6. 6. VISAYAN TAGALOG ILOCANO COMMON ENGLISH MEANING Buot (wish, desire will) Ituman ang buot mo (Your will be done) Pagbuot (will) Pagbuot sa Ginoo (the Lord’s will) Loob (wish, desire, will) Sundin ang loob mo (Your will be done) Nakem (wish, desire, will) Matungpal koma ti nakemmo (Your will be done) wish, desire, will Buot (state of mind, disposition, mood) Maglain ang iyang buot ug mapildi sa sugal (He gets into a bad mood if he loses in gambling) Loob (state of mind, disposition, mood) Ano ang nasa loob mo? (What is in your state of mind?) Nakem (state of mind, disposition, mood) Ania ti adda ti nakemmo? (What is in your state of mind?) State of mind, disposition, mood Pabuot (to allow some to have the say, to allow, to permit) Ug pabut-on ako nimo (if you allow me) Loobin (to allow, to permit) Bay-an nga agnakem (to allow, to permit) Bay-an nga agnakem nga agtalaw (Let him escape) To allow, to permit Buta-a, but-on (to accept freely without restraint) But-anay (to impose each other‘s will on one another) Buotbuot (to act without permission to presume, to take on oneself to do something) Kusang loob (voluntary, initiative) Wala sa loob, laban sa kalooban (involuntary) Hilig sa loob (liking, preference, impulse of the heart) Kabubut-on (will, volition) Mga tawo nga maayog kabubut-on (Men of good will) Kalooban (will, volition) Mga taong may mabuting kalooban (men of good will) Pakinakem, panagnaknakem (will, volition) Tattao ti naimbag a panag- naknakem (men of good will) Will, Volition Table 2 - VOLITIONAL THEME
  7. 7. VISAYAN TAGALOG ILOCANO COMMON ENGLISH MEANING Mausab ang buot (to change attitude or feeling) Magbago ang loob (to change attitude or feeling) Matigas/malakas ang loob (to feel brave or courageous, animated) Buong buo ang loob (courageous, convinced, decided) Sumigla ang kalooban (to be revived in spirit, to be lively or enthusiastic) Buhay ang loob (liveliness, courage, spirit, state of being hopeful) Pabaruen ti pakinakem (to change attitude or feeling) Napigsa ti nakem (to feel brave or courageous) Napigsa ti pagnaknakem (courageous) Pumigsa ti nakemna (to be lively or enthusiastic) To change attitude or feeling (to feel brave or courageous) (courageous) (to be revived in spirit, to be lively or enthusiastic) Himuot (to be pleased) Wala niya kahimut-i ang imong gibuhat (He was not pleased with what you did) Laki ng loob (pride) Kahimuot (pleasure) Kahimut-anan (at which one can take pleasure) Maham-uton, mahimut-on, mahimut-anon (feeling great pleasure) Muot (funny, extremely laughable) Table 3 – EMOTIONAL THEME
  8. 8. VISAYAN TAGALOG ILOCANO COMMON ENGLISH MEANING Madaut ang buot (to be discouraged, to lose confidence) Masira ang loob (to be discouraged, to lose confidence) Madadael ti pakinakem (to be discouraged, to lose confidence) To be discouraged, to lose confidence Mangingitngit ang kalooban (to feel annoyed) Pagtatanim sa loob (hate, resentment) Magaan/malu-ag ug buot (in a good mood, having a light disposition, gay, carefree at ease) Maluwag/magaan ang kalooban (to feel appeased, gay, carefree at ease) Nalag-an ti nakem (to feel appeased, gay, carefree, at ease) Gay, carefree, at ease Palagay loob (to be in rapport) Kapalagayang loob (one with whom another is emotionally at ease) Pukawin/gisingin ang loob (to inspire) Tignay ti nakem, paregtaen ti nakem (to inspire) Paregtaen ti nakemna tapno agadal (Inspire/motivate him to study) (to inspire) Nakapupukaw ng loob (inspirational) Kabuhusan ng loob (falling in love) Makapatignay/makaparegta iti nakem (inspirational) (inspirational) Mabagabag ang kalooban (to give a sigh, to pity) Matignay ti nakem (to give a sigh, to pity) (to give a sight, to pity) Malain ang buot (short- tempered, of the sort that gets easily angered) Mainit ang buot (hot- tempered) Mainit ang kalooban (hot-tempered) Ipahalata ang nasa loob (to show one’s feelings) Maglihim/magkubli ng nasa loob (to hide one’s feelings) Napudot ti nakem (hot-tempered) Ipagriknam iti adda ti paki-nakem (to show one’s feelings) Illem-men ti sakit ti nakem (to hide one’s feelings) Hot-tempered (to show one’s feelings) (to hide one’s feelings) Table 3 – EMOTIONAL THEME
  9. 9. VISAYAN TAGALOG ILOCANO COMMON ENGLISH MEANING Loob (courage,valor) Lakas ng loob (courage, valor) Pakinakem (courage,valor) Tao a napigsa ti pakinakemna (a man of courage) (courage, valor) May loob (brave, courageous) Tigas ng loob (hardiness in valor, bravery) Pagkalooban (to give something) Pagkalooban mo ako ng tubig (Give me some water) Kaloob (gift, donation, favor, benevolence) Sagut gapu’t naimbag a pakinakem (literally, gift because of good will; gift, donation, favor, benevolence) (gift, donation, favor, benevolence) Nagkakaloob (giver, donor) Ti nangted ti sagut gaput’naimbag a pakinakem (giver, donor) (giver, donor) Pinagkakalooban (receiver, donee) Ti naikkan ti sagut gapu’t’naimbag a pakinakem (receiver, donee) (receiver,donee) Utang-buot/utang nga kabubut-on (debt of volition, “gratitude”) Utang na loob (debt of volition;”gratitude”) Utang na naimbag a nakem (debt of volition, “”gratitude”) Debt of volition, “gratitude” Utang-buot (please) Utang buot, ayaw pagsulti niana (Please don’t say that) Utang na loob (please) utang na loob, huwag mong sabihin iyan (Please don’t say that) (please) Dunay buot (attentive, courteous, obliging) May loob (attentive, courteous, obliging) Walang loob (inattentive, vile, unpleasant, low) Adda nakemna (attentive, courteous, obliging) Awan nakemna (inattentive, vile, unpleasant, low) Attentive, courteous, obliging (inattentive, vile, unpleasant, low) Walay buot (‘innocent’ when applied to children. But it means ‘ignorant’ ‘irresponsible’ when applied to adults) Table 4 – ETHICAL THEME
  10. 10. VISAYAN TAGALOG ILOCAN O COMMON ENGLISH MEANING Loob, kalooban, kaloob (internal part, inside, within) Sa loob ng bahay (inside the house) Sa loob ng isang linggo (within a week’s time) Paloob (to enter, to penetrate) Saloobin (to interiorize, to internalize) kaloob-looban (innermost) Taimtim sa loob (intimate) Pagpaloob (introduction, becoming an intern) Pangloob (undergarments) Looban (orchard, a piece of fenced land or yard around the house planted with a variety of trees and plants) Loob, panloloob, looban (robbery, attack, invasion) Mga masasamang-loob (robbers, criminals) Table 5 – MISCELLANEOUS
  11. 11. Filipino Behavior  Considering loob as ‘debt of volition’ or utang na loob. The Tagalog proverb “Ang utang na loob ay hindi mababayaran ng salapi” (a debt of volition cannot be repaid by money).  Utang na loob makes no condition e. g. If Norman saves Joseph’s life from drowning, Joseph has an everlasting ‘debt of volition’ to Norman. Norman does not give any terms. But out of his own will (kusang loob) Joseph tries to show his goodness to Norman whenever he can and at his own discretion.  Loob becomes an interior law which tells Joseph to behave generously and amiably to Norman even for a lifetime.
  12. 12. Filipino Behavior  Anybody without the sense of ‘debt of volition’ is considered ‘shameless’ (walang hiya) – an expression which most Filipinos resent, as Jaime C. Bulatao stated in his study “Hiya,” Philippine Studes and F. Landa Jocano in Growing Up in a Philippine Barrio  Likewise, to reject a ‘debt of volition’ leads to hiya, which may be an expression of interiority. At any rate the Filipino is quite sensitive to his treatment as a person. He wants to keep his self- respect even to the point of sacrifice.  Loob then has much to do with the Filipino’s notion of selfhood. One often hears the saying “Better to die than to suffer insult.” The Filipino is sensitive to the slightest insult. “Kung gumaling ang isang sugat, di kumukupas ang masamang pangungusap” (A wound may heal, but an offensive word never fades away.)
  13. 13. Filipino Behavior The Filipino may forgive an insult but he carries the wound for a long time. That is why when Filipinos disagree, they would prefer to use intermediaries or exchange indirect remarks rather than be frank with each other.
  14. 14. Loob and the Filipino Philosophy of Man  The metalinguistic considerations on LOOB have exceeded their boundaries. Such is the nature of language, for it is a mental window which leads to a bigger world.  The manifold aspects of loob requires a wider concept. This concept would be self as viewed from within.  While it is true that there are other words for ‘self’ (kaugalingon, sarili, ti bagi met laeng), these expressions are superficial and do not express the essence of the Filipino.  Loob would therefore characterized as: (1) holistic and (2) as interior
  15. 15. (1) Holistic  Western man compartmentalizes himself. This way of thinking is evident in expressions like ‘not letting emotions influence reason’ or ‘the heart having reasons which the head does not know’. Some of their philosophers have been debating on whether the intellect is superior to the will or not. Likewise Western philosophy looks at knowledge as an intellectual apprehension of reality.  But the Filipino, like his Oriental neighbors, has a total way of thinking which is non-compartmentalized. The varied use of loob attest to this fact ‘masakit ang loob’/’nasakit ti nakem’ involves sorrow and pain of one’s whole being  Furthermore, this holistic view extends also to the Filipino’s non-dualistic world view. LIFE also is not compartmentalized.
  16. 16. (1) Holistic According to Abegg, 1952 on the paper The Mind of East Asia “. . .mention should be made of the far-reaching identification of concepts in East Asia; these with slight differences in meaning, apply equally to all East Asians. Politics, ethics, and religion are for them one. Politics, for which there is no precisely corresponding expression in East Asia, is really a Western invention which, in the last resort, is connected with the differentiation of psychic functions. In East Asia there was in earlier times no separation of Church and State, and hence the conception of pure politics could not arise.”
  17. 17. (2) Interior  In the Parable of Ox Mountain, Mencius, a disciple of Confucius, teaches that man is naturally good and that evil comes from man’s environment. He therefore identifies jen (human- heartedness, love, man) with man.  Jen has its Filipino version in kaluoy/awa/kaasi which is translated in English variously as: mercy, charity, clemency, leniency, benevolence, generosity, kindness, tolerance  These meanings can be summed up in the expression ‘human- heartedness’. To appeal then to one’s human-heartedness is to ask the Filipino to share his inner goodness.  Human-heartedness is therefore an interior part of loob.
  18. 18. (2) Interior Interiority manifests itself in freedom. The early Filipinos always resisted being subdued by their colonizers. They had no political unity because they loved their freedom. Loob as moral conscience. ‘conscience’ is budhi in Tagalog, which can also mean ‘understanding’, ‘will’, or the faculty of intuitive discernment. Nevertheless, moral conscience is still buot in Visayan and nakem in Ilocano.
  19. 19. (2) Interior Loob therefore as ethical is inseparable from thinking, willing, and feeling. This again demonstrates its non- compartmentalization as well as its interiority.
  20. 20. II. THE BODY Metalinguistic Analysis “Physiology teaches that the brain is really the center of emotions but the heart serves as symbol of love and sorrow.”  Although loob is totally connected with emotions, other parts of the body are associated with feelings.
  21. 21. Metalinguistic Analysis  The nose – as in the expression ‘mataas ang ilong’ (having a high nose) – is an expression having reference to pride.  To say that something causes one’s liver to contract (‘makapakulo sa atay’ in Visayan) indicates fear whereas to say something causes one’s liver to enlarge (‘makapadako’/ ‘makapabukad sa atay’) indicates elation.  The genitals have to do with courage. Thus ‘parang walang bayag’ / ‘awan ti lateg’ (having no balls), ‘puti’g itlog’ (having white balls), ‘lamang abo ang bayag’ (ash-containing balls), ‘urong ang bayag’ (shrunken balls) are said of cowards.  ‘kaututang dila’ (licking something together) are intimates in the gossipy sense; people referred to as ‘kadungulang siko’ (rubbing elbows) or ‘kadaupang-kamay’ (clasping hands) are friends.
  22. 22. Metalinguistic Analysis  ‘Blood’ is as variedly used as loob. The physiological sense is obvious in expressions like ‘having low blood pressure’ (‘kulang ug dugo’/’kulang sa dugo’/’kulang ti dara’). Feelings – as in English – are also associated with blood. Courage is said of ‘strong blood’ (‘isog ug dugo’/’matapang ang dugo’). Temper is connected with ‘hot blood’ (‘init ug dugo’/’mainit ang dugo’) or ‘boiling blood’ (‘mubukal ang dugo’/’kumukulo ang dugo’). To hate is to have ‘heavy blood’ (‘bug-at ang dugo’/’mabigat ang dugo’). Liveliness is having ‘live blood’ (‘buhi ug dugo’/’buhay ang dugo’). Sex is also associated with blood. Besides menstruation which is also called blood, the sperm is sometimes called blood as in the Visayan ‘dugong puti’ (white blood) or ‘dugo sa laki’ (male blood). In Western Visayan the generic (male and female) for sperm is ‘dugo nga sinara’ (distilled human blood), which – according to Jocano – “is one reason why the people maintain that ‘blood is thicker than water’”.
  23. 23. Metalinguistic Analysis  Since blood is connected with sex, it follows then that blood is also related to kinship. Relatives are called ‘having the same blood’ (kadugo, karugo, kadardara) and a blood compact makes two non- relatives’ one blood’ (sandugo, sanduguan).  The various parts of the body associated with feelings are by no means uniquely Filipino. They probably arose because emotions – which affect the entire person – are specially localized in the parts mentioned.  The usages of ‘blood’ – as in the case of loob – shows the Filipino holistic view of the body. The phenomenon of Filipino behavior will throw more light on the concepts of blood and the body in general.
  24. 24. Behavior  The Tagalogs in Bay, Laguna, believe that the blood must be in the state of right harmony for the sake of health. In other words, health is a matter of maintaining a harmony between heat and cold. There are four types of blood known to the people: malapot (thick), malabnaw (thin), dilaw (yellowish), and buhay (crimson). When the body is overexposed to heat or cold, the blood becomes thick and it causes illness like mataas ang dugo (high blood) and sakit sa puso (heart illness). Because of its thickness, the blood circulates very slowly and part of it sticks to the wall of the ugat (veins), thereby slowly causing further malfunctioning of body mechanisms. People suffering from insomnia (hindi makatulog), or anemia (maputla) and weak bodily resistance (sakitin) have thin or malabnaw blood. – Jocano, 1972
  25. 25. Behavior  The “pan-Philippine” concept of hot and cold “permeates all facets of Filipino peasant life. The terms hot and cold have no reference to the presence or absence of temperature. Rather, the syndrome refers to the quality of elements of nature and to the reactions of the human body to these elements. Functionally, this binary system of opposition defines the relationship between man and nature or between man and woman.”  Health is not only a matter of physical equilibrium but also a psychosomatic balance since “a man may look healthy (or in fact be healthy), but if he easily loses his temper, does not keep his word, or is engaged in activities contrary to the moral values of the group, he is not considered healthy. Sera-sera (a kook, defective) is the term used to describe him. One is cautioned not to mind him because he is not matino (not good, does not have a healthy attitude).”  Sickness then is looked upon as a matter of disequilibrium.
  26. 26. PHILOSOPHY Ø The principle of harmony which the Filipino tries to maintain is an another dimension besides from the previous considerations on the Filipino philosophy of man. The Filipino does not have a dichotomous philosophy of man in contrast to the Greeks’ matter (body) and form (soul). Man for the Filipino is holistic. “soul” (kalag/kaluluwa/kararuwa) connotes a disembodied spirit of ghost. The soul for the living man is different.
  27. 27. PHILOSOPHY Ø on the Soul (dreams and death) The formation of man includes both the development of the physical body and birth of its “double” (kakambal). The double is conceived as a gaseous substance which later becomes “the tiny voice” in man (locally known as malay; hence, the term malay tao meaning consciousness), which is responsible for the individual’s capacity to think, to reason, to learn, and to have will-power. This double becomes the soul (kalulua) when the person dies. During his lifetime, however, the kakambal functions as the “guardian spirit.” During the night, the double may transform itself into any form: leave the body, and travel around the neighborhood. It encounters during this time constitute what a man dreams about. If the couple is in trouble, the physical body suffers – this is why people die in their sleep or have had dreams and nightmares (the bangungut).
  28. 28. PHILOSOPHY Ø on the Soul (dreams and death) The Visayan expression “maghilak ang imong kalag” (your soul will weep) confirms the Tagalog kakambal as “guardian angel”. Loob as moral conscience seems to coincide with ‘malay tao’. A person ‘without soul’ (walang kaluluwa) is one without moral qualities, especially mercy. Likewise, ‘habang ang kanyang kaluluwa’ (literally, his soul is merciful) again implies loob as ethical.
  29. 29. Filipino PHILOSOPHY Ø in Conclusion Filipino as individual looks at himself as holistic from the interior dimension under the principle of harmony. This is evident especially in the Filipino concept of body.
  30. 30. Filipino PHILOSOPHY Ø in Conclusion “The Filipino looks at himself as a self, as one who feels, as one who wills, as one who thinks, as one who acts; as a total whole – as a ‘person,’ conscious of his freedom, proud of his human dignity, and sensitive to the violation of these two.”

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