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LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS AND NOTIONS By Maria Tri Yuditia Yandres Lao English Study ProgramFaculty Of Teacher Training And Educational Sciences SAN PEDRO UNIVERSITY
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS All human languages have certain characteristics in common and linguists have identified these characteristics as defining features of human language, which set human languages apart from animal cry systems, these features are called design features. Metalingual: the use of language to talk about language itself. This makes language infinitely self-reflexive: We human beings can talk about talk and think about thinking, and thus only humans can ask what it means to communicate, to think, to be human.
Metafunctions of Language:M. A. K. Halliday’s Model---- Ideational: Constructs a model of experience and constructs logical relations ( through transitive system) (Linguistic Constructionism) Interpersonal: enacts social relationships (through mood and modality) Contextual: creates relevance to context (through coherence and cohesion)
FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGEInformative: Language serves an informativefunction when it is used to tell what the speakerbelieves, to give information about facts, or toreason things out. By use of Declarative SentencesInterrogative: When language is used to getinformation from others, it serves an interrogativefunction Through Questions that expect answers.
Interpersonal : Language serves aninterpersonal function when it is used toestablish and maintain their status in asociety.Five sub-categories of interpersonal function:performative, directive, emotive, expressive,and phatic. Performative: the use of language to “do things”, to perform actions. Through quite formal and even ritualized language.
Directive: When language is used to get thehearer do something, it serves a directivefunction. Most Imperative sentences.Emotive : the use of language to createcertain feelings in the hearer. Through Jokes, Advertising, Propaganda, etc.Expressive: the use of language to revealsomething about the feelings and attitudes ofthe speaker. Through Exclamations, etc.
Phatic: the use of language to establish an atmosphere or maintaining social contact. E.g. Greetings, Farewells, and Comments on the weather, etc.Recreational: the use of language for thesheer joy of using it. E.g. baby’s babbling, poetry, etc.
LANGUAGE NOTIONSThe notion of “language” is subject to radicalreframing in any unprecedented context, andindeed, albeit subtly, in any actual unexampleduse
NOTIONS OF LANGUAGE IN GENERAL Existential Mental Spatial Relational Dimension Contrastive relation Temporal Possessive relation Quantitative Logical relation Qualitative Deixis Evaluative Semi deictics
Existential: to explain the Dimension: to express existence of something; a measurement of any existence, non-existence sort; There is + NP size There is no + NP (not) big, tall, high, deep presence, absence length (not) here, (not) there inch, foot, yard, mile Temporal: to express Spatial: to express something in a certain location; something through a location certain thing related to here, there time/sequence or where? number; relative position points of time in, on, under, behind, near direction number (1 – 12) + o’clock here, away, up, down, left, right sequence first, then
Quantitative: to express Mental: to reveal reflection something related to quantity; and expression; number reflection singular/plural to hope, to know, to think quantity expression (not +) all, much, many, enough, to say, to ask, to write Qualitative: to express Relational: to express the something concerned to quality; connection in sentence; shape agency round – agent as subject NP (as in: My cat visibility, sight eats fish): see, light, dark, look objective Evaluative: to express something – objective as object NP (as in: He eats fish) through value; dative value, price – to + NP (as in: Give the book to How much? me) adequacy (not) OK,
Contrastive relation: to Logical relation: to show express sth contrast / to the logical parallel; compare; conjunction equality/inequality – and, but – (not) the same (as + NP), another cause contrast – why? – (not) like – because of + NP – comparative degree + than + NP Deixis: the use of parts of Possessive relation: to speech specifically; express ownership, possession; Semi deictics: Generic nouns ownership, possession may be used in a deictic, more – possessive adjectives: my, your, his particularly an anaphoric her, our, their function e.g. person, people, man, woman, boy, girl, child, – possessive pronouns: mine, yours, animal, plant, thing, stuff, place, his, hers, ours, theirs time, way (as in: I know Bill well and I like the man)
NOTIONS OF LANGUAGE IN SPECIFIC The personal domain: The Public Domain: to to explain and elaborate explain and elaborate personality and things things in general/ related to a person such about public as; name, address, age, places/equipment sex, etc.