10 major health diseases and treatments in US


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For more information about anal fistula, breast biopsy, stapedectomy, otoscopy, pap smear, anal fissure, appendectomy, video of surgery, online doctors, laparoscopy, cervical cancer, pelvic exam, latest medical news, angiography, medical videos in http://www.docturs.com/dd/

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10 major health diseases and treatments in US

  1. 1. 10 major health diseases and treatments in USA
  2. 2. S.NO Title Pg.No 1. Dealing with the ANAL FISTULA 2. Stapedectomy – The Middle Ear Surgery 3. Breast Biopsy – News & Technology 4. Information about Angiography 5. Otoscopy in small animal practice 6. Pelvic Examination - What is happening today? Cervical Cancer – The Pap smear and HPV Test 7. combination 8. Laparoscopy and Endometriosis 9. Research on Appendicectomy10. Anal fissures and fistulae
  3. 3. 1. Dealing with the ANAL FISTULAWhen cavities of the body get abnormally associated, a fistula is formed. An example ofsuch a condition would be colostomy where a passageway is connected between theabdominal wall and the colon. Such a connection can also occur between the anus andother parts of the body like the intestinal lining or the vagina or the outer skin surface.Each of these may be termed as an anal fistula.What are the symptoms?A tunneling of the body cavity can be observed in this medical state. Due to this abscessor pus may be formed near the anal canal. Lesions may also occur and in some cases,these may be filled with body fluids like excretory material. In these cases, naturalhealing is difficult and medical aid has to be sought for. The individual may alsoexperience pain in the lower abdomen and near the anus. Change in body temperature,itching and general fatigue can be noticed in patients. However, severity may vary fromperson to person and hence it is important to discuss any discomfort with your healthcareexpert. Nowadays, many online doctors are also available who can promptly help andassist you.Why does it occur?The anal fistula can occur for various reasons like injury or digestive diseases. Injury dueto constipation or infection in the lining of the anus can lead to this medical state. Besidesthis there are two diseases in which these types of fistulae mainly form – the first wouldbe the Crohn’s disease and the second includes Ulcerative colitis. Discharge with foulodor and accumulation of pus are commonly noticed.What are the tests and surgeries for cure?Some of the tests which are used to treat and examine an anal fistula are – the Bariumenema test, colonoscopy or a sigmoidoscopy procedure. Sometimes, an upper endoscopicprocedure may be carried out. Further, the examinations that are used to understandinflammatory bowel diseases can be used here, to study the fistula.
  4. 4. The main method to confirm the condition is Fistulogram test. Here, X-ray photographyof the affected area is carried out after a radiant dye is injected into the body. The exactpresence of the abnormality can be recorded by this method.After the medical procedures, the patient can heal and restore a healthy living in a fewweeks. Appropriate medication must be taken. The diet plan should be followed as peryour healthcare expert’s advice along with a healthy lifestyle.2. Stapedectomy – The Middle Ear SurgeryStapedectomy is the surgical procedure for the removal of the innermost bone of themiddle ear. There are three bones in the middle ear – incus, malleus and stapes. Thestapes is the innermost bone and stapedectomy is the procedure to remove this bone andreplace it with prosthesis. The prosthesis is a small plastic tube surrounding a smallstainless steel wire. The history of this procedure dates back to 1956 as the first operationwas performed then.Stapedectomy procedure needs to be to improve the movement of sound to the inner ear.The hearing loss is caused progressively by a condition called otosclerosis, wherein thespongy bones at the base of stapes hardens and it does not vibrate properly as the stapesis fixed to the opening of the inner ear. Otosclerosis can also affect the bone thatsurrounds the inner ear, the malleus and the incus. If this condition is ignored, it may alsoresult into total deafness of both the ears.
  5. 5. This surgery does not include any incisions on the outer body as it is performed inside theear canal. After administering the local or general anesthesia, the eardrum is foldedforward and the ear canal is opened. The surgeon views the inside of the canal with theoperating microscope to observe the structures in detail and evaluate the ossicles (bonesfor hearing) to confirm the diagnosis for otosclerosis. Then the stapes is separated fromthe incus so that the malleus and the incus can be moved independently when pressed. Adrill or laser may be used in cutting through the tendon and arch of that bone to beremoved from the middle ear.The prosthesis is clipped to the incus bone by making a tiny opening by directing thelaser beam at the window which joins the middle and inner ear and poses as a platformfor the stapes bone. The hole in the window is later sealed by taking a piece of tissuefrom behind the earlobe by incision. The eardrum is then repaired and replaced and heldthere by an ointment or gelatin sponge. This whole procedure almost amounts to 1.5 to 2hours. More information can be obtained by watching medical videos of stapedectomyonline.This surgery should be opted for by those who have fixed stapes from otosclerosis and aconductive hearing loss of at least 20 db. Those who cannot hear at all can benefit only ifthe surgery improves their hearing to the extent that a hearing aid can be useful for them.The success rate of this procedure is almost 90%.
  6. 6. 3. Breast Biopsy – News & TechnologyMedical news about breast biopsy says that many unnecessary biopsies are done by thesurgeons and that figure amounts to 600,000 women. A study suggested that out of 1.6million women who get biopsies done annually, around 600,000 get it doneunnecessarily. Most of the doctors suggest invasive surgery which is three times moreexpensive. But the doctors reason that it has the best diagnostic accuracy.A needle biopsy is done under local anesthesia, leaves a tiny scar and costs about $1,000to $2,000. It rarely misses lesions. A surgical biopsy requires sedation and stitches, andcosts about $5,000 to $6,000. And it leaves a bigger scar. With about 90 percent ofabnormal mammograms turning out to be benign, the most minimally invasive approachmakes the most sense.There are also new medical products and services in the market coming up for breastbiopsy procedure. There is a new and lesser-known technology ‘microbubbles’ combinedwith ultrasound which can help patients with early stages of cancer in detectingtreatments and saving them from another breast surgery. To check the spread of cancer,there is a sentinel lymph node biopsy but ultrasound cannot pick up those from the usualnodes. A study says that microbubble contrast- enhanced ultrasound accurately identifiesthe sentinel lymph node in 89% of the 80 patients studied. Mostly 35% of patients whoundergo sentinel lymph node excision biopsy will require additional surgery becausecancer has spread. Using microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasound preoperativelymeans that the cancer and cancer spread can be removed during one operation.The current technology to identify the sentinel lymph nodes at the time of surgicalexcision are blue dye and radioisotopes. However accurate it may be, this procedure has
  7. 7. allergic reactions and side-effects for some patients and the disposal of the radioisotopes(radioactive waste) also becomes a problem.Ultrasound is widely accessible and it is said that microbubble enhancement is a real timeexamination which shows the bubbles trafficking through the breast lymphatics and intothe sentinel lymph node. The study conducted has confirmed that this technique canaccurately identify the sentinel lymph node, and it would be considered using thisimaging technology to determine if it can be combined with less invasive biopsytechniques, avoiding the need for a surgical sentinel lymph node biopsy completely.However, it has to be noted that the use of microbubbles is restricted in the United Statesand is currently not approved for use with breast cancer patients.Kenneth Haines at Docturs.com/dd has explained in detail about what is biopsy, Breastbiopsy procedure, indications and types like breast needle biopsy, fine needle aspirationetc. for a better awareness about breast biopsy on the medical vertical Docturs.4. Information about AngiographyHeart diseases are becoming so common today that the term angiography is no more amedical jargon. Angiography is also known as arteriography and it is the imagingtechnique to visualize the inside, particular the arteries, veins and heart chamber.Docturs.com/dd offers detailed explanation on angiography procedure and its types andrisks.The medical news about angiography is that the medical procedure was documented onfilm by the patient himself who was being operated upon and it won the BT Northern
  8. 8. Ireland Press Photographer of the Year. The patient was given local anesthesia as heneeded to stay awake and follow doctor’s instructions like taking deep breaths, cough orplace their arms in various positions. Not exactly medical, but this trivia talks about theuse of anesthesia in the angiography procedure.The angiography first started with corrective bypass surgeries which have nowprogressed to the modern angioplasties and angiographies. Huge investments have beenmade behind these procedures to derive minimally invasive and innovative methods forthe treatment of diseases. Angiography diagnoses cardiac diseases and reveals itscomplexity and the need for further surgical requirements. It can either be coronary arterybypass graft or modern angioplasties, requiring less time for operating and healing.Angiography can be done for various parts of the body and hence they are of varioustypes like extremity angiography, retinal angiography, cerebral angiography, renalangiography, coronary angiography, lymph angiography, pulmonary angiography. Thereare also different techniques like CT angiography, MR angiography and catheterangiography.The catheter angiography is the most traditional kind of angiography, first to beintroduced and dominant since its introduction. It includes the passing of catheter in theblood vessel leading to the desired area and injecting a contrast material for highlightingthe diseased portion. The most commonly used catheters are Flush Catheters, AccessCatheters, Sizing Catheters and others. MRA – Magnetic Resonance Angiographyincludes producing detailed pictures with the effect of radio waves in strong magneticfield. CTA – Computer Tomography Angiography uses X-rays and computerizedanalysis to produce high quality and detailed images, being minimally invasive, less timeconsuming and cost effective.All these types of angiographies have their own pros and cons. The major drawback withcatheter angiography is that it is invasive and so it always has an element of risk involvedwith it. Catheter angiography is painful and is very highly priced when compared to theother techniques of angiography. But the major advantage of this technique is that it canbe used for all type of patients and for all body parts. MRA and CTA are both costeffective and painless. Thus these two new techniques are increasingly becoming a threatto traditional catheter angiography. Some of the drawbacks are that MRA cannot be usedwhere patients have some iron objects inside their bodies. This is because the magneticfield may be disturbed due the presence of these objects and could result in blurredimages. The drawback with CTA is that it cannot take detailed images of completelyblocked and crowded vessels.These methods have certain drawbacks that are undergoing further research forovercoming them to help their markets grow drastically. Docturs.com/dd is a medicalvertical offering updates about all such studies and researches for better health awareness.5. Otoscopy in small animal practice
  9. 9. Otoscopy is the medical procedure of viewing the inside of the ear lining with the help ofan instrument called otoscope or auriscope. But one might not know that this sameprocedure also takes place in animals, also known as veterinary otoscopy.Docturs.com/dd offers information on otoscopy and a detailed explanation of theprocedure.The otoscopy procedure basically includes visual examination of the ear canal byinserting the otoscope in the ear. This procedure is also carried out in animals byveterinarians. The endoscopic examination most frequently carried out on small animalsis the inspection of the acoustic meatus, called otoscopy. This method is easily accessibleand is seen seldom in cats but the disease of the acoustic meatus is seen mostly in dogs.Not only the diagnosis but the treatment can also be done, like the removal of foreignbodies or therapeutic measures such as irrigation/aspiration via the examination sheathwith a 3-way stopcock adapter. In case of video-otoscopy, which is mainly prevalenttoday, the treatment can be checked, stored in the patient file and therefore also displayedfor the animal owner when establishing a diagnosis.Online doctors also inform about the latest technical development in the diagnosis andmanagement of chronic ear disease in dogs and cats. There are various ear clinicsavailable which use video-otoscopy. The technique of video-otoscopy utilizes magnifiedcamera lens to examine in depth, the middle ear, ear drum and ear canal. Foreign objectsand tumors in the ear canal, infection of middle ear or abnormalities of eardrum can alsobe identified easily. Video otoscopy is also valuable in enabling the veterinarians toaccurately diagnose and treat chronic otitis in animals.
  10. 10. Acute and chronic otitis externa and otitis media are common disorders in dogs and cats.Alongwith other diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, video-otoscope is also useful andeffective for the management of clinical cases. Video-otoscopy provides enhancedillumination and magnification which helps to get more detailed information fordiagnosis and prognosis, improves efficiency of cleaning procedures, and decreases risksof iatrogenic injury to the middle and inner ear structures. With the help of this technique,the clinical cases have photographic documentation which enhances the medical record,communication with colleagues, and client education. However, this technique also hassome cons like it does not replace other important diagnostic tests such as evaluation foratopy, adverse food reactions, and immune-compromising disease. The treatment fails isthe primary cause is not found, irrespective of what technique is employed.Docturs.com/dd is medical vertical offering important medical information and updatesfor a better and healthy living.6. Pelvic Examination - What is happening today?Pelvic examination has been a routine for many women worldwide over the years. Butare they aware that this routine is becoming obsolete or that it is being done withoutconsent at many places. Women are also not aware about the new guidelines for thepelvic exam and so Docturs.com/dd brings you all the latest information and updates fora better medical awareness.The previous guidelines stated that the patients should be informed when the medicalstudents perform a pelvic exam on the patient under anesthesia. The new guidelines gofurther to ensure patient consent is explicit. It is true that many women are not awareabout a pelvic examination being performed on then, and some are not even informed
  11. 11. after the surgery. Though this is now forbidden in US, the practice is still carried out inCanada.According to the new rules, medical students must introduce themselves to all patientstheyll be caring for and identify their role as medical students. Patients undergoinggynecologic surgery are required to be explained the role of a pelvic exams during theprocedure and know it may be performed by members of the surgical team, includingmedical students. Consent must always be given voluntarily, non-discriminatory, andmust not be coerced, the rules state.The pelvic examinations are getting obsolete according to the latest medical news asthere have been convincing arguments about why is not needed too often. The basicreason for having a pelvic exam done is the early detection of ovarian and cervicalcancer, Chlamydia and for hormonal birth control, which can be inspected with cheapermethods also. The bimanual exam or the ultrasounds or the blood tests do not help inearly detection of ovarian cancer and till a reliable method for early detection is notfound, it is better to educate the women about its symptoms like pelvic pain and bloating.Chlamydia testing also has an option as a urine sample or a self-administered vaginalswab works like a speculum exam and is also cheaper. Except for an IUD or a diaphragm,there is no medical reason for a pelvic exam for prescribing oral contraceptives. During apelvic exam, a doctor collects cervical cells, which can be "co-tested" for pre-cancerouscellular changes (via the Pap) and, in women between 30 and 65, for HPV. A large studyof 330,000 women determined that the three-year intervals for Pap/HPV co-testing is,indeed, medically sound. This shows that very regular pelvic exams are not a must.Docturs.com/dd is a medical vertical spreading awareness about health topics fir a betterand healthy living.7. Cervical Cancer – The Pap smear and HPV Test combinationMany women in America are affected by cervical cancer. Nevertheless, there are equal orgreater numbers of women who are not affected by the disease but are still rigorouslytested. There is no doubt that the pap smear tests are recommended for all girls who havecrossed puberty, but the question that persists is whether such testing is frequentlyrequired and whether our women and doctors are well-briefed about the same.Cervical cancer is one of the diseases caused by a virus of the papillomavirus family ofviruses called the Human Papillomavirus. This virus has almost 200 types and generallycauses no symptoms in people. Some of the HPV viruses cause symptoms like wartswhile others are responsible for cancers of the vagina, vulva or cervix in females.However, one very important point is that this virus is very common in the surroundingsalmost like common cold and in most cases the bodies of young girls destroy it and dealwith the infection quite effectively. It is only when the infection is harbored for more thana year or so, that risks may be developed.
  12. 12. A doctor must hence be very careful in recommending tests and check-ups for a younggirl. If the girl’s body is tested positive for the presence of HPV, then following theresults extensive tests and treatments may be administered by the practicing medicalprofessional. But such treatments may result in weakening of the cervix rendering itincapable of carrying forth a successful pregnancy and childbirth in future. Keeping inmind such factors there are a few guidelines that healthcare experts have come up with – 1. Girls in the twenties bracket should be test for HPV only after a positive pap test 2. A combination of the Pap smear and HPV test should be done only on women older than 30 years.The Centers for Disease Control in the U.S. Department of Health And Human Serviceshas gone further to set one more thumb rule so that women can lead safer lives withoutthe risks of adverse effects of testing. This would bring us to the 3 point: 3. As listed on the official document issued by CDC “1 woman + 2 negative tests = 3 years” which means if the Pap Smear and HPV tests are negative for a woman, then she can refrain form getting tested for cervical cancer for three whole years!Such a proscription is medically proven by the fact that cervical cancer is a cancer thatgrows very slowly. In most cases, women far from chances of developing a cancer arerepeatedly tested for it. Staying abreast with medical news and research is henceimportant for doctors and patients alike. Moreover, the HPV test is not here to replacePap smear tests for cervical cancer as both are equally important. The latter is apreliminary test while the former is a confirmatory test which can guide subsequenttreatment when needed.8. Laparoscopy and Endometriosis
  13. 13. Laparoscopy also has other names and is alternatively known as MIS-minimally invasivesurgery, keyhole surgery or band-aid surgery and it is a modern surgical technique foroperating the abdomen by making relatively small incisions than the ones required inlaparotomy.Laparoscopic surgeries consist of operating within the abdominal and pelvic cavities andkeyhole surgery uses images that are displayed on the monitor screens so that the surgicalelements are magnified. The keyhole surgery performed on chest or thoracic cavity iscalled thoracoscopic surgery and both these, laparoscopic and thoracoscopic come underthe umbrella term endoscopy. The patient is at advantage under a laparoscopic surgerythan under an open surgery as the former includes smaller incisions and hemorrhaging,less pain and less recovery period.There are various kinds of laparoscopies and endometriosis is one of them. Endometriosislaparoscopy is also a kind of laparoscopy which proves to be better than an ultrasound.Though it helps in finding signs of endometriosis, sometimes it does not pick up somenodules, which is an indication of problem. So the next action to be taken is anendometriosis laparoscopy to know the actual condition and problem.Laparoscopy is very useful in different fields of medicine and it works like an eye of thedoctor inside the body without being invasive. Laparoscopy is done through aninstrument called laparoscope which also has a tiny camera attached to it which can beinserted in the body through tiny opening from incision. The laparoscope also has a lightwhich helps in exploratory services and other like gastric bypass. This helps in lesseningthe recovery time for many patients.Endometriosis laparoscopy includes making an incision in the belly button, administeringeither general or local anesthesia. The laparoscope is inserted and carbon dioxide gas is
  14. 14. dispended in the abdominal cavity so that it inflates and doctors can have a better view ofthe inside and also the others assisting him. Then there is exploration of all the suspectedareas of endometric growth.Sometimes, laparoscopic surgeries are done to watch the existing condition of theabdominal cavity and sometimes for the removal of the abnormal endometriosis growth.Removal is also possible with less incisions but it can also happen that more incisions areneeded to remove tissues from the body for the purpose of biopsy. The incisions aremostly made down the pubic area or the bikini area. The physician should always exploreall the possibilities for the optimum outcomes and help for the same can be also yakenfrom online doctors.9. Research on AppendicectomyAn appendicectomy, also known as appendectomy or appendisectomy, is the surgicalprocess for the removal of appendix. The surgery for appendicitis takes place when thepatient is suffering from severe appendicitis and mostly is an emergency procedure.When the surgical facilities are absent, antibiotics are given intravenously and used todelay or avoid the start of sepsis and so it is now known that many cases can be resolvedwithout any operation. There are some cases in which appendicitis resolves completelyand there is an inflammatory mass which forms around the appendix. This is a relativecontraindication to surgery. Appendicectomy procedure may be performed as aminimally invasive surgery – laparoscopically or as an open surgery.Appendix surgery can be done laparoscopically specially in children, for uncomplicatedappendicitis and less post-operative pain and a shorter hospital stay. On comparing therecovery after laparoscopic appendectomy and open surgery in children, it was seen thatchildren had less pain with the former one. Standardized anesthetic technique and painmanagement was used. The study endpoints were postoperative pain, need for rescueanalgesia, and length of hospital stay. Those with an open surgery developed a woundinfection later. The study concluded that laparoscopic appendectomy is better than opensurgery.Also, treating acute appendicitis with antibiotics is not as effective as appendicectomyhas been the latest medical news. They found that peritonitis was significantly morefrequent in the antibiotic group than the appendicectomy group and it is hence concludedthat emergency appendectomy is the best option.
  15. 15. Appendectomy is the best option for acute appendicitis compared to the antibiotics as wasconcluded by a research study. Though appendicitis could be cured by antibiotics, thestudy was conducted and its endpoint was occurrence of post-intervention peritonitiswithin 30 days of treatment initiation. The researchers found that 30-days post-intervention, peritonitis was significantly more frequent in the antibiotic group (8%) thanin the appendisectomy group (2%). There is also a point to consider that antibioticresistance could be why treatment failed in some cases, and that a different antibioticcould produce better results in those cases.There have also been researches reporting evidence supporting the benefits ofappendectomy as a therapy for ulcerative proctitis. It found that 40% of patientsexperienced a complete resolution of their symptoms after appendicectomy.The researchers found no significant associations between the likelihood of symptomresolution of ulcerative proctitis after appendectomy and age, gender, duration ofsymptoms before appendectomy, appendiceal histology, or the presence of appendicealorifice inflammation. More information about surgery of appendix can be obtained bywatching video of surgery online, for a better awareness.10. Anal fissures and fistulaeAnal fissures and fistulae are not very common but when they occur, they become apainful and unpleasant condition. Rectal tearing is distressing and highly resistant totreatment and everybody endures it at some point in their life. This tear in the lining ofthe anus or the skin around it is called anal fissure. Fistulae are the abnormal channelsfrom the anus which open onto the skin surrounding the anus.Anal fissure and fistula have no specific causes but constipation is commonly associatedwith them. They are also associated with a number of conditions resulting in aninflammatory digestive tract. These conditions may be Crohn’s disease or ulcerative
  16. 16. colitis or many more. Fistula is caused by collection of pus called abscess or infection, inone of the glands near anus and it may also result in multiple anal fissures.The fistula symptoms and complications for anal fissure may be sudden and severe painin the anus or the surrounding area. The pain may occur spontaneously or during orshortly after the passage of a hard stool. The pain is recurring and sharp and gets worsewith a bowel movement. Due to this, the victims avoid opening the bowels whichworsens the constipation and so the fissure takes more time in healing. This condition isalso associated with ‘sentinel pile’, a haemorrhoid - a small vein from inside the anuslying outside- which may bleed sometimes and leave a blood streak on toilet paper.Anal fistula is generally associated with painful abscess, which may be dull andthrobbing, in or near the anus. The abscess has a pus discharge which may be blood-stained. The fistula formation results in continuous seeping of pus or a thin, watery fluidfrom the anus, which can also be blood-streaked. Large abscesses may also cause fever.Fistula symptoms may also be loss of appetite, abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea,diarrhea, fever and weight loss.Anal fissure and fistula need care and treatment. The care to be taken is firstly having afiber rich diet with fruits and vegetables which prevents the fissures occurrence andfastens the healing process. Medications are also used if healthy diet is not sufficient, forcontrolling constipation, with over-the-counter medicines. Creams or ointments thatcontain pain-killing local anesthetic agents are very useful at relieving the pain of analfissures. Relief of the pain reduces the spasm in the muscles of the anus, which oftenprevents the fissure from healing.
  17. 17. Reference: 1. Anal Fistula :- http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/11182/anal-fistula/ 2. Breast Biopsy :- http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/11280/breast-biopsy/ 3. Stapedectomy:- http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/11314/stapedectomy/ 4. Otoscopy :- http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/2512/otoscopy/ 5. Pap Smear :- http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/2392/cervical-smear-test-pap-test/ 6. Anal Fissure :- http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/11174/anal-fissure/ 7. Appendectomy:- http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/11216/appendicectomy/ 8. Laparoscopy :- http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/2408/laparoscopy-examination- of-the-abdomen-and-pelvis/ 9. Cervical Cancer:- http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/15901/cervical-cancer/ 10. Pelvic Exam :- http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/2369/pelvic-examination/ 11. Latest Medical News :- http://docturs.com/dd/ 12. Angiography :- http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/2355/angiography/
  18. 18. Thank you