Greener lighting

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Greener lighting

  1. 1. Thursday, October 27, 2011
  2. 2. Curtis Kasefang, Theatre ConsultantsCollaborative, LLCSteven Cullipher, LEED AP, Systems DivisionManager, Barbizon Lighting CompanyMark London, Lighting Design GroupBryan Raven, Managing Director, White LightLtd.
  3. 3. White Light & The EnvironmentA Case Study – an update All rights reserved – enquires regarding the content of this document should be directed to the Managing Director, White Light Ltd, 20 Merton Industrial Park,Jubilee Way, Wimbledon, London SW19 3WL Tel: 020 8254 4800 Fax: 020 8254 4801. Info@WhiteLight.Ltd.uk www.WhiteLight.Ltd.uk
  4. 4. White Light White Light is one of UK’s premier lighting supply companies with a wide range of experience from all areas of the industry:- Theatre- Corporate Presentations- Events- Education• Annual turnover in excess of £18M
  5. 5. White Light employs over 130 staff
  6. 6. And operates from a 6500 square metrefacility in South West London
  7. 7. With £25M worth of Hire stock and£1.5M of Sales stock
  8. 8. White Light & The Environment• Our equipment uses a lot of electricity for the purposes of “entertainment”• That doesnt mean we can’t make sure we are as green as we can be as a company• We can also encourage others to follow us
  9. 9. Why did we start down this route?• Demand from Corporate clients• Even bigger demand from our staff!• But until the last couple of there was little or no demand from theatre or suppliers
  10. 10. Treating WL as Three Separate Projects • Improving our own business • Encouraging our suppliers to improve • Encouraging our customers to improve
  11. 11. Improving White LightHow have we done (for the Company)?• Increased awareness throughout the company• More bins….including a compactor – this has reduced our land fill from 1500m3 to 100m3• Replaced our urinals – saving 300,000 litres of water per year• Published a Green Lighting guide for our customers
  12. 12. Improving our suppliers• “Industry related” i.e. trade suppliers• Non industry related i.e. utilities, stationery suppliers, transport companies• Not a huge success on the trade suppliers….probably because of the current climate. But non industry suppliers have been a lot more forthcoming
  13. 13. Improving our suppliers• Whilst we have no figures to prove this we believe that it is the manufacturing side of the industry where our biggest impact is.• More study is needed but, for example, 90% of the carbon footprint of a lap top is done before we open the box. It is probably a similar story with moving lights
  14. 14. Improving our customers• This is a lot harder as we don’t want to appear to be ”preaching” to our customers• However we did decide to collate all the ideas that are around in to a Guide to “Green Lighting”• For the purposes of this presentation ‘color’ is spelt ‘colour’ and templates are ‘gobos’ and we work in theatres not theaters!
  15. 15. Big Switch off• National Theatre has managed to save 28 hours per week of use of their discharge moving lights by switching off the rig when not in use• If you add up all the discharge moving lights in the West End it is over 1MW
  16. 16. Tungsten• Remember - it is not a bad thing!• We have already reduced from 2000w to 1200w, & 575w by using the modern lamps• We only use electricity when you need it….unlike discharge sources
  17. 17. London Theatre’s Carbon Footprint
  18. 18. London Theatre’s Carbon Footprint Extrerior lighting, 2% Production materials, 5% Pre Production Management, 5% Overnight lighting & Theatre Front of House heating, 6% heating & cooling (daytime & evening), 35% Stage Electrics (lighting, sound & stage), 9% Theatre offices & back of house heating & cooling, 10% Rehearsal Space (heating & cooling), 28%
  19. 19. The Green Guide• We wrote this guide to try and collate the information we had learned from going through this process• We don’t claim it to be comprehensive and would welcome feedback and improvements
  20. 20. Big Switch off
  21. 21. Planning the Show Schedule meetings efficiently Use public transport Minimise printing Make sure everyone is doing “their bit”
  22. 22. Designing the Show Do I need extra lights? Would newer lights be more efficient? Where are the lights coming from? Are there lower power equivalents? Do I need discharge lights? Can we use gobos & colour from stock? Have I got the information to everyone in time?
  23. 23. Choosing Greener Products
  24. 24. Getting the Show on Have you ordered everything you need? Can you save transport costs by combining collections & deliveries Do you need the dock door open all day? Is PVC the best way of attaching cables to the bars?
  25. 25. Show running Turn off the moving lights! Do you need the smoke machines to be on all day? Does every light actually do anything?
  26. 26. After the show is over Keep the scrolls, colour & gobos for future shows Do you need the dock door open all night? Are you re-cycling the set?
  27. 27. Touring Do you need to tour equipment or can you pick it up locally? Do you need all that extra cable? Have you ordered the physically smallest kit available to minimise truck requirements?
  28. 28. At the Production Table Recycle paper using the blue bins Use recycled paper Printing double sided and/or two pages to a page wherever possible NOT printing out e mails or other documents unless necessary Use mains water dispensers (not bottles) Recycle printer cartridges Paper free meetings
  29. 29. Other Things: Equipment Use: Collect used batteries & lamps from West End theatres and venues & recycle Act as a collection point for discharge lamps (WEE directive) Re-use suppliers packaging and palettes for our own products Use equipment until the very end of its “life” Use time switches to switch off printers & coffee machines when not in use Turn off our PC and monitors every night Switch off radios, fans, lights when not needed
  30. 30. Around the building Check the thermostats! Changeover lighting to LED or CFLs in FOH & back of house applications Time switches on things like coffee machines?
  31. 31. And finally Where do we look for more information or ideas? • PLASA will be launching their website soon • London Climate Change plan to be launched soon • Visit Carbon Trust & Envirowise websites • Visit Arcola’s website • Read “Hot Topic” by Gabrielle Walker and David King • Visit www.WhiteLight.Ltd.uk/environment
  32. 32. One more thing…..• There is a lot of rubbish talked about Climate Change – so keep an open mind• Beware the PR “machine” or “green wash”• For every action there is a reaction – make sure it is a good one• But doing nothing is NOT an option• This issue “transcends competition” so we should share the information
  33. 33. White Light Thank you All rights reserved – enquires regarding the content of this document should be directed to the Managing Director, White Light Ltd, 20 Merton Industrial Park,Jubilee Way, Wimbledon, London SW19 3WL Tel: 020 8254 4800 Fax: 020 8254 4801. Info@WhiteLight.Ltd.uk www.WhiteLight.Ltd.uk
  34. 34. Prepared by:•Mark London•Michael E. Steinberg•Alex Kyle-DiPietropaolo
  35. 35. Strip Lights LED Incandescent Incandescent Type Vivid R ETC Altman Ground Cyc Par 38 Strip Power Consumption 750 w 6000w 3600w Brightness At Full 351fc at 15’ 108 fc at 15’ 124 at 15’ Brightness at R80 33 fc at 15’ ≈9.72 fc at 15’ ≈11.6 fc at 15’ Initial Cost $5,000.00 $1,450.00 $327.95 TheatreAnnual Cost/Duty Cycle 1yr $123/ 5yr $615 1yr $1368/ 5yr $6840 1yr $826/ 5yr $4130 (Electricity at 3hrs a day+ lampreplacement, not including labor) TVAnnual Cost/Duty Cycle 1yr $410/ 5yr$2050 1 yr $4529/ 5 yr $22645 1 yr $2,441/ 5yr $12,205(Electricity at 10hrs a day+ lampreplacement, not including labor)
  36. 36. Strip Lights LED Incandescent Incandescent Type Vivid R ETC Altman Ground Cyc Par 38 Strip Power Consumption 750 w 6000w 3600w Brightness At Full 351fc at 15’ 108 fc at 15’ 124 at 15’ Brightness at R80 33 fc at 15’ ≈9.72 fc at 15’ ≈11.6 fc at 15’ Initial Cost $5,000.00 $1,450.00 $327.95 Theatre 1yr $123/ 5yr $615 1yr $1368/ 5yr $6840 1yr $826/ 5yr $4130Annual Cost/Duty Cycle TV 1yr $410/ 5yr$2050 1 yr $4529/ 5 yr $22645 1 yr $2,441/ 5yr $12,205Annual Cost/Duty Cycle Pros 1 Cool Operation Everyone has one Everyone has one 2 7 Colors/Color Mixing Serviceable Parts Serviceable Parts 3 Long Lamp Life / Very Works w/ Existing Dim Works w/ Existing low Maintenance / No System Dim System Gel to cut 4 No Color Shift 5 Quick Color Change
  37. 37. Strip Lights LED Incandescent Incandescent Type Vivid R ETC Altman Ground Cyc Par 38 Strip Power Consumption 750 w 6000w 3600w Brightness At Full 351fc at 15’ 108 fc at 15’ 124 at 15’ Brightness at R80 33 fc at 15’ ≈9.72 fc at 15’ ≈11.6 fc at 15’ Initial Cost $5,000.00 $1,450.00 $327.95 Theatre 1yr $123/ 5yr $615 1yr $1368/ 5yr $6840 1yr $826/ 5yr $4130Annual Cost/Duty Cycle TV 1yr $410/ 5yr$2050 1 yr $4529/ 5 yr $22645 1 yr $2,441/ 5yr $12,205Annual Cost/Duty Cycle Cons 1 Circuit Boards/ Power High Power/ Heat High Power/ Heat Supply/ Fans 2 Price Short Lamp Life Short Lamp Life 3 Possible Fan Noise 3 Colors 3 to 4 Colors 4 Choice of RGB Vs. multi Color Shift While Color Shift While color affects intensity Dimming Dimming 5 Possible filament noise Possible filament noise or blow out or blow out
  38. 38. GMA Josh Grobin Concert in Bryant Park 2008 LD Denis SizeDick Clarks Rocking New Years Eve 2008LD Michael E. Steinberg
  39. 39. Par LED Incandescent Incandescent Type Pixel Par RGBA Source 4 Par Par 64 MFL Power Consumption 96w 575w 1000 w Brightness At Full 179.9 fc at 16’ 477 fc at 25’ 450 fc at 20’ Brightness at R80 ≈100.8 fc at 16’ ≈42.93 fc at 25’ ≈40.5 fc at 20’ Initial Cost $2,958.00 $220.00 $70.00 TheatreAnnual Cost/Duty Cycle 1yr $15/ 5yr $75 1yr $194/ 5yr $970 1yr $311/ 5yr $1,555 (Electricity at 3hrs a day+ lampreplacement, not including labor) TVAnnual Cost/Duty Cycle 1yr $52/ 5yr $260 1 yr $639/ 5 yr $3,195 1yr $1037/ 5yr $5,185(Electricity at 10hrs a day+ lampreplacement, not including labor)
  40. 40. Par LED Incandescent Incandescent Type Pixel Par RGBA Source 4 Par Par 64 MFL Power Consumption 96w 575w 1000 w Brightness At Full 179.9 fc at 16’ 477 fc at 25’ 450 fc at 20’ Brightness at R80 ≈100.8 fc at 16’ ≈42.93 fc at 25’ ≈40.5 fc at 20’ Initial Cost $2,958.00 $220.00 $70.00 Theatre 1yr $15/ 5yr $75 1yr $194/ 5yr $970 1yr $311/ 5yr $1555Annual Cost/Duty Cycle TV 1yr $52/ 5yr $260 1 yr $639/ 5 yr $3195 1yr $1037/ 5yr $5185Annual Cost/Duty Cycle Pros 1 Cool Operation Everyone has one Everyone has one 2 Variable Color Serviceable Parts Serviceable Parts 3 Long Lamp Life Works w/ Existing Dim Works w/ Existing Dim System System 4 No Color Shift 5 Quick Color Change
  41. 41. Par LED Incandescent Incandescent Type Pixel Par RGBA Source 4 Par Par 64 MFL Power Consumption 96w 575w 1000 w Brightness At Full 179.9 fc at 16’ 477 fc at 25’ 450 fc at 20’ Brightness at R80 ≈100.8 fc at 16’ ≈42.93 fc at 25’ ≈40.5 fc at 20’ Initial Cost $2,958.00 $220.00 $70.00 Theatre 1yr $15/ 5yr $75 1yr $194/ 5yr $970 1yr $311/ 5yr $1555Annual Cost/Duty Cycle TV 1yr $52/ 5yr $260 1 yr $639/ 5 yr $3195 1yr $1037/ 5yr $5185Annual Cost/Duty Cycle Cons 1 Circuit Boards/ Power High Power/ Heat High Power/ Heat Supply/ Fans 2 Price Short Lamp Life Short Lamp Life 3 Possible Fan Noise 1 Color 1 Color 4 No True "White" Color Shift While Color Shift While Dimming Dimming 5 Must choose between Possible filament noise Possible filament noise white or color for intensity or blow out or blow out
  42. 42. WNYC Green Studio 2009System Designed by Mark London and Michael E. SteinbergLD Michael E. Steinberg
  43. 43. Fresnel LED HMI Incandescent Type Prism Projection LED Arri 575w HMI Arri ST1 Studio 1K Fresnel Power Consumption 250 w 575 w 1000 w Brightness At Full 297.94 fc at 16’ 1211 fc at 15’ 741 fc at 15 Brightness at CC ≈297.94 fc at 16’ ≈With CTO 650.18 fc at 15’ ≈With CTB 266.76 fc at 15’ Initial Cost $4893.5045 $1,924.95 $558.50 TheatreAnnual Cost/Duty Cycle 1yr $41/ 5yr $205 1yr $426/ 5yr $2,130 1yr $414/ 5yr $2,070 (Electricity at 3hrs a day+ lampreplacement, not including labor) TVAnnual Cost/Duty Cycle 1yr $136/ 5yr $680 1yr $994/ 5yr $4,970 1yr $1,146/ 5yr $5,730(Electricity at 10hrs a day+ lampreplacement, not including labor)
  44. 44. Fresnel LED HMI Incandescent Type Prism Projection LED Fresnel Arri 575w HMI Arri ST1 Studio 1K Power Consumption 250 w 575 w 1000 w Brightness At Full 297.94 fc at 16’ 1211 fc at 15’ 741 fc at 15 Brightness at CC ≈297.94 fc at 16’ ≈With CTO 650.18 fc at 15’ ≈With CTB 266.76 fc at 15’ Initial Cost $4893.5045 $1,924.95 $558.50 Theatre 1yr $41/ 5yr $205 1yr $426/ 5yr $2,130 1yr $414/ 5yr $2,070Annual Cost/Duty Cycle TV 1yr $136/ 5yr $680 1yr $994/ 5yr $4,970 1yr $1,146/ 5yr $5,730Annual Cost/Duty Cycle Pros 1 Cool to the touch High Output Everyone has one 2 Variable white output Naturally Matches Serviceable parts Daylight 3 Long Lamp Life Works w/ Existing Dim System
  45. 45. Fresnel LED HMI Incandescent Type Prism Projection LED Fresnel Arri 575w HMI Arri ST1 Studio 1K Power Consumption 250 w 575 w 1000 w Brightness At Full 297.94 fc at 16’ 1211 fc at 15’ 741 fc at 15 Brightness at CC ≈297.94 fc at 16’ ≈With CTO 650.18 fc at 15’ ≈With CTB 266.76 fc at 15’ Initial Cost $4893.5045 $1,924.95 $558.50 Theatre 1yr $41/ 5yr $205 1yr $426/ 5yr $2,130 1yr $414/ 5yr $2,070Annual Cost/Duty Cycle TV 1yr $136/ 5yr $680 1yr $994/ 5yr $4,970 1yr $1,146/ 5yr $5,730Annual Cost/Duty Cycle Cons 1 Circuit Boards/ Power Hot Hot Supply/ Fans 2 Price Expensive Lamp Short Lamp Life Replacement cost 3 Possible Fan Noise Mechanical Dimming Single Color 4 Barn door cuts not Ballast / head cable Possible filament noise or always effective required blow out 5 Requires Restrike after power interruption
  46. 46. GMA Usher Concert at the Nokia Theatre 2010Lighting Design by Niel Galen
  47. 47. Leko LED Plasma Incandescent Type LEDko 36 deg Sea Changer Plasma 36 deg Source 4 36 deg Power Consumption 163 w 320 w 750 w Brightness At Full 94 fc at 16 ≈484.8 fc at 15’ 404 fc at 15 Brightness at R80 ≈26.7 fc at 16 ≈43.56 fc at 15’ ≈36.36 fc at 15 Initial Cost $2,377.00 $1,792.00 plus ETC lens train $440.00 TheatreAnnual Cost/Duty Cycle 1yr $26/ 5yr $130 1yr $52/ 5yr $260 1yr $223/ 5yr $1,115 (Electricity at 3hrs a day+ lampreplacement, not including labor) TVAnnual Cost/Duty Cycle 1yr $89/ 5yr $445 1yr $175/ 5yr $875 1yr $735/ 5yr $3,675(Electricity at 10hrs a day+ lampreplacement, not including labor)
  48. 48. Leko LED Plasma Incandescent Type LEDko 36 deg Sea Changer Plasma 36 deg Source 4 36 deg Power Consumption 163 w 320 w 750 w Brightness At Full 94 fc at 16 ≈484.8 fc at 15’ 404 fc at 15 Brightness at R80 ≈26.7 fc at 16 ≈43.56 fc at 15’ ≈36.36 fc at 15 Initial Cost $2,377.00 $1,792.00 plus ETC lens train $440.00 TheatreAnnual Cost/Duty Cycle 1yr $26/ 5yr $130 1yr $52/ 5yr $260 1yr $223/ 5yr $1,115 TVAnnual Cost/Duty Cycle 1yr $89/ 5yr $445 1yr $175/ 5yr $875 1yr $735/ 5yr $3,675 Pros Instant color change speed 1 Cool Operation High Output to Watts Everyone has one 2 3 Colors or Vari White 1sec Color Change Serviceable Parts LED engine speed 3 Long Lamp Life / no Works w/ Existing Dim color costs or lamp System replacement 4 No Color Shift
  49. 49. Leko LED Plasma Incandescent Type LEDko 36 deg Sea Changer Plasma 36 deg Source 4 36 deg Power Consumption 163 w 320 w 750 w Brightness At Full 94 fc at 16 ≈484.8 fc at 15’ 404 fc at 15 Brightness at R80 ≈26.7 fc at 16 ≈43.56 fc at 15’ ≈36.36 fc at 15 Initial Cost $2,377.00 $1,792.00 plus ETC lens train $440.00 TheatreAnnual Cost/Duty Cycle 1yr $26/ 5yr $130 1yr $52/ 5yr $260 1yr $223/ 5yr $1,115 TVAnnual Cost/Duty Cycle 1yr $89/ 5yr $445 1yr $175/ 5yr $875 1yr $735/ 5yr $3,675 Cons 1 Circuit Boards/ Power Heat High Power/ Heat Supply/ Fans 2 Price Bulk/weight Short Lamp Life 3 Possible Fan Noise Price 1 Color 4 Must choose between Color Shift While white or color for intensity Dimming 5 Possible filament noise or blow out
  50. 50. NTV Studio at Dogus Power Center Istanbul 2011System Designed by Mark London and Michael E. SteinbergLighting Design by Niel Galen
  51. 51. Soft Light LED Fluorescent Incandescent Type Galaxia KLA 595S 105w Kino Parabeam 401 1K Zip Soft Light Power Consumption 105W 220w 1000w Brightness At Full 49.79 fc at 6’ 166 fc at 6’ 135 fc at 6’ Brightness at CC ≈49.79 fc at 6’ ≈166 fc at 6’ ≈With CTB 48.6 fc at 6’ Initial Cost $3,408.77 $1,449.95 $550.00 TheatreAnnual Cost/Duty Cycle 1yr $17/ 5yr $85 1yr $36/ 5yr $180 1yr $209/ 5yr $1045 (Electricity at 3hrs a day+ lampreplacement, not including labor) TVAnnual Cost/Duty Cycle 1yr $57/ 5yr $285 1yr $696/ 5yr $3,480 1yr $120/ 5yr $600(Electricity at 10hrs a day+ lampreplacement, not including labor)
  52. 52. Soft Light LED Fluorescent Incandescent Type Galaxia KLA 595S 105w Kino Parabeam 401 1K Zip Soft Light Power Consumption 105W 220w 1000w Brightness At Full 49.79 fc at 6’ 166 fc at 6’ 135 fc at 6’ Brightness at CC ≈49.79 fc at 6’ ≈166 fc at 6’ ≈With CTB 48.6 fc at 6’ Initial Cost $3,408.77 $1,449.95 $550.00 Theatre 1yr $17/ 5yr $85 1yr $36/ 5yr $180 1yr $209/ 5yr $1045Annual Cost/Duty Cycle TV 1yr $57/ 5yr $285 1yr $120/ 5yr $600 1yr $696/ 5yr $3,480Annual Cost/Duty Cycle Pros 1 Cool Operation Cool Operation Everyone has one 2 Variable white Long Lamp Life Serviceable Parts 3 Low maintenance / Lamp color choices Works w/ Existing Dim narrow profile include 2900, 5600k as System well as chromakey blue and green 4 No Color Shift
  53. 53. Soft Light LED Fluorescent Incandescent Type Galaxia KLA 595S 105w Kino Parabeam 401 1K Zip Soft Light Power Consumption 105W 220w 1000w Brightness At Full 49.79 fc at 6’ 166 fc at 6’ 135 fc at 6’ Brightness at CC ≈49.79 fc at 6’ ≈166 fc at 6’ ≈With CTB 48.6 fc at 6’ Initial Cost $3,408.77 $1,449.95 $550.00 Theatre 1yr $17/ 5yr $85 1yr $36/ 5yr $180 1yr $209/ 5yr $1045Annual Cost/Duty Cycle TV 1yr $57/ 5yr $285 1yr $120/ 5yr $600 1yr $696/ 5yr $3,480Annual Cost/Duty Cycle Cons 1 Circuit Boards/ Power Different Lamps for CC High Power/ Heat Supply 2 Price Bulky Short Lamp Life 3 Does not dim to zero 1 Color 4 Price Color Shift While Dimming 5 Ballasts need occasional Possible filament noise replacement as well as or blow out lamps
  54. 54. Bloomberg NY Newsroom Studio On Air in 2009 Reuter NY Studios On Air in 2008System Designed by Mark London and Michael E. Steinberg System Designed by Mark London and Michael E. SteinbergLighting Design by Dan Kelley Lighting Design by Michael E. Steinberg
  55. 55. Sustainable Lighting  Infrastructure Presented By: Steven Cullipher, LEED AP  BD&C 
  56. 56. Typical Performance Venue Lighting Systems There are generally two primary lighting systems in a performance space
  57. 57. House Lighting Systems Designed Within Specific Parameters: National Electric Code Illumination standards Local and/or state energy codes
  58. 58. House Lighting SystemsHouse Lighting SystemPurposes: General Illumination Task Lighting Ambience
  59. 59. House Lighting FixturesTraditionally StandardIncandescent or TungstenHalogen Sources.Hybrid Systems with Traditionaland Fluorescent Sources.
  60. 60. Dimming House LightsHistorically controlled in largegroups by high capacitydimmersDivided into SectionsDivided By Fixture Type
  61. 61. Changes in House Lighting Power Limitations Owner Efficiency Demands LED’s provide easy efficiency upgrades
  62. 62. Typical Performance Lighting SystemsThe Second primary lighting systemis the Stage Lighting System Largely excluded from Energy Codes Performance and Budget Parameters. Embraced Sustainable Lighting for it’s flexibility and efficiency.
  63. 63. Stage Lighting Systems Stage Lighting System Purposes: Visibility Locale Composition Mood
  64. 64. Stage Lighting FixturesHigher WattageSubtractive ColoringLimited Innovation
  65. 65. Types of Modern DimmingPrimary Dimmer Types:Forward Phase DimmersReverse Phase DimmersSine Wave Dimmers 
  66. 66. Phase Control TechnologyHas existed since the early 1900’s.Mainstreamed in the 1950’s with theadvent of the Silicon ControlledRectifier (SCR)Chops parts of the sine wave out ofeach power cycle.
  67. 67. Forward Phase DimmingPredictable Sine WaveManipulationDelay from Zero Crossing PointSwitches from Full-Off to Full-On
  68. 68. Forward Phase Dimming
  69. 69. Forward Phase Dimming Issues: Harmonic Distortion
  70. 70. Forward Phase Dimming Issues: Harmonic Distortion
  71. 71. Reverse Phase DimmingCan be switched on and off easilyand slowlyTypically do not need inductors.Remove power from the trailing endof the power cycle.More compatible with non-linearloads (check with manufacturer).
  72. 72. Reverse Phase Dimmer
  73. 73. Issues with Reverse Phase DimmersHeatMaintenance on DistributedDimming SystemsDifferent Infrastructure
  74. 74. Distributed Dimming
  75. 75. Sine Wave DimmingUses IGBT TechnologyRemoves a large number of muchsmaller portions of the sine wave.Replicates Sine Wave withAmplitude ModulationQuiet Load Operation
  76. 76. Sine Wave Dimmer
  77. 77. Considerations with Sine Wave Dimming:ExpensiveSizeElectrical Installation EfficiencyQuiescent Load
  78. 78. Dimming Stage FixturesEarly Technology Limited ControlCoincidental decrease in Cost PerDimmer= More Dimmers Greater Control Increased Design Flexibility
  79. 79. Dimming LED Stage LightConventional Dimming unable toprovide the levels of controlrequired for multicolor fixtures.Multicolor Fixtures are usually RGB,RGBA, RGBW, RGBAW orRGBCAOIMinimum one channel of control percolor.
  80. 80. Advantages of LED Lighting EfficiencyLED lighting is one of the most efficient methods of producingvisible light.Efficiency refers to the amount of energy that is consumed bythe lighting source and converted into visible light.
  81. 81. Power Usage and HeatGreatly improved Lumens perWattLess Heat LossReduced HVAC impact No Burned Fingers!!
  82. 82. Other Advantages ofLEDs vs. IncandescentLonger Lamp LifeNo Expendable Color MediaNo Color ShiftShock Resistance
  83. 83. More LED AdvantagesLow ToxicitySlow FailureLess Expensive Infrastructure
  84. 84. Disadvantages of LEDsCostTemperature requirementsConvergenceColor Spectrum RenderingPossible Flicker
  85. 85. SummaryPowerful ToolLower Cost of OwnershipRetrofit Control IssuesDon’t Dump The Old Toolbox
  86. 86. Theatre Consultants Collaborative, LLCPerformance Lighting  Systems Design presented by Curtis Kasefang
  87. 87. Theatre Consultants Collaborative, LLC The End Game:• No Dimmers• No Dimmer Room.• Just power distribution and control.
  88. 88. Theatre Consultants Collaborative, LLC Today• Traditional Broadway Touring Hall• Producing / Touring Hall• Hybrid
  89. 89. Theatre Consultants Collaborative, LLCTraditional Broadway Touring HallNo control over fixture choice therefore:• Dimmers and Relays• Ethernet and DMX Distribution• Large HVAC plant and Electrical feeds
  90. 90. Theatre Consultants Collaborative, LLC Producing / Touring HallSome control over fixture choice therefore:• LED based cyc lights• Less dimmers, circuits and relays• Expanded Ethernet and DMX Distribution• Reduced HVAC plant and Electrical feeds
  91. 91. Theatre Consultants Collaborative, LLC HybridStudio Theatres & TV Studios have control over fixture  choice therefore:• LED based cyc lights• LED based wash fixtures• No installed dimmers ‐> No dimmer room• Installed Relays• Dimmers at focusing fixtures• Expanded Ethernet and DMX Distribution• Even more reduced HVAC plant and Electrical feeds
  92. 92. Theatre Consultants Collaborative, LLC TomorrowAccepted and viable high efficiency focusing  fixtures therefore:• No installed dimmers ‐> No dimmer room• 3 Phase feeder distribution to local breakouts• Few dimmers at special fixtures only• Ethernet and DMX Distribution• Greatly reduced HVAC plant and Electrical feeds
  93. 93. Theatre Consultants Collaborative, LLCHigh Efficiency = Expensive … or not
  94. 94. Theatre Consultants Collaborative, LLCCyc Lighting Cost Savings Worksheet Calculations
  95. 95. Theatre Consultants Collaborative, LLCCyc Lighting Cost Savings Worksheet Parameters
  96. 96. Generic Studio Comparison (U of Alabama) Fixture Inventory
  97. 97. Generic Studio Comparison (U of Alabama) Energy Cost Savings
  98. 98. Theatre Consultants Collaborative, LLC Cost Conclusions• Need to look at the whole system when justifying the initial cost.• The cost of upgrade can be offset by savings in electrical and HVAC  infrastructure during new construction or major renovation.• Operational savings still offer a payback period of less than a year in  an existing television studio and under 3 years in an existing live  performance venue.• Ongoing savings are evenly split between energy and expendables.• During the 90’s power companies were giving grants for fixture  replacements that yielded a 42% energy savings, we expect similar  opportunities for 80% energy savings.
  99. 99. Theatre Consultants Collaborative, LLC IssuesExisting Halls• Change dimmers for relay modules• Convert control infrastructureOperational Changes:• Capital budgeting for fixture replacement• Network design & administration
  100. 100. All Presentations Will Be Available at www.SustainablePractice.org/ldi

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