Getting to carbon zero


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Getting to carbon zero

  1. 1. The Holy Grail of Sustainability Thursday, October 27, 2011
  2. 2. Charlie Deull, Co-Chairman of The BroadwayGreen AllianceSian Alexander, Associate Director, Julie’sBicycleKatie Oman, LEED AP, Fisher DachsAssociatesRobert Usdin, LEED AP, President, ShowmanFabricators
  3. 3. B RC ON C A D ar i b ox on (C id tr ic O2 e ) e M nes balGlo ing TONS Ton rmWa tial Greenhouse Po t en P) Gasses ( GW
  4. 4. Carbon:◦ A Solid in our Atmosphere not a gas◦ Contained in all living matter◦ Forms CO2 when burnedCarbon Dioxide:◦ Usually a gas in our Atmosphere (except Dry Ice)◦ Approximately 3% of Atmosphere
  5. 5. •Metric ton of CO2 which is 2,204pounds.•Mr. Ames and his 9th grade physicsstudents Cohasset High School inCohasset, MA•27 feet wide by 27 feet high by 27feet deep
  6. 6. •Via Marcus Fairs at Dezeen:•Artist Alfio Bonanno•Architect Christophe Cornubert•The volume of a metric tonne of CO2(1.1 short tons)•The amount an average personproduces in a month•A giant four-sided video projectorfloating on the lake in front ofCopenhagens Tycho Brahe Planetarium•Convention on Climate Change.
  7. 7. Gelvin Stevenson, Ph.D.,One ton equal 2,000 Director of the NY Energy andpounds. Environmental Funders and Adjunct Professor ofThe density of CO2 is Environmental Economics at0.1234 pounds per cubic Pratt Institute.foot.One pound of CO2 fillsabout 8.1 cubic feet ofspace.2,000 pounds of CO2 fillabout 16,200 cubic feet.That 16,200 cubic feet isabout 25.3 feet on eachside.
  8. 8. 35ToyotaCamrys
  9. 9. Global Warming Potentials(GWPs) measure therelative effectiveness of GHGsin trapping theEarth’s heat. For example, theGWP of Methane is21, indicating that its radiativeeffect on a massbasis is 21 times as powerfulas CO2 over the same timehorizon.
  10. 10. Global anthropogenic greenhouse gasemissions broken down into 8 differentsectors for the year 2000.
  11. 11. Getting to Carbon ZeroLDI 201127 October 2011Sian AlexanderAssociate Director, Theatre, Julie’s Bicycle
  12. 12. A coalition of music, theatre Sector-specific researchand scientific experts Industry Green certificationcatalysing change acrossthe creative industries. Industry Green Tools Energy management Resources Support Training Networks
  13. 13. Carbon Calculators• Why use them?• How and when?• What’s useful and what isn’t?• What’s available?
  14. 14. Carbon Calculators•••••
  15. 15. Native Energy
  16. 16. Energy Star
  17. 17. Industry Green Julie’s Bicycle developed and industry-tested Voluntary reporting Long term carbon emissions reduction Transparency and accountability Market transformation of the supply chain
  18. 18. IG Tools www.juliesbicycle.comVenuesToursOfficesFestivalsTouring Tool:ProductionPage
  19. 19. Climate Impacts of TouringTour LegDates DV8 US Oct - Dec 2009 Touring ToolScale MiddlePerformances 15People 16 • US TourHotel room nights 560Flights - one way 80Ground travel - Next Steps for Climate ActionTrucks 1 1. COMMIT Work with your tour team to consider • Analysis ofTotal GHG emissionsGHG emissions/performance 98 tonnes CO 2e 6.5 tonnes CO 2e environmental impacts and look for areas of improvement. 2. UNDERSTAND freight, flights,Environmental cost £5,0961 tonne = 1,000 kg; 11 tonnes CO2e = UK per capita emissionsEnvironmental cost for GHG emissions is set as £52/ tonne CO2e Use Julie’s Bicycle Industry Green online tour tool to scope & measure the GHG emissions of your tours (it is free!). ground travel, Total GHG Emissions, 98 tonnes CO2e Hotel 3. IMPROVE Ask suppliers for efficient technologies; use a green rider with venues; provide hotels 18% training to team to reduce energy use; & minimize the amount of equipment being transported. Freight 53% • Total emissions Flights 4. COMMUNICATE 29% Tell your team, colleagues, suppliers & audiences what you are doing & why you are doing it.We would very much like to thank you for contributing your tour data to the and emissionsMoving Arts study (downloadable from our website). We are now working with the performing artssector to take forward the recommendations of the study. If you would like support in reducing theclimate impacts of your tours please do get in, t. +44 (0)207 379 6886 per performanceWe thank our funder for supporting the research:
  20. 20.
  21. 21. New Carbon Budgeting Tool•Research Project to support the show From Thine Eyes•Use the efforts in this show to create a streamlined tool that measures fiscal and carbon budget at the same time•This project builds upon the ratings system, materials descriptions and presentation of Mo`olelos Green Theater Choices Toolkit created by Mo`oleloPerforming Arts Company ( and Brown and  SignalWilliams Environmental, LLC  Theatre(‐
  22. 22. Sian AlexanderAssociate Director, Theatre
  23. 23. Entertaining with Carbon What we do and how it contributesGetting to Carbon Zero LDI 2011
  24. 24. Sources of CO2 Emissions
  25. 25. Transportation
  26. 26. Transportation
  27. 27. Buildings
  28. 28. Buildings source:
  29. 29. Buildings
  30. 30. Buildings source: GGLO and Magnusson Klemencic Associates, Seattle
  31. 31. Operations
  32. 32. Operations
  33. 33. Operations
  34. 34. Stage Operations!
  35. 35. Stage Operations! Let’s talk about electricity.
  36. 36. Electricity
  37. 37. Sources of CO2 Emissions
  38. 38. Sources of CO2 Emissions
  39. 39. Sources of CO2 Emissions + =
  40. 40. Understanding  Carbon or text BGA to 99222
  41. 41. What Is a Carbon Offset? An activity that reduces the emissions of  greenhouses gases (GHG) or stores GHG  permanently. Projects that reduce emissions directly:  capture and destruction of agricultural,  landfill, and coal bed methane Projects that reduce emissions  indirectly: renewable energy and  efficiency Projects that store GHG: forestry and  land‐use
  42. 42. What Is a Renewable Energy Credit/Certificate (REC)? Renewable facilities produce two commodities Environmental  REC attributes/ability to  claim attributes Electricity 1 mWh generic  power RECs allow one to sell the value of renewable energy  without the temporal or geographic constraints that  limit electricity
  43. 43. When is a REC really an offset?Additionality: Essentially, additionality means the project was  developed “for the purpose of reducing GHG” and  not “business as usual”
  44. 44. Requirements of an offset1. Real 2. Measurable3. Permanent4. Additional5. Independently verified6. Sold once
  45. 45. “High‐quality offsets” The Leading Standards CDM (financial) Voluntary Carbon Standard (no financial) Climate Action Registry (no financial) Gold Standard (financial) Climate Leaders (no financial)
  46. 46. Offset Project Types Voluntary Offsets 2006 Voluntary Offsets 2007 3% 9% Forestry 2% 6% 18% Forestry 20% 36% Renewables Renewables 5% Methane 15% Methane Efficiency3% Efficiency 33% 33% Industrial Gases 17% Industrial  Mixed Gases Source: State of the Voluntary Carbon Market 2007   Ecosystems Marketplace * restated
  47. 47. Key Points about offsets/Controversy 3 principal criticisms: Offsets can be used as license to generate carbon Certain offsets are not “additional” Calculated amounts include projected savingReal opportunity = Reduce AND offset Not reduce OR offset Not reduce THEN offset
  48. 48. NativeEnergy’s Help Build™ ModelNativeEnergy’s Help Build™ carbon offsets help fund the construction of new carbon reduction projects. Projects deliver strong environmental and social benefits. Project types include community‐based wind, farm methane, solar, biomass, landfill gas, and more. All projects are validated and all offsets are verified to the leading standards.
  49. 49. Case Study: Gerding Theatre
  50. 50. Case Study: Gerding Theatre image & info courtesy GBD ArchitectsThe Greener Facility: Beyond LEED LDI 2011
  51. 51. 30% of power from the sun; 70% purchased through green power program
  52. 52. CO2 for Broadway or text BGA to 99222
  53. 53. Conversion Factors for Broadway CO2 Calcs (lbs of CO2 per  Electricity Emissions Rate  0.907 kWh) Transmission and Distribution  (percent kWh  0.92 Loss received) Natural Gas Emissions Factor 0.12059 (lbs of CO2 per ft3) Steam to Btu conversion  (btu per lb of  1,687 coefficient Steam) Btu to lbs of CO2 conversion  76.478 (lbs of CO2 per Btu) or text BGA to 99222
  54. 54. Estimated Broadway Footprint Heat and electricity represent the bulk of the footprint of a  Broadway show Average Broadway Theatre Generates 400‐ 500 tons / year  from heat and electricity Total CO2 Estimate for all Broadway Theatres (40 total) =  16,000 to 20,000 tons for heat / electricity or text BGA to 99222
  55. 55. Broadway Marquee Lights The switch to greener  outside and marquee  lighting alone is saving  approximately 700  tons/year
  56. 56. Getting to Carbon ZeroUK Case Studies27 October 2011Sian AlexanderAssociate Director, Theatre, Julie’s Bicycle
  57. 57. Sage Gateshead• Dedicated Green Team• Switch to LEDs• Better control of heating and cooling• Better air-con filters• Switch off campaign• 44% reduction in elec, 28% in gas• Electric car charging point and bike racks
  58. 58. Glyndebourne• Boilers replaced• Improved heating and cooling timings• Lighting updates, motion sensors and timers• 850kW wind turbine• Free audience coach
  59. 59. Theatre Royal Plymouth• Saved £10k on water through better urinals, taps & hippos• Donated old fire hoses to a monkey sanctuary• all roof lights now LED• Replaced 750kW 50% efficient boiler with 2 50kW 98%efficient boilers and a new BMS – 25.5% reduction in gas• AHU speeds set to 80% - saving 50% of energy• Considering solar panels
  60. 60. Materials - what do we know?• Royal Court annual 19-68 tonnes CO2e• Broadway Driving Miss Daisy 18 tonnes CO2e• Radiohead 2-7 tonnes CO2e• A Doll’s House Library Theatre 0.7 tonnes• Tate art crate – hardwood to European softwood
  61. 61. Stage Lighting – what do we know?• ~9% of energy use in a venue?• Feedback to designers and technicians helps• LEDs less power + less cooling• White Light Green Guide• BBC Low Energy Lighting Guide
  62. 62. Conclusions• Focus on building energy first – boilers, HVAC, LEDs etc
  63. 63. Sian AlexanderAssociate Director, Theatre
  64. 64. How Green is Your Set?A Look at the 2010 Broadway Productionof Driving Miss Daisy
  65. 65. Set Design:John Lee Beatty Model Photos
  66. 66. Designer Planand Elevations
  67. 67. Showman Shop Drawings
  68. 68. Unit of Item Category Quantity Ordered Stocked Unit Total MeasureGorrilla Glue 8oz adhesives 4.00 oz 8 32HY 150 330ml, ea, #00283548 adhesives 6.00 ml 330 1980Loctite® Black Max 380 Super Glue 1 oz(28.3G) Bottle, Begins to Harden/90 Seconds, adhesives 1.00 oz 1 1ea, #74555A65Connections II Carpet - Onyx color - 12 wide carpet 1.00 sq yard 22.66 22.66x 17 yards long -- must be flameproofed.25oz Black Memorable velour fabric 20.00 yard 1 2050 yd roll of black duvetyne fabric 1.00 roll 1 1Black Serge LY fabric 12.00 yard 1 12Border: 25oz Black Memorable velour, 48’ w x fabric 1.00 sq yard 85.33 85.3316’ h, WGT top, PP bottom – NAP DOWNExtra-Firm White F1 Felt Sheet 1/4" Thick, 12" fabric 3.00 sf 1 3X 12", Adhesive Backed, ea, 8334K12Masking Proscenium Covers: 25oz BlackMemorable velour cover piece, 1 width x 9 fabric 1.00 yard 9 9yardsMasking Tabs: 25oz Black Memorable velour,30” w x 20’ h, WGT top, chain bottom – NAP fabric 2.00 sq yard 66.66 133.32DOWNPrinted Leno Scrim fabric 1.00 sf 1125 1125Smoke Pocket Flat Covers: 25 oz BlackMemorable velour cover piece, 1 width x 14 fabric 1.00 yard 14 14yardsSR Leg: 25oz Black Memorable velour, 8’ w x fabric 1.00 sq yard 26.66 26.6630’ h, WGT top, chain bottom – NAP DOWNSales Order #57399 - Window printing on plastics 1.00 sf 118 118lexan
  69. 69. The energy consumed inmaking materials including: •Acquisition of Raw Materials (Mining / Extracting) •Processing •Manufacturing •Transportation •Construction
  70. 70. Amount of Energy Amount of CO2used in extracting, produced from the producing, and energy to produce the transporting the product product
  71. 71. TOTAL EMBODIED TOTAL EMBODIED ENERGY MATERIAL UOM QUANTITY ENERGY (MJ/kg) (MJ)Adhesives: Epoxide 9.28 kg 137 1,272ResinCarpet: PET 18.95 sq meter 108 2,046Fabric: Cotton 576.26 kg 143 82,405Hardware: Misc. 227.27 kg 69 15,682Paint: Solvent 36.36 kg 97 3,527Paint: Waterborne 370.45 kg 59 21,857 Equivalent # of 3 BedroomPaper: Coarse 45.45 kg 24.8 1,127Plastics: General 8.87 kg 80.5 714 Houses Powered88for 1 Year:Plastics: 75.09 kg 112.09 8,417PolycarbonatePlastics: Resin Based 887.73 kg 78,120Steel: Bar / RodSteel: Pipe / Tube 58.00 357.25 kg kg 11.6*22.3 25.8 1,293 9,217Steel: Plate 519.85 kg 33.2 17,259Steel: Sections *Based 137.27 on US EPA kg estimates 28.1 3,857Timber: MDF 236.36 kg 11 2,600Timber: Plywood 4891.35 kg 15 73,370Timber: Softwood 1646.35 kg 10.4 17,122lumberTimber: Hardboard 102.98 kg 16 1,648Timber: Hardwood 570.02 kg 10.4 5,928lumberTotal Materials 10,775 kg 347,462 MJ 96,517 kWhShop Energy (Based on Proportional Man Hours of Overall Shop) 6840 kWhTotal Energy for Construction of 103,357 kWhSet
  72. 72. TOTAL EMBODIED CARBON TOTAL EMBODIED MATERIAL UOM QUANTITY (kgCO2/kg) CARBONAdhesives: Epoxide 9 kg 5.7 53ResinCarpet: PET 19 sq meter 5.86 111Fabric: Cotton 576 kg 6.78 3,907Hardware: Misc. 227 kg 3.73 848Paint: Solvent 36 kg 3.13 114Paint: Waterborne 370 kg 2.12 785Paper: Coarse 45 kg 1.29 59Plastics: GeneralPlastics: Polycarbonate TOTAL EMBODIED CO2: 9 75 kg kg 6.03 2.73 24 453Plastics: Resin Based 888 18,129 kg kg 2.98 2,645Steel: Bar / RodSteel: Pipe / Tube (18.1 metric tonnes) 58 357 kg kg 1.82 1.9 106 679Steel: Plate 520 kg 2.15 1,118Steel: Sections 137 kg 1.97 270Timber: MDF 236 kg 0.72 170Timber: Plywood 4891 kg 1.07 5,234Timber: Softwood 1646 kg 0.58 955lumberTimber: Hardboard 103 kg 1.05 108Timber: Hardwood 570 kg 0.86 490lumberTotal Materials 10,775 kg Total Embodied CO2 18,129 kg
  73. 73. WOOD
  74. 74. ProjectAverage: 2.87 (weighted )
  76. 76. and Enthusiastically Announce International Green  Theatre Alliancean alliance of organizations primarily promoting  greener theatre on a national level