Alarcón e peixoto,2008 etnobotânica bertholletia


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Alarcón e peixoto,2008 etnobotânica bertholletia

  1. 1. Use of Terra Firme Forest by Caicubi Caboclos, Middle RioNegro, Amazonas, Brazil. A Quantitative Study1JUAN GABRIEL SOLER ALARCÓN* AND ARIANE LUNA PEIXOTOEscola Nacional de Botânica Tropical—JBRJ, Rua Pacheco Leão no. 2040-Solar da Imperatriz, CEP22460-030, Horto-Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil*Corresponding author; e-mail: Use of Terra Firme Forest by Caicubi Caboclos, Middle Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. A Quantitative Study. An ethnobotanical study was carried out with caboclos from the village of Caicubi, Roraima State, Brazil. This village is located between the Rio Negro and Rio Branco. The data were collected in 1 ha of terra firme forest and involved caboclo knowledge of the tree species with individuals dbh ≥ 10 cm. A total of 11 informants between 34 to 74 years of age were interviewed. The caboclos used 185 (98%) of the 189 species analyzed. The family with the highest use value for the community was Arecaceae. The species with the highest use value was Bertholletia excelsa. Arecaceae, Lecythidaceae, and Sapotaceae sho- wed a wide variety of uses. The uses were grouped into eight categories; those with the highest use values were firewood, technology, and construction. The mean use value for species was 1.6. The most intensely used resources in the forest were wood, leaves, spines, and exudates. Key Words: Ethnobotanical inventory, Caboclos, Amazon forest, Brazil, Traditional knowledge, Plant use. Introduction Prance (1995) stresses the importance of working Ethnobotanical studies have attempted to gather with traditional nonindigenous communitiesknowledge of plant use by traditional communities. (campsesinos, caboclos, mestizos, etc.) because theseQuantitative ethnobotanical techniques are being have been largely neglected by ethnobotanists.used to analyze traditional knowledge because they Much of the forest lore of these communitiesare more reliable for data collection and analysis and probably came from indigenous cultures, some offor testing hypotheses (Phillips 1996). In Amazon which are already extinct (Prance 1995). Further-forests, 1-ha study plots have been used to discover more, the ethnobotanical knowledge of thesehow useful the forest is to these communities in people is also threatened by the growth of cattleterms of number and proportion of species and ranching, construction of hydroelectric dams, min-families (Phillips et al. 1994). Although only a few ing activities, and other development projects. Onstudies of this kind exist, most of them have been the other hand, the lifestyle of these communitiesdone with indigenous communities (Boom 1988, and their unique knowledge of the forest are fast1989, 1990; Balée 1986, 1987; Milliken et al. disappearing resources that could be used for a1992; Prance et al. 1987; Paz y Miño et al. 1995) more rational development of the region (Pranceand traditional nonindigenous communities 1995). It is worth emphasizing that part of today’s(Pinedo-Vazquez et al. 1990; Phillips and Gentry indigenous knowledge includes elements of folklore1993a, b; Phillips et al. 1994). that have been incorporated during the course of adaptation to a changing world (Campos and Ehringhaus 2003). The Brazilian Amazon caboclos are a mixed-blood population resulting from the intermarriage of 1 Received 7 December 2006; accepted 17 October indigenous people and Portuguese settlers and, to a2007; published online 3 May 2008. lesser extent, people of African descent from north-Economic Botany, 62(1), 2008, pp. 60–73© 2008, by The New York Botanical Garden Press, Bronx, NY 10458-5126 U.S.A.
  2. 2. 2008] SOLER ET AL.: CABOCLOS’ FOREST USE IN BRAZIL 61eastern Brazil (Parker 1989). In spite of the differ- therefore done by middlemen. The village has aences between natives and caboclos, widespread primary school and a public health post with asimilarities indicate commonalities of occupation precarious service record and an overall lack ofand resource use (German 2001). Nevertheless, medicine. The Christian faith predominates; therecaboclos are not as colorful as indigenous people, is a Catholic church and an evangelical church.and thus may hold less interest for researchers, The people live mainly from fishing, hunting,which may explain why caboclo knowledge, use, subsistence agriculture (cassava), and harvestingand management of natural resources in the forest products. The main source of income duringAmazon has been poorly studied (Parker 1989). the rainy season comes from the sale of Brazil nuts The aims of this study were to understand and (Bertholletia excelsa) and a liana (Heteropsis spp).quantify plant use of individuals with dbh (diam- During the dry season, ornamental fish make upeter breast high) ≥ 10 cm in 1 ha of terra firme the bulk of trade. Craftwork such as baskets andforest by the caboclos of Caicubi village, Caracarai mats made mostly of Ischnosiphon sp. and Philo-Municipality, in the state of Roraima, Brazil. dendron sp. are sold occasionally. The first inhabitants of Caicubí village arrived in the 1940s to extract Brazil nuts. More people Study Area gradually arrived from other regions of the Caicubi village is located on Caicubi Creek, a Amazon, mainly from the upper and middletributary of the Jufari River, at the junction of the Negro and lower Solimões rivers and other areasrivers Negro and Branco (01°01′43″S; 62°05′21″W; in Roraima. The main language is Portuguese,Fig. 1), Caracarai Municipality, in the state of but the oldest inhabitants who came from theRoraima. There are 400 habitants and 72 families upper Negro River also speak the “Língua Geral,”in the village. The nearest towns are Barcelos (12 h which is common in that part of the Amazonby boat), Manaus (36 h by boat), and Caracaraí (Ricardo et al. 2005).(on the Branco River, 70 h by boat), which makes Study area characteristics, geomorphology, andtrade between village and town difficult. Trading is climate, as well as floristic and structural analyses Fig. 1. Location of the village of Caicubi, Caracaraí municipality, Roraima, Brazil.
  3. 3. 62 ECONOMIC BOTANY [VOLof the terra firme forests, are found in Soler- Sample collection and interviews took place in twoAlarcon and Peixoto (2007). stages. The first stage focused on 0.5 ha, and six informants were taken to the plot and questioned about names, uses, and plant parts utilized (dbh≥ Methods 10 cm). The second stage focused on the other 0.5 ha, and here also there were six informants. Methodology was adapted from Phillips and However, five of these were different from those inGentry (1993a, b). It was based on informant the first stage because, during the second stage, allconsensus, but varies in that (1) data analysis used but one of the informants from the first group werescientific names rather than common names due to busy tending their crops or were off fishing orthe great variation in the latter between informants, hunting. A total of 11 informants (nine men andand (2) informants were not chosen randomly— two women) from 34 to 74 years of age werethey were selected for their knowledge of the forest interviewed. Each informant was interviewedas recommended by village inhabitants. alone so that his or her responses would not be Two visits were made between November 2003 influenced by the others.and February 2004, for a total of 56 days spent in The data was analyzed from an etic perspectivethe village. The first week was used to become that categorizes and organizes the ethnobotanicalfamiliar with the trails around the village and to get data according to the researcher’s point of viewto know the forest. A trail used by the inhabitants to (Zent 1996).extract nontimber forest products was chosen for Uses were grouped into eight categories:this study. Along this trail, a 1 h plot (50×200 m) construction, technology, medicine, trade, food,was laid out about 2 km from the village. crafts, fuel, and others. The categories construc- All trees, lianas, and hemiepiphytes (dbh≥10 cm) tion, medicine, food, and technology are definedin the plot were numbered. A sample from one according to Galeano (2000). The crafts categoryindividual of each species was collected, pressed, and follows Pinedo-Vazquez et al. 1990, the fuellater preserved in alcohol; a few branches were category follows Balée (1987), and the othersplaced beside the tree to help the informants in category, to which “fruits useful for game” wasspecimen identification. added, follows Prance et al. (1987). The “walk-in-the woods” methodology was used The categories are defined as follows:(Alexiades 1996), whereby each informant is askedto give the name and uses of each specimen Construction: houses, posts, and fencespreviously tagged in the plot. In order to reduce Technology: material for fishing andfatigue during the interviews, the informant wasquestioned about each species but not each hunting, agricultural tools,specimen in the plot. If a species occurred more cooking utensils, canoes,than once in the plot, the informant was ques- furniture, leaves for smokingtioned about that species until it became clear that Medicine: substances used to cure orhis response did not vary. An event was defined as alleviate illnessthe process of asking one informant on 1 day Trade: economic useabout the uses of each species (Phillips and Gentry Food: food for human beings1993a). “This means if in 1 day one species was Crafts: bark for dying fibers used inencountered more than once, the informants’ weaving, slats for finishingresponses were combined with the other previous baskets, leaves for weaving,interviews of that species, with the exception when seeds for making rings andthe informants gave a different name to the samespecies on the same day, this was considered earringsanother event” (Phillips and Gentry 1993a). Fuel: firewood, charcoal, and volatileVoucher specimens were deposited in the herbar- resinsium of Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro (RB), Others: ritualistic plants, toys, fruits toand duplicates of fertile specimens in the herbarium feed wild animalsof Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia(INPA). See Soler-Alarcon and Peixoto (2007) for The species’ use value was calculated according toJ. G. Soler’s collection numbers. Phillips and Gentry (1993a) where the use value
  4. 4. 2008] SOLER ET AL.: CABOCLOS’ FOREST USE IN BRAZIL 63(UV) of each species s for each informant i is P bark (25% each); and crafts—wood, fruits andestimated as UVis ¼ Uis =nis ; where Uis is the seeds, leaves and spines (one use each, 25%).number of uses mentioned in each event by Phillips et al. (1994) stresses that the totalinformant i; nis is the number of events for species number of useful species and the number of usess with informant i. per species in a given area is a very crude measure The overall use value for each species s, UVs, is of the cultural importance of forests and that these P results must be interpreted with care. This is seencalculated as UVs ¼ UVis =ns ; where ns is thetotal number of informants interviewed for species s. if one observes the inconsistent pattern of use The use value for each family (FUV) was values of the 30 species with the greatest numbercalculated according to Phillips and Gentry (1993a) of uses cited by informants (Fig. 3). Some species P are used by only one or a few informants, whileas FUV ¼ UVs nf ; where UVs is the use value others are used by all the informants. Theseof each species; nf is the number of species in the dissimilarities show that almost all species havefamily. occasional uses, but only a few species are intensely used (Phillips et al. 1994). Results and Discussion Many species (42%) have use values between In the 1-ha plot, 98% of the families (42 out of 0.5 and 1.5 (Fig. 4). High UVs are concen-43), 98% of the species (185 out of 189), and 99% trated in a few species. Average UV for all speciesof the individuals with dbh≥10 cm (537 out of is 1.59. By use category, average UVs are as follows:541) were used by the Caicubi village informants. fuel—0.43; technology—0.43; construction—When the data are analyzed excluding the fuel 0.39; food—0.14; medicine—0.13; crafts—category, which includes the greatest number of 0.02; trade—0.02; and others—0.04. The speciesspecies and individuals, 95% of the species (180), with the highest UV was Bertholletia excelsa,98% of the individuals, and 93 % of the families are followed by Pouteria glomerata, Eschweileracited as being useful. pedicellata, Eschweilera coriacea, Euterpe precatoria, A total of 1,763 events and an average of 5.4 uses Licania hirsute, and Bocageopsis multiflora. For theper species were recorded. A total of 109 different list of species with UV, relative abundance,uses were registered for the species found in the plot number of events, and number of informants,(Table 1). Bertholletia excelsa was cited as having contact the authors.the greatest number of uses (14) (Fig. 2). Four species of lianas (dbh≥10 cm) were found The 109 uses (Table 2) are distributed in the in the plot with one individual each. Average UVcategories as follows: technology has the highest for these species was 1.12; 48% of this value isnumber of uses (40%), follow by medicine (27%), attributed to the medicine category, 33% to theconstruction (8%), food (6%), trade (3%), fuel food category, 11% to the technology category,(3%), crafts (3%), and others (6%). Wood is the and 8% to the fuel category. There were twomost intensely used resource, involved in 26% of species of hemiepiphytes, each with one individ-the uses cited. This is followed by exudates (latex, ual. Average UV for these species was 0.42, andresins, and saps—22%), leaves and spines (21%), 100% of this value is attributed to the medicinebark (15%), fruits and seeds (13%), apical category. For trees, the average UV for the speciesmeristem (4%), roots (2%), and stipules (2%). was 1.61 and the most important categories were In the technology category, wood (36%) plus technology, fuel, and construction.leaves and spines (34%) together constitute 70% of The categories that make the largest contribu-the uses (Table 2). In the construction category, tion to the total UV are fuel, technology, andwood is the most intensely used resource (88% of construction. These together contribute 78% ofthe uses). In the trade category, wood, fruits and the total UV (Table 3). It should be pointed outseeds, exudates, and the apical meristem are that while 91% of the useful species in the plotequally used (25% each). In the medicine category: are used for fuel, 83% for technology, and 75%bark and exudates together provide 22 different for construction, very few species are founduses (74%—11 uses each). Percentages in the exclusively in one category (Table 4).remaining categories were as follows: food—fruits The categories crafts, trade, and others haveand seeds, exudates, and apical meristem (28.6% low UV percentages and low number of specieseach); fuel—wood, fruits and seeds, exudates, and used (Tables 3, 4), which shows that the species
  5. 5. 64 ECONOMIC BOTANY [VOL Table 1. USES OF PLANTS FROM THE FOREST BY THE CABOCLOS OF CAICUBI, RORAIMA, BRAZIL.Categories UsesConstruction Girders, traverses, supports, crossbeams Bark to make walls Sawed wood for walls and roofs Leaves for thatching Round wood or split trunks for fences Split trunk for oven structure, house construction Plywood House foundations and beams PostsMedicine Sap for muscular sprains Root for anemia Resin for headache Stipule to mature furuncle Resin as anti-inflammatory Operculum to treat terygiums in the eye Sap, antidote for snake bite Bark, antidote for snake bite Bark for diarrhea Seeds to cure appendicitis Leaves to improve dogs’ senseof smell for game Bark to cure the kidney Anti-inflammatory sap for toothache Sap as antiseptic and to aid scar formation Sap used to coagulate Seeds used to treat kidney stones Latex used as venom Sap to stop vomiting Bark to cure hemorrhoids Bark to stop bleeding in abortions Bark for remedy for children’s mouth viruses Bark as remedy for mycosis of the skin Bark as remedy for scab in dogs Stipule used in a beverage as a diuretic Bark used against cancer Leaves used in the bath to make children stop crying Latex to kill louses Bark to kill louses Sap to heal bloodshed Bark to help cure diabetesFuel Firewood and charcoal Resin as fire-starter Bark to make fire Pericarp of the Brazilian nut for charcoalCrafts Leaves to weave baskets and hats Seeds to make rings and earrings Split trunk for baskets’ edges Inner bark to dye fibersFood Fruits Cabbage palm Larva that grows in the apical meristem (continued)
  6. 6. 2008] SOLER ET AL.: CABOCLOS’ FOREST USE IN BRAZIL 65 Table 1. (continued).Categories Uses Sap as beverage Seeds to eat Latex as beverage Leaves for making teaTechnology Wood to make tool handles (hoes, axes, machetes, knifes, plow, scythes) Bark for weaving, belt for climbing trees, rope Covers Furniture Thorns to kill crickets for fishing Petiole to make kites Petiole to make arrowheads Petiole to gather latex Bows Fishing pole Resin to repel bats and mosquitoes Resin to caulk canoes Canoe and boat construction Plug for water bomb Leaves to wrap dry meat to protect from flies Bark to dye fishing lines Split trunk to make tools for fishing Latex used as glue Buttresses used as tables for washing clothes, helm boats, and canoe paddles Fruit used as mortar Split trunk to make structure for head lamp Fishing and hunting spears Leaves to cover limekiln to make charcoal Trunk used as small roller to slide boats Latex used as venom for hunting Rafts Thorn to remove another thorn Seeds for cultivation Wag (Spanish fan) Leaves used for manioc mass to prevent sticking in the press Rifle butt Leaves put on the floor on which to tear off the skin of game Petiole used as a whistle to call the tapir Latex to make rubber Old trunk used as a humus fertilizer for cultivated plants Leaves used as sandpaper A larva that grows in the apical meristem used as bait Leaves put over manioc mass with nuts to help with toasting Leaves to smoke To barbecue fish Fruits to bait hooks Leaves to make soap Fruit used as fish poison (timbó) Bark (caraipe) to make mud ovenOthers Smoke-curing Fruits used for game Trunk to make toys Resin to burn when storm comes (continued)
  7. 7. 66 ECONOMIC BOTANY [VOL Table 1. (continued).Categories Uses Resin to repel bad spirits Leaves to harm people Bark to attract womenTrade Seeds Resin and latex Cabbage palm Phallic branch to sell to touristsoffer the caboclos few resources in these categories Strelitziaceae also have high total UVs (second and(if only individuals with dbh≥10 cm are sam- third place, respectively), represented by one speciespled). However, we know that species of Heteropsis each. Olacaceae is first in the construction category(cipó-titica) and Ischnosiphon (arumã), commonly and sixth in the fuel category; Strelitziaceae is firstfound in the plot, but with dbh≤10 cm, are in the medicine category and in fourth in thewidely used for crafts and trade. It would be construction category. Lecythidaceae (fourth placeinteresting to take a sample with smaller dbh to in total UV) is prominent in various categories:assess the results in these categories. trade, technology, crafts, construction, and food. Several families are prominent in various cate- Families and Species gories, showing a wide range of uses. Arecaceae and Arecaceae has the highest UV of all the Lecythidaceae are prominent in six of the eightfamilies, a result also found in studies of four categories; Sapotaceae in five, Celastraceae in four,Indian communities and one mestizo community and Burseraceae in three. Olacaceae, Strelitzeaceae,in the Amazon (Prance et al. 1987; Phillips and Annonaceae, Lauraceae and Chrysobalanaceae areGentry 1993a). Here, this is due to the fact that prominent in two categories, which shows thatthis family is used across the board, with high these families have more specific uses.UVs in the categories food, crafts, trade, medi- Bertholletia excelsa had the highest UV of allcine, construction, and technology. Olacaceae and species. It was prominent in the categories trade 20 % 18 % 20 % 16 % 14 % 13 % Percentage of spp. 12 % 11 % 10 % 10 % 10 % 10 % 8% 8% 6% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 2% 2% 1% 1% 1% 0% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Numbers of uses Fig. 2. Diversity of plant use with DBH≥10 cm of 1 ha of terra firme forest indicated by the caboclos of thevillage of Caicubi, Caracaraí, RR, Brazil.
  8. 8. 2008] SOLER ET AL.: CABOCLOS’ FOREST USE IN BRAZIL 67Table 2. DISTRIBUTION OF PLANT PART USE IN CATEGORIES (CONS, CONSTRUCTION; TRADE; MED, MEDICINE;FOOD; TECH, TECHNOLOGY; FUEL; CRAFT, CRAFTS; OTH, OTHERS) BY THE CABOCLOS OF CAICUBI, RORAIMA, BRAZIL.Part Used Cons Trade Med Food Tech Fuel Craft Oth Total Percent totalWood 8 1 0 0 16 1 1 1 28 26Fruits, seeds 0 1 3 2 5 1 1 1 14 13Exudates 0 1 11 2 4 1 0 3 22 20Leaves and spines 1 0 2 1 15 0 1 1 21 19Bark 0 0 11 0 3 1 1 1 17 15Roots 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1Apical meristem 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 4 4Stipule 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 2Total uses 9 4 30 7 44 4 4 7 109 100(first place), medicine (third place), and food (eighth (Prance et al. 1987). In Caicubí village, it is usedplace). Bocageopsis multiflora (seventh place in total to build houses (posts, cross beams, tie beams,UV) stood out only in the technology category uprights, and supports) and for poles and fence(fifth place). The other eight species with the posts. Of the ten most important species in thishighest UV were prominent in two categories each. category, four are Lauraceae (Licaria guianensis, Ocotea nigrescens, Aniba aff. williamsii, and Ocotea CONSTRUCTION sp. E), a very important plant family for the Of the 139 species included in this category timber industry of the Amazon (Vicentini 1999).(75% of the useful species), Minquartia guianeneis The wood of another important species, Crotonhad the highest UV. This species is well known lanjouwensis, is highly valued for house construc-throughout the Amazon and used extensively in tion (posts, tie beams, and crossbeams). However,construction. It is also the most important species the informants mentioned that it is not resistantin the category construction for the native Tembé to humidity and is mainly used for interiors. 16 Total UV 14 Total nu 12 10 Values 8 6 4 2 0 Oenocarpus bacaba Bertholetia excelsa Eschweilera coriacea Iryanthera juruensis Virola theiodora Licaria guianensis Euterpe precatoria Eschweilera pedicellata Pouteria durlandii Eschweilera grandiflora Licania caudata Pourouma cf. tomentosa Ocotea rhodophylla Guatteria sp1 Goupia glabra Pouteria glomerata Attalea maripa Licania hirsuta Inga alba Crepidospermum cf. rhoifolium Xylopia aff. Polyantha Pouteria caimito Helicostylis tomentosa Xylopia amazonica Bocageopsis multiflora Symphonia globulifera Cecropia distachya Ocotea nigrescens Gustavia augusta Aniba aff. Williamsii Fig. 3. Thirty most used species with their respective use value (Total UV) mentioned by the caboclos of thevillage of Caicubi, Caracaraí, RR, Brazil. (Total nu, total number of uses mentioned by all the informants).
  9. 9. 68 ECONOMIC BOTANY [VOL 25 % 20 % 20 % Percentage of useful spp. 15 % 15 % 12 % 11 % 10 % 8% 6% 5% 2% 1% 1% 0% 1% 0% 0,17 - 05 0,5 - 1 1 - 1,5 1,5 - 2 2 - 2,5 2,5 - 3 3 - 3,5 3,5 - 4 4 - 4,5 4,5 - 5 5 - 5,5 5,5 - 6 Use V alue Fig. 4. Distribution of use values (UV) for the 185 useful species found in 1 ha of terra firme forest indicatedby the caboclos of the village of Caicubi, Caracaraí, RR, Brazil.Pouteria glomerata and P. guianensis are used for species are also used to make spears and toolbuilding houses and for planks, uprights, and handles (for hoes, axes, and cultivators). The barkfence posts. provides good-quality cordage (embira), used for binding and for making a type of sling (peconha) TECHNOLOGY used to climb trees and handles for the baskets that Of the 153 species included in this category are used to carry cassava. Boards from these species(83% of the useful species), Eschweilera pedicellata are used to make canoes, but not of good quality.and E. coriacea have the highest UVs. From the Pouteria glomerata has very durable wood, cited bytrunks of these two species come thin pliable pieces the informants as one of the best for making toolused to make fishing tools known as “cacuri” and handles, especially axe handles, and also for making“rapiche.” Strips of lath are also used to tie a light spears and harpoons. It is also used to make boatsto the head during fishing and hunting activities, because it lasts a long time in the weave together with leaves of Geonoma spp. for Other important species in this category areroofing, and in structuring mud ovens (included in Fusaea longifolia and Bocageopsis multiflora. Thethe construction category). The stems of these two stems are used to make tool handles (for axes, hoes, Table 4. DISTRIBUTION OF USEFUL SPECIES AMONGTable 3. CONTRIBUTION OF USE VALUES PER CATEGORY PLANT USE CATEGORIES FOUND IN 1 HA OF TERRA FIRME FOUND IN 1 HA. OF TERRA FIRME FOREST USE BY THE FORESTS BY THE CABOCLOS OF THE VILLAGE OF CAICUBI,CABOCLOS OF THE VILLAGE OF CAICUBI, CARACARAÍ, CARACARAÍ, RR, BRAZIL. RR, BRAZIL. All species used Exclusively used Use Category Percent of use values Use category in this category in this category Fuel 27 Fuel 91% 3% Technology 27 Technology 83% 0% Construction 24 Construction 75% 1% Food 9 Food 35% 1% Medicine 8 Medicine 45% 2% Others 3 Others 12% 0% Crafts 1 Crafts 7% 0% Trade 1 Trade 11% 0%
  10. 10. 2008] SOLER ET AL.: CABOCLOS’ FOREST USE IN BRAZIL 69and cultivators) and fishing rods; the bark is used as macrocarpa has the highest UV. The bark is usedcordage (embira) to make basket handles and to to treat various skin diseases and diarrhea. It alsobind things together. It should be noted that provides a stimulant for washing the body, and iscordage is only taken from young trees of B. used to treat mange in dogs. Among the Waimiri-multiflora. The trunk of Licania hirsuta is used to Atroari Indians, the bark is used to poison fishmake tool handles and spears, while the bark is used (Milliken et al. 1992). The sap of Phenakospermumas a dye to keep fish lines from rotting. Licaria guyanense is used as a coagulant to heal woundsguianensis is used to make canoes and paddles, and and to treat snake-bite (it is taken orally andalso for tool and spear handles. Bertholletia excelsa is applied topically to the bite area). The bark of theimportant in this category because the bark is used Brazil-nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) is employed towith latex to waterproof canoes; the bark of young treat diabetes, body aches and pains, and diarrhea.specimens is also used as cordage. The trunk is The young roots of Euterpe precatoria are used tosometimes used to make canoes and paddles. Three treat anemia. The latex of Sorocea guilleminiana is aLauraceae species, Ocotea rhodophylla, O. nigrescens, strong poison (if swallowed, it can kill a person)and Licaria guianensis, are commonly used to make that is used to eliminate lice and to treat skincanoes and other types of boats, paddles, tool and diseases. The latex of Odontadenia cognata andspear handles, and furniture. Although Licania Clusia grandiflora is employed to treat muscleoctandra ssp. pallida is not one of the ten species sprains. Virola elongata and V. theiodora have awith highest UV in this category, its bark is mixed reddish sap used to soothe toothache and to cleanwith clay to make ovens. wounds. It is also is taken orally for diarrhea and vomiting. V. theiodora sap also kills lice. The FOOD Yanomami use the bark of this species to make Arecaceae, with 65 species (35% of the useful hallucinogenic snuff (Prance 1972). From the barkspecies), is the most important family in the food of Bahunia guianensis, they make a beverage that iscategory. Of the ten species with the highest UVs anti-inflammatory and also treats this category, the village caboclos intensely usethe four palms, Oenocarpus bacaba, Attalea maripa, TRADEAstrocaryum aculeatum, and Euterpe precatória. Of the 21 species in this category (11% of theThe fruits of O. bacaba and E. precatória are used useful species), Bertholletia excelsa has the highestto make juice (the villagers call it wine) and UV. It is one of the most important species forcooking oil, the fruits of A. aculeatum are cooked providing community income during the rainyand eaten, and the fruits of A. maripa are eaten in season. Heteropsis species are essential to thenatura. All four species provide palm hearts (the economy for the same reason, but they were notapical meristem). Furthermore, the stem of O. sampled in this study. The remaining nine speciesbacaba and the seeds of A. maripa harbor a larva with high UVs in this category have lowwhich is used for food and to treat asthma. Other commercial value because the products are notimportant species are Theobroma sylvestris and T. sold outside the community. Dacryodes sclerophyllaspeciosa (cacao); the fruit has edible pulp and the and Dacryodes cf. hopkinsii are sold for their resinseeds are use to make chocolate. The pulp of T. used to waterproof canoes and in the “defumação”subincanum is also use for nourishment. Couma process (this term will be explained later). Theguianensis has an edible fruit, and the latex is mixed latex of Couma guianensis was a prized commoditywith coffee to drink. According to the informants, during the rubber boom, but it has no valuethe latex must be used in small doses because it is a today. Pouteria glomerata also produced rubber.strong astringent and causes constipation. Borojoa Two species of Moraceae, Maquira sclerophylla andclaviflora fruits are used to make juice. Brazil nuts Helocostylis tomentosa, are sold to tourists as phallic(Bertholletia excelsa) are used in natura; when symbols because of the shape of the branches.crushed and pressed, they produce “milk” which is Tourists are rare in this region, however. The seedsmixed with cassava flour to make a cake. of the two Ormosia species are sold for craftwork. The young leaves of Astrocaryum aculeatum are MEDICINE used to make hats and fans, and the seeds are Of the 82 species recorded as having medicinal made into earrings and rings, but these productsuse (44% of the useful species), Clathrotropis are rarely marketed.
  11. 11. 70 ECONOMIC BOTANY [VOL CRAFTS (1987), Milliken et al. (1992), and those of the Of the 14 species included here (8% of the present study (also excluding fuel and othersuseful species), Astrocaryum aculeatum has the categories for a more accurate comparison) arehighest UV. New leaves are used to make hats and discussed below (Table 5).fans, and the seeds are made into earrings. The The highest percentage of useful plants was foundbark of Licania hirsuta, Licania cf. prismatocarpa, in the present study, twice as high in the constructionLicania heteromorpha ssp. heteromorpha, and Inga and technology categories. It is important to notealba are used to dye species of Ischnosiphon and that Prance et al. (1987) and Milliken et al. (1992)Philodendron, which are then used for weaving group forest uses differently than our study does.mats and baskets. Lath is extracted from the stems Still, the Caicubi caboclos use the forest moreof the three species of Lecythidaceae, Eschweilera intensely in the construction and technologypedicellata, E. coriacea, and Gustavia augusta, and categories. The use percentage in the categoryused to finish off the tops of these baskets. Attalea medicine is also higher when compared to othermaripa seeds are used to make rings and earrings. studies. Two explanations for this are possible: (1) the caboclos may have misidentified the plants, thus increasing the use value of some species, but this FUEL can happen in any study using this methodology; This is the largest category, with 168 species (91% (2) this study’s informants come from variousof the useful species), most of them used for firewood regions in the Amazon, bringing plant knowledgeand charcoal. Four species of the family Burseraceae from different places (upper, middle, lower Riohad the highest UVs (Dacryodes sclerophylla, Protium Negro, Solimões, Roraima). In contrast, indigenoushebetatum, Protium opacum subsp. opacum, and communities are usually from a single locality whereTrattinickia glaziovii); the resin of these species is an they have been living much longer. Therefore, theseexcellent fuel and the wood is also good for people are probably more familiar with the area andfirewood and making charcoal. provide more accurate plant identification. So it seems likely that the Caicubi caboclos are generalists OTHERS in their use of forest resources, including different This category, with some 20 species (11% of sources of folklore, while the indigenous communi-the useful species), includes a number of uses that ties are specialists in using these resources. However,could not be included in the previous categories. we emphasize again that according to Phillips et al.All ten species with the highest UV for this (1994), simply summing up the number of usefulcategory belong to the Burseraceae and are used species in a area is only a very crude guide to thein a ritual called “defumação,” in which a child cultural importance of forests and the results mustsick with asthma or infantile paralysis is treated. be interpreted with care.The ritual is conducted by a person who knows When comparing a traditional nonindigenousthe proper prayers, usually passed down from community of mestizos in Tambopata, Madre defather to son. The resin (Protium spp.) is lit at the Dios, Peru, in two plots of terra firme forest, themoment of prayer. It is also lit inside houses to useful species totaled 89.3 and 85.7% of the speciesexpel bad spirits. The leaves of Simarouba amara found, and the highest UVs were in the construc-are also used in the “defumação” ritual, and the tion, food, and crafts categories (Phillips et al.leaves of Lindackeria cf paludosa are used in 1994). In another study of Afro-Americans on thewitchcraft. Pacific coast of Colombia (Galeano 2000), 62.8% useful species (for dbh≥5 cm) were found, and the Comparison with Other Studies most important categories in UVs were construc- Prance et al. (1987) compare plant use in 1-ha tion, technology, and fuel. The UVs found byplots among four indigenous communities in Galeano (2000) are similar to those of the presentAmazon terra firme forests including trees with study (Table 6).dbh≥10 cm. Data analysis excluded the fuel and The results of these studies show the greatgame categories because most species were in- amount of knowledge retained by these commu-cluded in these categories. Milliken et al. (1992) nities. It should be noted that Neotropical forestsused the same methodology with the Waimiri- are actually a huge forest mosaic that offer a greatAtroari Indians. The results of Prance et al. diversity of resources to these communities. Thus
  12. 12. 2008] SOLER ET AL.: CABOCLOS’ FOREST USE IN BRAZIL 71Table 5. DIFFERENT VALUES FOR USEFUL PLANTS WITH DBH≥10 CM FOUND IN PLOTS OF 1HA. OF TERRA FIRMEFORESTS IN DIFFERENT TRADITIONAL COMMUNITIES IN THE AMAZONS, WITHOUT ADDING THE SPECIES THAT ARE USE FOR GAME AND FUEL (WA, WAIMIRI ATROARI; THE CATEGORIES OF TECHNOLOGY AND OTHERS ARE FUSED FOR PURPOSES OF COMPARISON).Community Useful spp. Food Construction Technology Medicine Trade aKa’apor 76.3% 34.3% 20.2% 19.2% 21.2% 2%Tembéa 61.3% 21.8% 30.3% 21% 10.9% 5%Chácaboa 78.7% 40.4% 17% 18.1% 35.1% 1%Panarea 48.6% 34.3% 2.9% 43.0% 7.1% 4%WAb 79% 27% 32% 31%a 15% 0%Caicubi 95% 35% 75% 83% 44% 11%a Data incorporated from Balée and Boom, published in Prance et al. (1987).b Data published in Milliken et al. 1992.the plant uses cited by the people of these regions cates should be used in ethnobotanical studies soinvolve two attributes: knowledge of the plants that accuracy can be assessed within the commu-and the resources available in each forest. nity and in comparisons with other studies. The results of this study show that the Caicubi The results of this study are based on thecaboclos are very knowledgeable about the forest, knowledge that the informants have of the forest.confirming the view of Prance (1995), who states This does not mean that the species and usesthat traditional nonindigenous communities under- cited here are part of daily community life. Morestand the forests to a great degree, and that it is very detailed studies are needed to understand whatimportant to continue studying these communities. species are used in daily life. Conclusions Acknowlegments The Arecaceae has the highest UV for the We thank the Instituto Caiuá for financialCaicubi caboclos. This family was also cited as being support of field work, especially Walo Leuzinger;very important in other ethnobotanical studies in the community of Caicubi village for giving usthe Amazon. The Arecaceae, Lecythidaceae, and shelter, especially Ernane Fontes Barbosa for hisSapotaceae were prominent in several categories, help and dedication in the field; Pedrinho Jazintoshowing the importance of these families for the Ogasti (Wilson), José dos Santos (Passarinho),Caicubi community and also for conservation of Juzelino Ferreira da Silva, Duacir de Melos dasthe Amazon rain forest. Cahagas (Gavião), Elio Brasão (Gary), Arlindo Although there are species that are better Mendes da Costa, Elizabeth Araújo da Costa,known and more sought after by the community, Plinia de Melo, Alberto Cerrão dos Santosthere are also exclusive-use species that are knownto a small number of people. Use quantification by the Use–Value method is Table 6. COMPARISON OF THE SPECIES UV INDICATEDcomplementary to totaling uses. Use values show BY THE CABOCLOS OF THE VILLAGE OF CAICUBI AND THEthe species most sought after by the community, AFRO-AMERICANS OF THE PACIFIC COAST, COLOMBIAwhile the totaling of uses gives a broader spectrum (GALEANO 2000).of species use. Both of these methods should beused in establishing conservation priorities. Caboclos Afro-Colombians Ongoing studies of these communities are Use category of Caicubí of Chocóessential for a better understanding of their Construction 25% 32%culture and the way they use forest resources. A Technology 28% 30%greater number of use categories would allow a Fuel 28% 21%more accurate quantitative analysis. However, it is Food 9% 9% Medicine 9% 5%important to standardize use categories so that Trade 1% 4%more detailed comparisons can be made. Repli-
  13. 13. 72 ECONOMIC BOTANY [VOL(Mutum), and Esteban Brás Monteiro. Thanks to Waimiri Atroari Indians of Brazil. RoyalC.A. Cid Ferreira for support at the INPA Botanical Gardens, Kew, U.K.herbarium and P. Assunção for helping to Parker, E. P. 1989. A Neglected Human Resourceidentify specimens at the INPA herbarium; in Amazonia: The Amazon Caboclo. Advancesspecialists A. Vicentini, D. Daly, J. E. Ribeiro, in Economic Botany 7:249–259.and M. Hopkins for identifying species belonging Paz y Miño, G., H. Baslev, and V. Renato. their families; D. Araujo for reviewing an early Useful Lianas of the Siona-Secoya Indians fromversion of this paper; and the staff of the Jardim Amazonian Ecuador. Economic Botany 49(3)Botânico do Rio de Janeiro for being so helpful. 269–275.This research was supported by a grant from Phillips, O. 1996. Some Quantitative MethodsCapes (scholarship) and CNPq (research). for Analyzing Ethnobotanical Knowledge. Pages 171–197 in M. Alexiades, Selected Guidelines for Ethnobotanica Research: A Literature Cited Field Manual. Chapter 9. New York BotanicalAlexiades, M. 1996. Collecting Ethnobotanical Garden, New York. Data: An Introduction to Basic Concepts and VVV and A. H. Gentry 1993a. The Useful Plants Techniques. Pages 353–394 in Selected of Tambopata, Peru: I. Statistical Hypotheses Guidelines for Ethnobotanical Research: A Tests with a New Quantitative Technique. Field Manual. The New York Botanical Economic Botany 47(1):15–32. Garden, New York. VVV and A. H. Gentry. 1993b. The UsefulBalée, W. 1986. Análise Preliminar de Inventário Plants of Tambopata, Peru: II. Additional Florestal e a Etnobotânica Ka’apor (Maranhão). Hypothesis Testing in Quantitative Ethnobot- Boletim Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi 2 any. Economic Botany 47(1):33–43. (2):141–167. VVV, A. H Gentry, C. Reynel, P. Wilkin, andVVV. 1987. A Etnobotânica Quantitativa dos C. Gálvez-Durand. 1994. Quantitative Eth- Índios Tembé (Rio Gurupi, Pará)1. Boletim nobotany and Amazonian Conservation. Con- Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi 3(1):29–50. servation Biology 8(1):225–248.Boom, B. M. 1988. The Chácabo Indians and Pinedo-Vazquez, M., D. Zarin, P. Jipp, and J. their Palms. Advances in Economic Botany Chota-Inuma. 1990. Use Value of Tree 6:91–97. Species in a Communal Forest Reserve inVVV. 1989. Use of Plant Resources by the Northeast Peru. Conservation Biology 4(4): Chácabo. Advances in Economic Botany 405–416. 7:78–96. Prance, G. T. 1972. An Ethnobotanical Com-VVV. 1990. Useful Plants of the Panare parison of Four Tribes of Amazonian Indians. Indians of the Venezuelam Guyana. Advances Acta Amazônica 2(2):7–27. in Economic Botany 8:57–76. VVV. 1995. Ethnobotany Today and in theCampos, M. T. and Ehringhaus C. 2003. Plant Future. Pages 60–71 in R. E. Schultes and S. Virtues in the Eyes of the Beholders: A Reis, ed., Ethnobotany: Evolution of a Disci- Comparison of Known Palm Uses among pline. Timber Press, Cambridge, UK. Indigenous and Folk Communities of South- VVV, W. Baleé, B. M. Boom, and L. R. western Amazônia. Economic Botany 57 Carneiro. 1987 Quantitative Ethnobotany and (3):324–344. the Case for Conservation in Amazônia.Galeano, G. 2000. Forest Use at the Pacific Coast Conservation Biology 1(4):296–310. of Chocó, Colombia: A Quantitative Approach. Ricardo, F. P., F. B. L. B. Vianna, M. P. Rufino, Economic Botany 54(3):358–376. P .L. Mesquita, and V. Macedo. 2005. PovosGerman, L. 2001. Cap 7: Formas Tradicionais de Indígenas no Brasil. http://www.sociambiental. Exploração e Conservação das Florestas. Pages org/pib/portugues/linguas/linger.shtm#t2 221–253 in A. A. Oliveira and D. Daly, eds., Soler-Alarcon, J. G. and A. L. Peixoto. 2007. Florestas do Rio Negro. The New York Florística e Fitossociologia de um trecho de Botanical Garden, New York Floresta de Terra Firme em Caracaraí, Ror-Milliken, W., R. P. Miller, S. R. Pollard, and E. V. aima, Brasil. Boletim Museu Paraense Emilio Wandelli. 1992. The Ethnobotany of the Goeldi V.2(2).
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