Essential trace elements for humans, animals and plants Naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement Involved in numerous aspects of cellular metabolism Required for the catalytic activity of approximately 100 enzymes
Average Adult Body: 1.4-2.5 g Zn Typically found in bone, prostate, choroid of the eye 90% total body zinc are found in the bone and skeletal system 0.5% total body zinc are found in the blood Plasma zinc level: 75 – 120 ug/dL
An essential component of several metalloenzymes Development of male reproductive functions and formation of testosterone An accelerator of wound healing and for a normal sense of taste Vital for the immune system Vital for growth and cell division Vital for vision
Hydrolization Zinc must separate from the amino acids which takes place in the stomach Absorption It occurs along the upper jejunum which comes from food or from enteropancreatic circulation of endogenous zinc, Zinc may pass to the enterocytes by passive diffusion (at very high intestinal concentrations) Absorption Enhancers The presence of substances that bind with zinc and help carry it across to the enterocytes enahnce zinc absorption Presence of glucose, lactose, soy protein, meat protein, Vitamin C, glutamate, citrate Amino acids: histidine, cysteine, methionine
Absorption Inhibitors Absorption of zinc decreases with fiber, phytate, copper, calcium, phosporus, cadmium, casein Transport and Storage It is carried through the bloodstream bound to albumin and taken to the liver before redistribution to other tissues. Zinc that is not needed immediately is stored throughout the body. Excretion It is excreted through feces. Significant amounts are lost from the urine, hair loss, and sweating.
The major sources of zinc are found in animal foods like:o Milko Beef meato Livero Oysterso Eggso Crimni mushroomso Spinacho Pumpkin seedso Green Peaso Nutso Legumeso Whole grain cerealso Wheat and branNote: Availability is less in plants sources.. Food processing removes a large proportion of zinc as well as other trace elements.
Zinc deficiency is characterized by: retardation loss of appetite impaired immune function alopecia diarrhea delayed sexual maturation Impotence in males eye and skin lesions
People with gastrointestinal and other diseases Vegetarians Pregnant and lactating women Older infants who are exclusively breastfed People with sickle cell disease Alcoholics
Acute adverse effects of high zinc intake include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and headaches. It has an effect of decrease in HDL-cholesterol in adult males. Associated with inhalation of zinc chloride from industrial pollution, causing loss of iron from the liver and a loss of copper.