Page 3UKRAINEUkraine is a country in Eastern Europe. Ukraine borders theRussian Federation to the east and northeast, Belarus to thenorthwest, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to thewest, Romania and Moldova to the southwest, and the BlackSea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largestcontiguous country on the European continent, after theRussian Federation.
Page 5HOTYNThis small ancient town, whose remarkable and difficult history is over athousand years old, is one of the most important tourist and cultural centersof Bukovyna. It is so appealing to travelers because of its unique fortressthat played a significant role in the history of many European countries. It isareal masterpieceof thefortification art, oneof themost powerful and well-preserved citadelson theterritory of modern Ukraine.No one knows for sure where the town’s unusual name comes from. Somethink that it was derived from the name of the settlements founder - themale name Hotyn was fairly common in those days. Others are sure thatthere is a connection with the Slavic word hotin,’ meaning desired.’ It iseasier to believe in the latter version since Hotyn was an envied prize formany - over its history, it has been a part of various principalities, empiresand kingdoms.
Page 7“A stone flower on the rock” — that is how the early twentieth-centuryUkrainian poet Lesya Ukrayinka called Kamyanets-Podilsky, and this poeticdescription doesfit theimageof thisold town very well.It is one of those places for the description of which it is so difficult to findproper words, and one is reduced to making a banal statement of the you’ve-got-to-see-it-to-get-the-right-impression kind. Even looking — anotherinevitable trite remark — at good-quality, artistic photographs will notproducean impression adequateto theoneyou get when you walk itsstreets.KAMYANETS-PODILSKY
Page 9KIEVO-PECHERSKA LAVRAKiev Pechersk Lavra or Kyiv Pechersk Lavra (Ukrainian: Києво-Печерська лавра,Kyievo-Pechers’ka lavra), also known as the Kiev Monastery of the Caves, is ahistoric Orthodox Christian monastery which gave its name to one of the citydistricts where it is located in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.Since its foundation asthe cave monastery in 1051 the Lavra has been a preeminent center of the EasternOrthodox Christianity in Eastern Europe. Together with theSaint SophiaCathedral,it is inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The monastery complex isconsidered a separate national historic-cultural preserve (sanctuary), the nationalstatus to which was granted on March 13, 1996. The Lavra also not only located inanother part of the city, but is part of a different national sanctuary than SaintSophia Cathedral. While being a cultural attraction, the monastery is currentlyactive. It was named one of the Seven Wonders of Ukraine on August 21, 2007,based on voting by expertsand theinternet community.
Page 11SAINT SOPHIA CATHEDRALSaint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev is an outstanding architectural monumentof Kievan Rus. Today, it is one of the citys best known landmarks and thefirst Ukrainian patrimony to be inscribed on the World Heritage List alongwith the Kiev Cave Monastery complex. Aside from its main building, thecathedral includes an ensemble of supporting structures such as a belltower, the House of Metropolitan, and others. In 2011 the historic site wasreassigned from the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Regional Developmentof Ukraine to the Ministry of Culture of Ukraine. One of the reasons forthat move was the fact that both "Sofia Kyivska" and Kiev Pechersk Lavraare recognized by the UNESCO World Heritage Program as one complex,whilein Ukrainethetwo weregoverned by different government entities.
Page 13HOVERLA MOUNTAINHoverla Mountain is the highest mountain in Ukraine and part of theCarpathian Mountains. The mountain is located in the Eastern Beskides, inthe so-called Chornohora region. The slopes are covered with beech andspruce forests, above which there is a belt of sub-alpine meadows calledpolonyna in Ukrainian. At the eastern slope there is the main spring of thePrut river. The mountain is cone-shaped, the top of it is a small flat area,that allows admiring the landscape within a radius of 360 degrees. Itbelongs to Chernohora mountain range and lies near town Rakhiv, thegeographical center of Europe.
Page 15OLESKO CASTLEOlesko castle is oldest preserved castle on the territory of Western Ukraine(Galicia) and the only fortress of Kiev Rus period. It raises above awonderful park on a 50 meters natural hill near the town Olesko, Lvivregion. This monument of architecture has oval form, its walls are 10meters high and 2.5 meters wide. The castle was built in XIII century onthe crossroads of old trade routes from Hungary to Volyn. The first time itwas mentioned in 1327, in 1390 it was given to Galician catholicarchbishop by the Pope Bonifacius IX. From XV to XVII century it wasattacked many times by Tatars. During one of these attacks in 1629 Jan IIISobieski, the king of Poland that saved Europe from Turks, was born here.In 1640 another polish king, Michal Korybut Wisniowiecki was born hereaswell.
Page 17PALANOK CASTLE in MUKACHEVOThisuniquecastleisoneof themost valuablearchitectural and historicalmonumentsof XIV-XVII centuries. And itsbeautiful name"Palanok" itreceived dueto ditch fencesPalankaaround it in adeep ditch. Theentirepalacecomplex issurrounded with stone3-3.5 m thick wallsand deepditches, which you can go through only on several wooden bridges. Alsoaround thecastlePalanok thereare8 bastionsthat werebuilt in theXVIIcentury to contain artillery.
Page 19POCHAYIV LAVRAPochaev Lavrais located on oneof thepicturesquehillsat an altitudeof 75meters above level of the sea. According to historical sources the Lavrawas established in the 13th century. The history of Lavra establishmenttells us that to the mountain abode fled the monks from the Kiev-Pecherskaya Lavra after the devastating attacks of Tatars. Theestablishment of themonastery is linked to themonk well-known under thenameof St. Methodius.
Page 21ASSEMBLY OF RYNOK SQUARE in LVIVThe Rynok Square in Lviv is a central square of the city of Lviv, Ukraine.It was planned in the second half of the 14th century, following grantingcity rights by Polish king Casimir III, who annexed Red Ruthenia. Theking ordered Lviv to be moved more to the south, where a new city wasbuilt to the plan of a traditional European settlement: a central squaresurrounded by living quarters and fortifications. Old, Ruthenian Lviv hadbecome a suburb of the new city. The square is rectangular in shape, withmeasurements of 142 meters by 129 meters and with two streets radiatingout of every corner. In the middle there was a row of houses, with itssouthern wall made by the Town Hall. However, when in 1825 the towerof the Town Hall burned, all adjacent houses were demolished and a newhall, with a 65-meter tower, was built in 1835 by architects J. Markl and F.Trescher.
Page 23KORSUN SHEVCHENKIVSYI• Korsun-Shevchenkivskyi is a city located in the Cherkasy Oblast(province) in central Ukraine. The city rests on the banks of the Ros River,and is the administrative center of the Korsun-Shevchenkivskyi Raion(district).• A fortress Korsun was founded in 1032 by the Kievan Rus princeYaroslav the Wise and served the protection of Kiev from Nomads fromthe southern steppe regions. The name of the city comes from the Greekcity of Chersones (translated as Korsun) on the Crimean Peninsula. In1240, Korsun was destroyed by Batu Khan. In 1584, a military base wasestablished in thecity.
Page 25ZHOVKVA TOWNZhovkva is a city in the Lviv Oblast (province) of western Ukraine, northof Lviv. It is the administrative center of the Zhovkivskyi Raion (district).The current estimated population is 13,500. The old city of Zhovkva liesnear the foot of one of the steep ledges belonging to the hilly range ofRoztochya – Mount Haray which rises 150 meters above the adjacent plainof Lesser Polissya.The Old Slavonic Vynnyky, the medieval Zhovkva, Nesterov of the Soviettimes, and Zhovkva again… The city often changed its name, and everyhistorical epoch introduced some characteristic features to its image. In1951 the Soviet regime went as far as renaming Zhovkva to Nesterov inhonor of a Russian pilot who was killed here in September 1914. Nesterovwas famous for being the first one to perform the so-called “loop” in hisairplane.