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Reasons of non-use of telecenters in Mozambique

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Exploration of motivations for not using telecenters in Mozambique.
Presentation partly in Portuguese, partly in English - as it's been held at the final workshop of the RE-ACT (social REpresentations of community multimedia centres and ACTions for improvement) Research Project.

The research is a joint project between the NewMinE Lab – New Media in Education Laboratory of the Università della Svizzera italiana (Lugano, Switzerland) and the Department of Mathematics and Informatics and the Centre for African Studies of the Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (Maputo, Mozambique).

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Reasons of non-use of telecenters in Mozambique

  1. 1. Reasons of non-use: a study on Mozambican telecentres Sara Vannini, Isabella Rega, Simone Sala, David Salomao, Lorenzo Cantoni NewMinE Lab – Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano, Switzerland
  2. 2. Community Media Centers telecentres community radios
  3. 3. Community Media Centers telecentres community radios
  4. 4. Quem? 1 2  Se o inquirido respondeu NÃO à todas as opções, pare o questionário!
  5. 5. Quem? 3  Se o inquirido respondeu SIM pelo menos à uma das opções, pare o questionário!
  6. 6. Telecenters vs Telemovel? Eishhh! Nao pode se fazer tudo com o telemovel!
  7. 7. What are the reasons behind the lack of use of CMCs’ telecentres, according to local stakeholders in Mozambique? How much do these reasons weight in the non-use of CMCs’ telecentres of people who actively use its community radio?
  8. 8. 1. interviews
  9. 9. “Como tem computadores na escola os alunos preferem ir na escola porque na rádio tem que pagar” competitors - cost
  10. 10. “…tem internet, para alem da TDM tem outros sítios também ai onde tem internet funciona como deve ser, e as pessoas preferem ir a TDM porque tem qualidade…” competitors – better service
  11. 11. “The place is not well organized because when I went there in 2008 I didn’t see any computer [...] Even the guys that work there, they are not organized.” service – quality
  12. 12. “…O meu objectivo era de fazer algumas pesquisas na internet mais quando lá cheguei disseram me que o sistema estava avariado então pronto eu fiquei assim já nada mais podia fazer…” service – not available
  13. 13. “…talves eles precisam mais de informacao para lhes dizer que afina de conta isto tem haver … também o camponês pode fazer parte da rádio aproveitando assim o departamento dos livros para ir ler livros diferentes para eles lerem e ter informados service – not promoted
  14. 14. “…A distancia é maior… vem aprender computador deve vir todos os dias, ir voltar, ir voltar, então é muito dinheiro por causa da distancia...” resource constraints - distance
  15. 15. “Por causa do tempo. Fico ocupado das 7h30 até as 15h30 e nesse tempo já não da para ir para lá” resource constraints - time
  16. 16. “Eu gostaria de ir… lá só que não tenho possibilidade..” resource constraints - costs
  17. 17. “Ali não apanho nada mesmo.” relevance - not profitable
  18. 18. “…Eu não vou… porque os pacotes que lá são ministrados eu já tenho os pacotes como usuário…” relevance - not challenging
  19. 19. “… Outros não vêm porque pensam que custa, mas uma pessoa com vontade não custa nada.” relevance – too difficult
  20. 20. “…O computador, eu não sei de nada porque eu já sou uma velha, sou estou acompanhar que há computador, vejo miúdos estudantes a mexer o computado…” relevance – not for them
  21. 21. 2. survey
  22. 22. Quem? Age Group Frequency Percent 32 9.8% 20-29 109 33.2% 30-39 88 26.8% 40-49 55 16.8% Over 50 No answer 17 27 5.2% 8.2% 328 100.0% Under 20 Total
  23. 23. Quem? Education Level Frequency Percent No education 27 8.2% 1-5 class 55 16.8% 6-10 class 102 31.1% 11-12 class 104 31.7% University 27 8.2% No answer 5 1.5% Other 4 1.2% Does not know 4 1.2% 328 100.00% Total
  24. 24. non-users + radio users: motivations of non-use No Time No knowledge of services Not able to use PC Hours Place of CMC Prices User of other competitor Not literate Access to Internet Use services at work Use services at home Not Portuguese speaker Mobile Internet user Other No fun No need of PC Access to PC not granted Not the services needed No need of such services 18.3% 14.1% 11.0% 10.1% 9.6% 7.1% 7.0% 4.3% 4.0% 4.0% 2.2% 2.2% 1.7% 1.2% 1.0% 1.0% 0.8% 0.3% 0.2%
  25. 25. non-users + radio users: motivations of non-use No Time No knowledge of services Not able to use PC Hours Place of CMC Prices User of other competitor Not literate Access to Internet Use services at work Use services at home Not Portuguese speaker Mobile Internet user Other No fun No need of PC Access to PC not granted Not the services needed No need of such services 18.3% 14.1% 11.0% 10.1% 9.6% 7.1% 7.0% 4.3% 4.0% 4.0% 2.2% 2.2% 1.7% 1.2% 1.0% 1.0% 0.8% 0.3% 0.2%
  26. 26. non-users + radio users: motivations of non-use Resource Constraint 45.8% Relevance 27.9% Service 19.3% No knowledge of services Competitors 14.1% 7.0%
  27. 27. non-users + radio users: motivations of non-use Resource Constraint 45.8% Relevance 27.9% Service 19.3% No knowledge of services Competitors 14.1% 7.0%
  28. 28. non-users + radio users: access 52.1% use(d) a computer 43.3% access(ed) the Internet
  29. 29. they access(ed) the Internet… 21.0% through a computer 29.0% through a mobile phone
  30. 30. they access(ed) the Internet… 21.0% through a computer 29.0% through a mobile phone 50.0% using both
  31. 31. they use(d) computers… 28.1% 21.5% 17.6% 17.6% 15.2% Work Friends/Relatives Home Public Place School
  32. 32. they access(ed) the Internet… 28.8% 27.7% 23.4% 13.6% 6.5% Work Public Place Home Friends/Relatives School
  33. 33. proxy / infomediaries 34.1% asked to go on their behalf
  34. 34. proxy / infomediaries 30.8% photocopies 19.7% type documents 17.9% educational issues
  35. 35. 3. conclusions
  36. 36. Conclusions non-users are not only the most disadvantaged …more advanced services? [confirming: Gómez 2011; Parkinson & Lauzon 2008; Pal 2007; Sey et. al. 2013]
  37. 37. Conclusions non-users are not only the most disadvantaged …more advanced services? communication & promotion are underestimated …strategies? [confirming: Chigona & Licker 2008; Sey et. al. 2013]
  38. 38. Conclusions non-users are not only the most disadvantaged …more advanced services? communication & promotion are underestimated …strategies? role of infomediaries …confirmed! [Gómez 2011; Sey et. al. 2013]
  39. 39. Conclusions Worth investing in telecenters! • • • • Presence of competitors is a sign of their relevance Marketing is a key issue to be depeened Time & Space limiting factors for non-use: service should be expanded, not cut Financial barriers for access are often overcome by using other services
  40. 40. Muitissimo obrigado! simone.sala@usi.ch www.newmine.org NewMinE Lab – Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano, Switzerland

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